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The Journal of the Manchester 
Geographical Society 

Manchester Geographical Society 


• ' >• 

». J 

• "■ 9 

J. 1). WHITNEY, 

SturgU Hooper Proftator 

m U 5 

\a/v>jl ^"^^VSO^ 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


VUe'Prtttdent of Hu ManeheaUr Ghographkal Bocidf, and cm^iU Founden. 

Digitized by 





MpcHESTER Geographical 






C 1891. 

Digitized by 







FOR 1891. 

HU Ofsoe tho DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, K.O., Ohanoellor of the ViotoilA University. 


The Bight Hon. the Eabl or Dbrbt, ELO. 
The Right Hon Lord Boekton or Tatton. 
The Right Hon. Lobd Wihhablkioii. 
The Hfio. Lobd Frbdkric H. Hamilton. 
The Right Rev. the Lobd Bibhop or 

The Right Rer. the Lobd Bishop or Saltobd. 
His Worship the Matob op Manchbstxb. 
His Worship the Matob op Rochdalb. 
His Worship the Matob or Saltobd. 
His Worship the Mayob op Stockpobt. 
The Pbdicipal op Owkks Collbgb. 
The Very Rer. Movbiovob Gadd. 
The Right Hon. Sir Jambs Fkbousbok, 

Bart., CLE., M.P. 
The Ri^t Hon. A. J. Balpoub, M.P. 
Sir W. H. HouUMWOBTB, Bart, M.P. 

Sir HuMPHBBY F. Db TBArroRD, Bert 
Sir J. a Leb, Kt, J.P. 
Mr. B. Abmitaob, J.P. 
Mr. Jacob Bbioht, M.P. 
Professor W. Botd Dawkins, M.A., FRS. 
Mr. OuvKR Hetwood, J.P. 
Mr. H. H. HowoBTH, M.P. 
Mr. Isaac Hotlb, M.P. 
Mr. J. Thbwus Johmsom. 
Mr. Hbrrt Lbe^ J.P. 
Mr. WiLUAM Mathbr, M.P. 
Mr. Samuel Ooden, J.P. 
Mr. H. J. ROBT, M.A., M.P. 
Councillor Henbt Samsov, J.P. 
Mr. C. E. SoHWANK, M.P. 
Rev. S. A. Stbinthal, F.R.G.S. (CAotmum 
<(f the Oimneit). 

Mr. Alderman C. Makinson, J.P. | Mr. Jambs Jabdihb, J.P. 

Mr. & L. KxTMKB, F.R.O.a {Viee'Chairman qf the (kmneU), 

Mr. T. B. WiLKonoN, The Polygon, Ardwiok. 

JponorBft S^uutwt^, 
Mr. F. ZnacKBN. 

Mr. B. J. BBOADriBLD. 

Mr. Fbbdebio Bubtom. 

Rer. L. C Casabtelu, M.A., Ph.D. 

Mr. Isaac Oboblton. 

Professor T. H. Oobb, M.A. 

MiM DAT, Oirls' Hi^ School 

Cheralier Robt. Fboehuch, K.C.I., 

Vioe^kmsul for Italy. 
Mr. HiLFOH Obbaybs, J.P. 
Mr. Geobob Barker. 
Mr. Job Iblam. 

Mr. Stdhet L. Kbtmbb, F.R.G.S. (Viet- 

Chairman qf the OouneiL) 
Mrs. Bosdim T. Lbbch. 
Mr. Gborob Lord, J.P. 
Mr. J. H. Nodal. 
Mr. Jambs Pablane, J.P. 
Mr. R a Philups. 
Mr. Fritz Rbiss. 
Mods. Leon Gme. Le Boux, Viee^JoBsal 

for France. 
Councillor Wm. Shbrbatt. 
Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. 

SonoYtrs ^sbxiorf. 
WiLUAM Aldrbo, F.CA. I Theodore Orbqort, F.CA. 

Eli 80WER9UTI8, F.R.G S., 44, Brown Street, Manchester. 

Digitized by 



AbyssinU 1 06 

Acreage under Cultivation in India 205 

Additions to Library, 1891 849 

Africa, Central, Abyssinia 106 

BarterQoods 117 

Communications 117 

Congo Free State 112 

Congo Territory 229 

Kasala and Senaar 106 

Kordofan and Darfur 105 

Native Trade 116 

Navigation 119 

Population 116 

Products of 105 

Railways 119 

SudAn 115 

Trade with 105 

Waterways 118 

Early traditions concerning 296 

East, British 107 

German 109 

Katanga Ill 

Kilimarnjaro 276 

LakeChala 276 

Mosambique 110 

■ Northern Zambesia Ill 

Nyasa, Coffee Growing 848 

NyasaLand Ill 

Somali Land 107 

Tanganyika Lake 72 

Ujljl 73 

Zanzibar 109 

How Africans are to be Taught 331 

South, Ancient Goldfields 297 

British 8. A. Co 267 

FortSalisbury 268 

Gazaland 267 

Goldfields 267 

Mashonaland 267 

Mashonaland, Zimbabwe Ruins 295 

Matabelehmd 267 

SofaU 299 

West, Angola 112 

— -Cameroons 114 

Central, F. 8. Amof s Journey . . 229 

• French Congo 114 

Gambia 115 

GoldCoast 114 

Ijebu 96 

- — • IvoiyCoost 114 

Liberia 115 

Niger Territory 114 

Siora Leone 115 

SlaveTrade 93 

Trade 95 

Yoniba 92, 114 

-*«»» 184 

Agricultural Chemistry 213 

Agriculture, Indian 201 

Apiculture in Yoruba 97 

Ahmadabsd 179 

AjmepB .... 180 

^Umm da Services Maritimes, Postaux 

Anaw^u, <tc 71 

Alaska, Bufferings of Explorers in 310 

^merles, Fourth Centenary of Discovery of 168 
Anwriranin ts, Huelva International Con- 

gressof 263 | 


America, North, Mexico 127 

Alaska, Sufferings of Explorers 810 

Minnesota, State of 801 

Mississipi, Source of 801 

South, BoUvia, Beni River 342 

Am\ur River , 91 

Analysis of Journals, &o., 1891 366 

AnsfoU 112 

Antarctic Exploration, B. Delmar Morgan, 

F.R.G.8. 811 

Antarctic ExpIoration,Proposed Expedition 825 

Ararat, Mount 84 

Ararat Mount, Height of 80 

Arctic Explorations, Dr. Nansen 889 

Armenia, Prof . Minasse Tch^ras 84 

Amof s Journey in West Central Africa . . 229 

Artificial Irrigation In India 206 

Ascent of Mount Yule, by J. P. lliompeon, 

F.R8.G.S., ^ux, Brisbane 294 

Asia, Armenia 84 

Baku 86 

Central, British Trade in 87 

Cotton Cultivation 388 

— • Russia and England in 87 

Thibet 68 

China, Emigration, Causes of 229 

Secret Societies 40 

India, Agriculture, Recent Progress of 201 

Railway Communications. . . .216, 231 

Trade Progress and Competition 230 

Travel in 171 

Japan 277 

Siberia, Rivers of 89 

Aatnmomieal Oeographv—E. P. Jackson, 

A.M 62 

Astronomical Geography 818 

Atlases 17,39,66,62,71, 215 

Atlases added to Library, 1891 851 

Auckland, New Zealand 22 


BaikalLake 91 

Baku 86 

Balfour, F. H.— Secret Societies in China 40 

Baroda 177 

Barter in Africa 117 

Basin of the Beni— Chev. H. Guillaume . . 342 

Bee, TheHoney 9 

Benares 186 

Beni, The Basin of the !.'.'.*.*..'.".'!.'.'. 842 

Bent, J. Theodore. F.RG.8.— Geography 
of the Zimbabwe Ruins in 

Mashonaland 295 

Berne 270 

Geographical Congress 270 

Geographical Exhibition 274 

BibU AtUu — T. Ruddiman Johnston 

F.RG.SL 80 

BoUvIa, Basin of the Beni 342 

Bombay 175 

Books 17,39,66,62,71,80,86 123 

Books added to Library, 1891 351 

Brehm*» Zoological Atlat 17 

British Association, Cardiff, 1891, Dele- 
gates' Report 417 

East Africa 107 

British Empire— 3, M. D. Meiklejohn, M.A. 17 
British New Guinea 294 

Digitized by 





British New Guinea, North-East Coast of.. 57 

South Africa Oompuiy 207 

Trade in Central Asl»— Prof . Armlnius 

VamWiy 87 

Brower, J. V.^flource of the Mliaissippi 

RiTer 301 

BurroughSi 6. H.— Free Travel 423 

Burton, F. O.— Mexico 127 


Calcutta 188 

Oameroons 114 

Canals in India 209 

Cartography, Development of 814 

— — European 275 

CatulPM ropvUar AtUu 56 

Causes of Chinese Emigration 220 

Cawnpore 184 

Central Sudan 116 

Ceylon, Kandy 198 

Paddy Tax 197 

Tea'Rwde 196 

ChalaLake 276 

Qiannel Tunnel, The— Prof. Boyd Dawkins, 

F.R.S.,M.A.,ftc 81 

Chemistry, A^cultural 213 

Ghildren't Home, Bdgwortk— A. W. Mager 137 

China, Influence of Ouilds on Trade .... 53 

Secret Societies in 40 

Chinese Emigration, Causes of 229 

Climate of India 285 

of Mexico 129 

ofNewZealand 28 

doth, Consumption of, in Yoruba 100 

Coalinlndia 225, 234 

Coffee Growing, Lake Nyasa 348 

Coles, John— The Art of observing 168 

Colonial Federation 19 

Commercial Geography, Teaching of 828 

Products of Central Af ricSr-J. Howard 

Reed 105 

Comparative Geography 17 

Compass, First Used 316 

Competition and Trade Progress in India.. 280 

CompstaU 266 

Congo Free State 112 

French 114 

Territory 229 

Congress. International Geographical, at 

International of Americaniita, at 

Huelva 263 

Contents of Journals, Ao., added to 

Library, 1891 866 

Contoured Maps 821 

Correspondence 72, 843 

Corresponding Societies, 1891 (British). ... 364 

-. (Ootonlal) 368 

(Foreign) 359 

Cotton Cultivation in Central Asia. ... 88, 338 

Manufactured, India 242 

Millsinlndia 288 

Ysrn, India 239 

Cultivation of Coffee, Lake Nyasa 348 

of Cotton, Central Asia 388 

Curios of Japan 282 


Darfur 105 

Daijheeling 192 

Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd, F.R.S., &c— 

The Channel Tunnel 81 

Definition of Geography 818 

Delegate's Report, British Association, 

1891 (Cardiff) 417 

Delhi 188 

Description of Dr. Nansen's Ship .S39 

Development of Cartography 314 

Diagrams, Im. (see list at end). 


Discovery of America, Fourth Centenary of 168 
Distribution of Prises, 1891 Examination 

(Lancashire and Cheshire) 411 

Doyle, Dennis, Mission to the Queen from 

Gungunhana 267 


Earthquakes in Japan 284 

Earth Worms in Yoruba 97 

Bdgworth Children's Home 187 

Education, Geographical, In England, 

Recent Progress of 263 

Education, Geographical, in Europe 274 

Education in India 173 

InNewZealand 81 

Rlk Lake and its Discovery 307 

Embroideries, Swedish 264 

Emigration, Chinese, Causes of 229 

to New Zealand 34 

England— Channel Tunnel 81 

CompstaU 266 

Geographical Education 263 

Manchester Museum 347 

Manchester Ship Canal 266 

New Map of Yorkshire 326 

Nonhwlch 269 

River Weaver 269 

Bnglith ImperUU Atlat qf the ITm'fci— J.Q. 

Bartholomew, F.RG.B 215 

Esperanza 182 

Europe— Cartography 275 

England- Compstall 266 

Channel Tunnel 81 

Geographical Education 263 

New Map of Yorkshire 826 

Northwich 269 

Manchester Ship Canal 266 

France— Channel Tunnel 81 

— — Geographical Education 274 

Spain- Congress of Amehcaniiits .... 263 

Sweden— Embroideries 264 

Exhibition, Geographical, at Berne 274 

Exploration, Antarctic 311, 325 

Explorers, Sufferings of 310 

Exports from India 207 


Famine, Prevention in India 211 

Farming, Scientific 213 

Federation, Imperial 19 

Field of Geography— E. G. Ravenstein, 

F.R.G.S. 813 

Food Prices in Yoruba 98 

Fort Salisbury 268 

France— Channel Timnel 81 

Franklin, Sir /oAn— Capt A. H. Markham 56 

Free Travel— 8. M. Burroughs 423 

Fujiyama Mountain 283 

Fumivall, W. C, M. Inst. C.E.— Railway 

Communications of India 216 


Ctembia 116 

GansenmOller, Dr. Konrad.— Instructions 
for Coirect Pronunciation of Foreign 

Geographical Names 832 

Gaialand 267 

tfeodeay— Professor J. Howard Gore 128 

Geographical Congress, International, at 

Berne 270 

Education in England, Recent Pxo- 

gress of 263 

in Europe 274 

Exhibition at Berne 274 

— — > Names, Pronunciation of 332 

Notes— 17, 39, 56, 62, 80, 86, 89, 168, 

229, 263, 276, 810, 825, 881, 888, 848, 408 

Digitized by 




Oeognpblcal Orthognpby 278. S48 

Work of J. P. Thomson, F.R8.0.8 of 

Brisbane 414 

Ooogrmphy, Oommercial Teaching of 828 

Definition of 818 

in Newspapers and Feriodioals 124 

of the 2iunbabwe Buins in Mashona- 

land-J. Theodore Bent, F.R0.8.. 295 

Political, Teaching of 403 

Hm Field of 813 

Goology of Straits of Dover 81 

Gexuan East Africa 109 

Map Makers 822 

Gold Oosst, West Africa 114 

Gotdlields of South Africa 267 

Orefrary, Theodore. Prise Essay 105 

Quiihuime, Chevalier— The Basin of the 

fieni 842 

Qongimhana, Mission from, to the Queen.. 267 


Honey Bee: Natural History, Geographi- 
cal Distribution, Ac 

Houses in Japan 288 

How Africans are to be Taught— Alexander 

Mackay 881 

Sam to Bnliwtn QtograpkicaL ImtTrvction 
tmi to Lighten t(— Dr. K. Oanzen- 
mOller 62 

Htiehra— International Gongress of Ameri- 

canists 263 

Hutton, J. F., F.R G.a-Memoir 1 


liebu 06 

nittstrations. Ao, (See list at end.) 

Imperial Federation 19 

Importi into India 807 

Impressions of Travel in India — C. E. 

Schwann, M.P. IH 

India, Acreage under Cultivation 205 

Administration of Justice 194 

Agra 184 

Agricultural Chemistry 218 

Agriculture 201 

Ahmadabad 179 

Ajmere 180 

Artificial Irrigation 206 

Baroda 177 

Benares 186 

Bomb^ 174 

Calcutta 188 

Canals 209 

Cawnpore 184 

CUmale 235 

Goal 225,234 

Gonstraction of Wells 210 

OottonMills 238 

OottooYam 289 

Dsrlheeling 192 

Delhi 188 

Education 178 

Exports and Imports 207 

Fismlne Prevention 211 

Jeypore 181 

Jute 247 

Lahore 182 

Land Tenure 211 

Lueknow 186 

Madras 196 

Manufactured Cotton 242 

PopuUtion 172, 205 

Railways 208, 216, 231 

Rural 202 

Imdia, Thaeker'a BeOueod Swrve^ Map of ., 89 
India, Trade, Progress, and Competition. . 280 
-—travel in..rr. 171 


Indian Popular AiUu 89 

Industries of New Zealand S7 

Instructions for Correct Pronunciation of 

Foreign Geographical Names— K. 

GansenmUller, rh.D 832 

Instruments Needed for Exploration .... 156 
International Congress of Americanists* 

Huelva 263 

Geographical Congress at Berne 270 

Irrigation, Artificial, in India 206 

Itasca Lake 804 

State Park, Minnesota 808 

Ivory Coast, West Africa 114 

Japan 277 

Curios 282 

Earthquakes 284 

Fujiyama Mountain 283 

Houses 288 

Kioto 284 

KltaFlying 291 

Kobi 280 

Nagasaki 277 

Nagoya 287 

Tempos 279 

Theatres 285 

Tokio 293 

Travelllngin 288 

Wrestling 286 

Yokohama 291 

Japanese 278 

Jeypore 181 

Journals, &c, Analysis, 1891 366 

Journals, Ac., Added to Library, 1891, 

(British) 864 

Ac., Added to Library, 1891, (Colonial) 308 

jcc.. Added to Library, 1891, (Foreign) 859 

Journey of M. Bonvalot and Prince Heni^ 
of Orleans across Thibet— Mark 

Stirrup, F.G. 8 68 

Justice, Administration of, in India 194 

Juta in India 247 

Kandy 196 

Karema 72 

KasaU 106 

Katanga Ill 

Keltic, J. Scott, Recent Progress of Geo- 
graphical Education in England . . 268 

KIlima*njaro 276 

King, Fred D., New Map for Teaching 

Local Geography t.... 826 

Kioto .; 284 

Kite Flying in Japan 291 

Kobk 280 

Kordofan 105 

Kovio Kange, British New Guinea 294 

Lahore 182 

Land Tenure in India 211 

La TranocauHe it (a Pinintvdt iPApchiron, 

O. S. Gulbenkion 86 

Leipzig, Teachers* Training School at .... 300 

Liberia 116 

Library. Additions to, 1891 849 

List of Journals, Maps, Atiases, Aa, 1891.. 849 

List of Members, 1891 404 

Uving»tone.^B. H. Johnston, C.B 56 

Local Geography, New Map of Yorkshire. . 326 
Lueknow 186 

Digitized by 





Mftok&y, Alexander.— How Africans are to 

beTanght 831 

MacmilUuC* School AiUu: Phgtieal af%d 
PofiCteot-J.Q.Bartholomew, F.R.O.8. 215 

Madrae 196 

Afo^eUan, i^mlinand.— F. H. H. Ouillemard 56 
Hager, A. W. — Children'a Home, 

Edgworth 137 

Manchester Museum, Owen's College S47 

Manchester Ship Canal 266 

Manica 268 

Manufactured Cotton, IndU 242 

Manufactures of Toruba 101 

Map of the World, scale, 1 : 1,000,000 272 

Maps added to Ubrary, 1891 349 

MapsEevlewed 89.62, 71 

Maps, Ac. (See list at end.) 

Mariner's Compass, first used 816 

Mashonaland 267 

Zimbabwe Ruins 295 

Matabeleland 267 

Mediterranean, The 324 

Members, List of, 1891 404 

Mercator 319 

Meridian, Prime 273 

Mexico, CUmate 129 

P.O. Burton 127 

Trade 129 

Millson, Alvan, M.A., F.R.6.8.— Yoruba.. 92 

Minnesota, Elk Uke 807 

ItasoaLake 304 

SUtePark 308 

Mississippi River 301 

Missionaries on Tanganjrika 72 

Missicm to the Queen from Qungunhana . . 267 

Mississippi, Area of Drainage Basin 302 

River, Source of 301 

Moir, Mrs.— Letters on Tanganyika 72 

Moore, Dr. J. Murray, M.D., F.R.G.S.— 

The New Zealand of To-Day 19 

Morgan, B. Delmar, F.R.G.8.- Antarctic 

Exploration 311 

Morris, Owyn— Teaching of Commercial 

Geography 328 

Moeambique 110 

Museum, Owens College, Manchester — 847 


Nagasaki , 277 

Nagoya 287 

Names, Oeographlcal Orthography 843 

Pronunciation of 332 

Nansen, Dr., and the North Pole 339 

Natural History Museum, Manchester.. .. 347 

Navigation in Africa 118 

of Siberian Rivers 89 

New Oeoaraphy on the Comparative Method. 

J. M. D rMeiklejohn, M.A. 17 

Guinea ► 80 

British, Ascent of Mount Yule . . 294 

Kovlo Range 294 

N.B. Coast of 57 

— Map for Teaching Local Geography.— 

Fred Ring 326 

Newspapers, Geography in 124 

New Zealand, Auckland 22 

Climate 23 

Crime 32 

Education 81 

.—. EmigratioD 34 

Finances 29 

_ First Impressions 22 

Geographical Position 21 

Industries 27 

Laws 33 

of To- Day.— Dr. J. Murray Moore, 

M.D., F.R.G.8. 19 

Poverty 82 

Products 27 

ReUgion 81 


New Zealand, Routes to 22 

Scenery 25 

SodalLlfe 80 

Temperance 88 

Volcanoes 36 

Niger Territory 114 

North-East Coast of British New Guinea, 

&C.-J. P. Thomson, F.B.G.a, Ac 67 

North Pole and Dr. Nansen 889 

Northwlch Salt Mine 269 

Nyasa Lake— Coffee Growing 348 

NyasaUnd Ill 


Obi River 90 

Oceania, New Guinea 80 

Mount Yule 294 

North-Bast Coast of 57 

Now Zealand 19 

O'Gorman, D. A.— Recent Trade Progress 

and Competition In India 230 

Orthography, Geographical 278, 332, 843 


Paddy Tax in Ceylon 197 

Palm Kernels and OU in Yoruba 102 

Papua. (See New Guinea.) 
Peep at the Land of the Rising Sun— Wil- 
fred M. Stelnthal 277 

Periodicals, Geography in 124 

Plane Table Surveying 160 

Pole, South, Exploratton 311 

Political Geography 823 

Teachlnffof 403 

Population of Africa 116 

oflndia 205 

ofYoruba 99 

Portraits, Ac (See Ust at end.) 

Port Said 172 

Practical Suggestions Offered to Travellers 

-J. P. Thomson, F.RG.S 153 

Prime Meridian 273 

Prise Essay, The Theodore Gregory 106 

Prlxes, 1891, Examination (Lancnshire and 

Cheshire) 411 

Proceedings 78, 148, 266, 411 

Products of New Zealand 27 

ofYoruba 97 

Progress of Indian Agriculture 201 

of Trade In India 230 

Pronunciation of Geographical Names .... 332 

Proposed Antarctic Expedition 825 

Ptolemy's (Geography 315 

Puebla 131 


Railway Time, A Standard 421 

(^mmunications of Indisr— W. 0. Fur* 

nlvaU, M. Inst. C.E. 216 

Railways in Africa 119 

Inlndla 208, 281 

Ravenstein, E. G., F.R.G.S., Ac.— The 

Field of Geography 318 

Reoent Prop-ess of Geographical Education 

InEnghmd 268 

of Indian Agriculture— C. L. 

Tupper 201 

Trade Frogress and Competition in 

India— D. A. O'Gorman 230 

Reed, J. Howard— Commercial Products 

of Central Africa 105 

Reforms in Statistics of Rural India 204 

Report of Delegate to British Association, 

1S91 (C-u-diff) 41 

Reproduction (if Geographical Forms.— J. W. 

Red way 62 

Reviews of Atlases, Books, Maps, Ac , 17, 

39, 5«, 62, 71, 80, 86, 123, 215 

Digitized by 




iTln^n 151 

ojral 0«omphlcal Society— Orthography 

of Oeographlcal Names 843 

Btinl India 202 

Buada and England in Central Asia 87 



ffaii^p g on Tanganyika 

SavageB of New Gninea 

Scenery of New Zealand 25 

School, Training for Teachers, Leipsig . . . . SOO 
Schwann, a E., M.P.— Trayel in IndSi. ... 171 

Sdentiflc Farmbg 213 

Secret Societies in China. — F. H. Balfour . 40 

Seoaar 106 

Sextant Invented 820 

Ship Canal, Manchester 266 

ofDr. Nansen 33fi 

Siberia, Blvers of 89 

Sierra Leone 115 

SUre Trade of West Africa 98 

Blevan, Bev. T.— The Honey Bee : Natural 
Histoiy, Culture, UtilitT. Geogra- 
phical uiatrilmtion and Commercial 

Value 9 

Social Ufo in New Zealand 8o 

Societies, Corresponding, 1891 (British) .. 864 

(Colonial) 363 

(Foreign) 869 

Sofsla 299 

SomaliLand 107 

Sooth Polar Expiration 311 825 

Source of the Mississippi BiTcr-J. V. 

Brower 801 

Spain, HnelTa, Conffress of Americanists. . 263 

Spelling of Oeograpnioai Names 278 843 

Sfinda^ Ballway^me 421 

Statistics of Bural India, Beformsin .... 204 

Steamers on Siberian Biyers 89 

Steinthal, Bev. & A., International Geo- 
graphical Congress at Berne 270 

Stehithal Wilfred M.— A Peep at the Land 

of the Rising San 277 

Sthtup, Mark, F.0.8. — Journey of M. 
Bonralot and Prince Henry of 

Orleans across Thibet 68 

StudiiWi Geoffnpky—Qeorge QUI 62 

Sudio, Central 115 

Sufferings of Explorers 810 

Suggestkms to TraTellers 158 168 

Sorreying 158 168 

SwedishEmbroiderles 264 

Swltierknd, Berne 270 

nunpioo 188 

Tanganyika lAke 72 

Turawera Mountain, New Zealand 87 

Tohbma— Prol Minasse, Armenia 84 

Tea Trsde, Ceylon 196 

Teaeka^t Manual qf Qtography.^Z, W. 

Bedway 62 

Teschers' Trailing SchooL Leiprig 800 

Teaching of Commercial Geography.— 

Gwyn Morris 828 

Local Geography 826 

Political Geography 408 

Thaektr't Reduced Survtjf Map qf India .... 39 

Theatxes in Japan 285 

Thibet, Journey Across 63 

Thomson, J.P., of Brisbane.— Memoir on 

his Geographical Work 415 

Ascent of Mount Yule 294 

F.B.G.S., &c.-North-East Coast 

of British New Guinea, and .Some 

of the Adjacent Islands 57 

Practical Suggestions offered 

toTravellers 158 

Through the Britiah Empir$ in Five Minutet. 

— a B. Howard Vincent, M. P..... 56 

Time, a Standard Bailway 421 

Tokio 293 

Topici in Oeography.—Yf. P. Nichols, A.M. 62 

Trade, British, in Central Asia 87 

Influence of, Chinese Guilds on 58 

Trade of Mexico 129 

ofSiberia 89 

ofWestAfrica 95 

Progress and Competition in India . . 280 

with Central Africa 105 

Training School for Teachers, Leipzig .... 800 

Travel, Free 428 

Travellers, Suggestions to 158, 168 

Travelling in Japan .. . 

Tupper, 0. L.— Recent Progress of Indian 

Agriculture 201 

Two Tear» among the Savaga of New 

Guinea.—W.J). Pitcaim, F.R.G.&,4(c. 80 



Uncrowded AtUu.—T, Ruddiman John- 
ston, F.R.G.& 


Vambdry, Prof. Armlnius.— British Trade 

in Central Asia 87 

Volcanoes in New Zealand 86 

Weaver, River 869 

Wells, Construction of, in India 210 

White Fathers on Tanganyika 72 

Worid, Map oT Scale 1 : 1,000,000 27t 

Wrestling in Japan 285 

Tarn, Cotton, Trade with India S89 

Yenisei River 90 

Yokohama 291 

Yorkshire, New Map of 82t 

Yoruba 114 

Agriculture 97 

Alvan MiUson, M.A., F.R.G.S 92 

Consumption of Cloth lOl 

Ibadan-. 99 

Manufoctures 101 

Palm Kernels and Oil 102 

Population 99 

PrioesofFood 98 

Trade 07 

. — Transport 102 

Zambeda, Northern Ill 

Zaniiihar 100 

Zimbabwe Ruins 295 

Zoological Atloi, Brthm*t 17 

PortraltofMr. J.F. Hatton,F.R.G.a FM^e Title FMge 

Dr. Frtd^ Nansen 


Sketch Map, Qlnstiating Commercial Prodocts of Central Afiioa 



Fkoep, 105 

Digitized by 



AscvsiCA (STorth)— paok 

ChartottbeBoiiroeaftheMlMiaBlpplBiTer— J.V. Brower „ soi 

XnaeoSfk, liftp of. 8oil6— ^ m fl^ s i inch 64 

IsdlA, Potttlcitl I'Hi' 8o«lo—l in 15,000,000, 850 mUes a 'i Inch !..'.....'.'.'.!'/.'.'. „ 230 

Fhvsioal Mhx. Softle, 1 in 15,000,000, 860 miles = 1 Inch SOI 

BaUwaylUpu Soidd-l in 15,000,000, 850 milos = 1 inch „ 316 

Skitefa Map 171 

BeiMrM 187 

Bamkmj 175 

— — Cbleatttk 190 

Gtoleatta from the Hooghly—C. E. Schwiam, M.P.'.'.*.'.'.*.*.*.*.'.*.*.'/.*.'.!!*.!!*.!!. .'.!!.*!.*.. 189 

Ktophanta G»Tet 177 

Lucknow 185 

Btete BuUock— a S. Schwann, M.P. «00 

Taj Mahal at Agra ITO 


Kngtand—Oapeathorne Hall, Gheahire F&oep. 124 

Children"* Home, Bdgworth 130,140,141,143,144,145,146. 147 

Ooyt Hall, Bredbury 91 

Lane l^ Birer Irwell 104 

Monk's Han, Bccles 123 

Peells House, Bury 13«i 

Boebock Inn, Baoup 126 

Torton Tower 12t» 

Sketch of Dover Strait, showing Proposed Channel Tunnel 81 

Sweden— Patterns of Swedish Embroideries 264, 265 

<>rcAiiiA— New Zealand— Sketch Diagram 18 

OnrERAi^-Facaimile Pftge of Field Book Used in Coast Surrey of Vanua-LeTU--J. P. Thomson 

Face n. 158 

Paiges of Field Book Used on Expedition in Search of Traces of Dr. Leichardt, 

1858— Hon. A. a Oregory Face p. 161 

The Old Viking Ship WO 

The New Viking Ship 841 

Geography in Newspapers, Uluatrationa Face p. 81 

and pages 91, 104, 123, 124, 126, 186 


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His Grace thb DUKE OF DEVOl!iJ?SHI]^K, K.G., Chancellor of the Victoria Uuivaraity: 


The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY, 

K.Q., &c. &c. 
Thb Right Hon. Lord EGERTON OF 

The Right Hon Lord WINMARLEIGH. 
The Honourable Lord FREDERIC S. 

The Right Rev. the Lord BISHOP OF 

The Right Rev. the Lord BISHOP OP 

The Worshipful the MAYOR OF 

The Worshipful the MAYOR OF 

The Worshipful the MAYOR OF 

The Worshipful the MAYOR OF 

The principal OF OWENS COL- 

The Right Hon. Sir JAMES FER- 

GUSSON, Bart., CLE., M.P. 
The Right Hon. A. J. BALFOUR, M.P. 
Sir W. H. HOULDSWORTH, Bart, M.P. 

Sir J. C. LEE, Kt., J.P. 
Mr. B. ARMITAGE, J.P., Chomlea. 
Professor W. BOYD DAWKINS, M.A., 

Mr. H. H. HOWORTH, M.P. 
Mr. H.^. ROBY, M.A., M.P. 
Councillor HENRY SAMSON, J.P. 
Mr. C. E. SCHWANN, M.P. 
Rev. S. a. STEINTHAL, Chairman of 

THE Council. 


Mr. Alderman 0. MAKINSON, J.P. Mr. J. JARDINE, J.P. 



Mr, T. R. WILKINSON, Manchester and Salford Bank, Mosley Street, Vice-Consul for the 

Ottoman Empire. 

Honorary Secretary. 

Mr. F. ZIMMERN, Hardman Street. 



Rev. L. C. CASARTELLI, M.A., Ph.D., 
St. Bede*s. 


Professor T. H. CORE, M.A., Owens 

Miss DAY, Girls' High School. 

Chevalier ROBERT FROEHLICH, Vice- 
Consul for Italy. 




Mr. SYDNEY KEYMER, Vick-Chairman 

of the Council. 
Mr. J. H. NODAL. 
Mr. JAMES PARLANE, J.P., Consul 

for Paraguay. 
Mr. fritz REISS. 

Consul for Franc k. 
Mr. mark stirrup, F.G.S , Hon. Sec. 

Manchkstkr Geological Society. 



ELI SOWERBUTTS, F.R.G.S., 44, Brown Street, Manchester. 

*^* The writers of papers are alone responsible for the opinions expressed by them. 

Books, Maps, &c., for Notice or Review, may be sent to the 
Secretary, 44. Brown Street, Manchester, 

Digitized by 





MR. J. F. HUTTON, F.R.G.S., 

Yice-President of the Manoheeter G^graphieal Society, and one of its Founden. 

{See portrait.) 

TO record the loss of useful citizens is always a sad task, for it cannot 
but remind us of '* vacant chairs " in the midst of our changing 
Uvea New men arise and do new work, but for a time the places of those 
who are gone cannot be filled, and the work they undertook cannot be 
taken up at once by those who are left. Such a man was the late Mr. 
J. F. Button, who died on March 1st, 1890, at Oaira His work was so 
pre-eminently his own that there is now no one to cany it on. Mr. 
Button's work as one of the founders of the Manchester Geographical 
Society was so active, the interest he took in it was so deep, the aid he 
lent to it was so great, that it is impossible to leave his name and work 
unrecorded in the Journals of the Society. 

Mr. Button was not a Manchester man in the literal sense of the 
word. Be was bom in London, within sound of Bow Bells, on November 
25, 1826, but the best and most useful part of his life was spent in 
Manchester, to which he came in the year 1853, with his brother, 
Anthony Button, to strike out a new branch of trade with Africa. Bis 
father and grandfather before him were engaged in the African trade, 
but the old firm was changed, and Mr. Button confined his operations to 
extending the trade of Manchester with the uncivilised parts of the 
Dark Continent. This business is still being carried on by his sons, and 
we have the unusual instance of four generations in the same business. 
Mr. Button saw many changes in Africa during his business life in 
Manchester. When he first came to this city the trade was confined to 
the coast, and whatever goods found their way into the interior only did 
so by the inadequate and slow means of transport in the hands of the 
natives. Now all is &st changing. Explorers have crossed and 
recrossed the continent, missionaries have settled in the very heart of 
Africa, and after them the merchants have followed. Steamers are 
running up the Niger and Binue ; on the Upper Congo cotton goods are 
to be bought more easily than they were to be had on the Lower Congo 
Vol. VIL— Nos. 1-3--Jan. to March, 1891. 

Digitized by 


2 Th& Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

fifty years ago. Huge oarayans go up from Bagomoyo to the fertile lake 
distriot, and the day is not far hence when railways will bring the inte- 
rior of this vast continent within as easy reach for Manchester goods as 
the centre of India. Mr. Hutton had a broad and farnseeing intelligence, 
and was always ready to give his assistance in opening up the Dark 
Continent, which he knew must some day become a great market for the 
manuflEicturers of Britain. 

The intimate knowledge which he possessed of every part of Africa 
(a knowledge which often put oiir Government officials to shame), and 
the deep interest he took in all movements for the promotion of trade 
with Africa, soon drew the attention of the Manchester Chamber of Com- 
merce to the iisict that they had amongst their body a man who could do 
good and useful work for its conmierce, and Mr. Hutton, though of a 
retiring disposition, had to step forward into the post for which he was 
naturally fitted. Mr. Hutton's first labours on the African Committee 
of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce were the commencement of an 
untiring work for the public good, which grew more and more useful 
every year until his health prematurely broke down, and his energies 
were lost to his city and his country. 

We do not propose in this memoir to deal with Mr. Hutton's private 
life, except in so far as it may serve to bring out details which may be 
interesting to the public. 

It was in 1852 that Mr. Hutton made his first practical acquaintance 
with Africa. Owing to the sudden death of his fieither the business fell 
on his shoulders, and it became necessary that the state of the factories 
spread aU along the Gold Coast, belonging the firm, should be investigated. 
He was then twenty-five years of age. The first business was to charter 
a steamer, and on March 2nd he started from Liverpool in the screw- 
steamer Emerald. Travelling then was not what it is now. They had eight 
other passengers, and on the day after starting they found that there 
were only two tablecloths on board, no clean bed linen, only iron forks 
and spoons, co£fee but no oo£fee mill, and, generally speaking, the stores 
were found wanting. It took them thirteen days to reach Madeira, and 
the marvel is that they arrived there at all ; for on Sunday, March 7, 
it was discovered that the after-hold was full of water, and that there 
was no means of getting the pumps at it. Mr. Hutton writes in his 
diary for that day, '^ This is the most miserable Sunday I ever spent. 
My cabin is the only one free from water, and has been filled all day with 
the other passengers, wet through from bailing. Provisions, boats, 
dresses, all floating about The cargo in the after-hold has had to be 
shifted to cut through the bulkhead to enable the water to be got at. 
The uncertainty as to the cause of this laxge quantity of water and the 
conjecture as to making for the first port or taking to the boats renders 

Digitized by 


Mr. J. F. Eutton, F.R.G.8. 3 

our position most painfuL" They decided to make for Madeira as fiut 
as possible, but, to add to their misfortunes, on the following day the 
screw stopped, owing to the imperfect " screw packing." For nine hours 
they were laid-to^ all hands meanwhile pumping and bailing. They then 
got the screw to work again, but twice again it stopped, and each day 
firom the 7th to the 14th the diary contains the entry '< All hands to the 
pumps, water increasing." Finally, at 3-30 &nL, on March 14, the water 
got into the engine-room, and they prepared to leave the vessel ; but as 
they were then not hx from Madeira, they strained every nerve, the 
engineers wading up to their middle in water to keep the engines going, 
the passengers bailing out the water with the coal buckets, and by 
11 a.m. they anchored off Funchal, and, with fresh hands to the 
pumps, they saved the ship from sinking. 

It was March 24 before the steamer was ready for sea again, and on 
April 2 they were off the River Gambia. The style of the navigation 
may be gathered from the following extract: ^'1 p.m., land sighted 
about twelve miles distant ; course directed towards it ^ past 2 p.m., 
land and breakers straight ahead ; course altered to S.S.K Vessel at 
anchor to S. about six miles ; steamed towards her ;" and again, '< Mate 
calculates longitude at 15"*. Captain Woodhead made it 19°. The latter 
proves to be right" On this voyage Mr. Hutton stopped at the follow- 
ing places on the West Coast: Bathuist, S. Andrews, Elmina, Cape 
Coast Castle, Anamaboe, Accra, Quitta, Grand Popo, Ahgrey, Porto 
Novo, Badagry, Lagos, and Sierra Leone. The diary contains chiefly 
entries relating to private business, which detained him on the West 
Coast until August, and doubtless during that time he was gathering 
experience for the future. The voyage home was not without drawbacks. 
Two of the crew mutinied, and had to be removed at Sierra Leone ; the 
captain was a drunkard, and the ship was within an ace of going on thB 
rocks in one place ; and finally the captain died in a drunken fit The 
mate being incompetent, and there being a gentleman on board who 
understood navigation, Mr. Hutton had to take the responsibility 
of appointing him captain. The mate, of course, refused to recognise 
him, and generally speaking the rest of the voyage was a troubled one, 
and a tremendous undertaking for a young man of twenty-five. 

In February, 1853, Mr. Hutton again went out to the West Coast. 
This time he did not charter a steamer, and his sea-going experiences, 
though uncomfortable, were not so unfortunate. Besides seeing the 
places he had previously visited, Mr. Hutton went to Goree, Liberia, 
Old Calabar, and the island of Fernando Po, and again returned to 
England about the end of August These two voyages were the only 
practical experience Mr. Hutton had of Africa, but they were sufficient 
to give him a grip of affidrs generally at any time on the West Coast, 

Digitized by 


4 The Journal of the Mcmohester Geographical Society. 

for, vast as Africa is, life on the Oambia, the Niger, or the Coogo is much 
the same, and the needs of the people are at all times mn«h the same 

Two extracts firom his diary may interest our readers. The first is at 
Liberia, or Monrovia as it was then called. On board the steamer, as 
cabin companion, Mr. Button had a Mr. Newnham, going out to be 
British Consul in this republic of freed slaves. They landed together, 
and went up the hill to the town, at the far end of which is the house of 
President Roberts, built of bricks, and of some size, with an arched 
piazza in front. ** The president greeted us very coolly, expressed no 
pleasure on receiving the Consul, nor offered to contribute to his comfort 
or wants. After about twenty minutes' conversation we took our leave 
to visit the British Consulate, without his even offering us a glass of 
water after our heating walk. The house set apart for the Consulate 
appeared quite deserted and dilapidated. The walls in parts are without 
plaster or paint, the floors and timber work giving way, and the first 
heavy rain would wash the place down. The other Consuls gave a most 
unsatisfactory account of the place. The President appeared to be a 
clever rogue, who has spent the money advanced by England, for the 
improvement of the place, largely on himself. The people generally 
are very untrustworthy, and speak with a strong Yankee accent There 
is a^ovely view from the town, both seawards and into the interior. 
Some of the houses are good, built both of stone and wood. There is a 
town hall, an academy, government house, custom house, printing offices, 
two chapels, Ac, but as for the people — most of the men were prowling 
about in dingy uniforms, consisting of seedy blue frock coats, epaulettes 
and sword, and a straw hat. The quality of the dress seemed to be the 
last consideration. The President received us in a greasy coat void of 
buttons, a dirty shirt and neckcloth, and both boots burst to a consider- 
able extent We all left the town much disgusted at what we had seen 
and heard." 

The other extract refers to the conclusion of the first Ashantee war, 
which was going on while Mr. Button was on the Gold Coast : — 

"Thursday, April 14th. Started from Cape Coast with Governor 
Hill and others to visit the camps of Dunquah, Uratil, and Yancoomassie, 
in all nine hammocks. At Uratil there were about 3,000 men, including 
70 of the Gold Coast corps. The whole force turned out and passed in 
line before the governor. Some of them are very fine men, and all 
dressed in every kind of curious costume, armed with guns, swords, 
cutlasses, or any other warlike implement The camp was formed of 
huts about 4ft high, consisting simply of sticks driven into the ground 
and the top covered with palm and plantain leaver ... At the 
Yancoomassie camp our party went right through the lines, being a 

Digitized by 


Mr. J. F^HutUm, F.RG.8. 6 

fiingle line of men on each side of a broad road, cut by Adjt Hill, for a 
distance of 1 J mile. The whole body, consisting of 14,000 or 15,000 men 
of the different tribes round, presented arms and shouted as the governor 
passed along the line. Each tribe had its chief standing under a huge 
umbrella surrounded by 'cabbocress' and boys holding a kind of 
Bword with the handle, and the knob at the end covered with a thin 
plate of gold, and a standard-bearer carrying a piece of silk embroidered 
with some grotesque object, and a Union Jack in the comer, the standard 
surmounted by a^ piece of glass or some animal carved in wood. The 
effect of such a line of men extending along the road for such a distance, 
with a background on each side of noble trees^ was extremely picturesque. 
(We may say that Mr. Hutton made a most effective sketch of this 
scena) . . . The Ashantee messengers have arrived to say the king 
wishes for peace. The head man delivered his message with the king's 
axe, covered with leopard skin and ornamented with gold, resting on 
his shoulders. . . . Governor Hill then reassembled the loyal chiefia, 
and, explaining the terms of peace he had negotiated, thanked them for 
their services, and asked them to decide what should be done to the two 
head chiefs of Assim, who had sold their people to the king of Ashantee. 
The Fantee chlefis and Solomon, the principal chief of Assim after the 
traitors, found them guilty, and wished they should be beheaded on the 
Mowing day. As the following day was Sunday, it was postponed 
until Monday, after which we set out again for the coast *' 

We may add here that Mr. Hutton made many graphic sketches of 
the scenery and native life on the West CJoast of Africa, some of which 
iqipeared in the lUustraUd London News at the time of the second 
Ashantee war in 1873. 

In August, 1855, Mr. Hutton married, and thus became practicaUy 
settled in Manchester. For the next twenty years his life was that of 
many another honourable Manchester merchant, unknown outside his 
own circle of friends, but known to them as one who one day might be 
called on to give the benefit of his business experience and talent to 
Manchester generally. The outside public first became aware that he 
was something more than a successful merchant in 1876, when he 
formed one of the deputation who waited on Lord Carnarvon with 
reference to the proposed cession of the Gambia to France. Practically, 
it was owing to Mr. Hutton's letters and representations that this cession 
did not take place, and in recognition of his knowledge and grasp of the 
African trade he was in 1877 elected a director of the Manchester 
Chamber of Commerce, and from that time until the date of his death 
his energies were given unsparingly, and often at the sacrifice of his own 
business, to the interests of the community. In 1879, following the 
initiation of the Bishop of Salford, he formed one of the provisional 

Digitized by 


6 The Jq\imal of the Manchester Oeographical Society, 

committee for founding the Manchester Oeographical Society; but 
merchants then did not understand as well as he did the need of the 
study of commercial geography. This effort appeared to faiL In 1885, 
bad trade and need of new markets brought the question pressingly to 
the front, and the present secretary of the society, aided by Mr. Slagg, 
Mr. Hutton, Mr. B. Armitage, the Bishop of Salford, and others, were 
instrumental in establishing the society, and Mr. Hutton was always 
most active in forwarding its interest, and one of the most valued 
members of the Council of the Society. 

In 1877, Stanley made his first memorable descent of the Congo, 
and in 1878 the King of the Belgians formed an international association 
for the purpose of further exploration and opening up the Congo to 
commerce. Mr. Hutton attended most of the meetings in Brussels in 
November, 1878, and he and Sir W. Mackinnon were the only two 
Englishmen who subscribed to the original expedition which resulted in 
the Congo Stata In 1883 Her Majesty's Government proposed to make ' 
a treaty with Portugal on the Congo question, allowing them to annex 
the mouth of the river, to which they had long laid claim. This would 
have meant the ruin of our commercial interests, and a new and im- 
portant market would probably have been closed. Mr. Hutton was, at 
that time, one of the most active directors of the Chamber of Commerce, 
and mainly owing to his influence then, and in 1884-85, when he was 
President of the Chamber, the treaty with Portugal was never ratified. 
He was also exceedingly active in getting the Congo State recognised 
by the European powers. 

But Mr. Hutton was not only interested in the Congo, he was 
also one of the founders of the National African Company, now the 
Royal Niger Company, which obtained such extensive sovereign power 
for Great Britain along the Niger and Binue, which may be of incon- 
ceivable»value to Lancashire and England in the future. He was also 
one of the founders of the British East African Company — in fact, to 
quote the words of the Manchester Courier, " Every man who makes his 
mark in the world is a specialist in some shape or form, and Mr. Hutton 
had made Africa his special subject His interests were largely bound 
up with the development of the Dark Continent, but he did not confine 
his work to the districts in which he personally was concerned. If we 
may slightly alter a well-known adage, we might apply to Mr. Hutton 
the words * Nihil Africanum a me alienum puto.' All African questions 
interested him. He bought and read all African books. Every explorer 
in Africa, every missionary, found a friend in him ; and as most of them, at 
one time or another, came to Manchester, they found a hearty welcome 
at his house, Mr. H. M Stanley having stayed there several times." 

East Africa is at present more interesting to us than the West 

Digitized by 


Mr. J. F. Eutton, F.R0.8. 7 

Coast, but it was not so until lately. Mr. Hutton for many years had 
foreseen the result of our inactivity in that region, and had constantly 
urged the Croyemment and officials at the Foreign Office to step in and 
declare a protectorate over Zanzibar. Now the protectorate is declared, 
but had it been done ten years ago the result would have been vastly 
different We were at one time paramount in Zanzibar, but we allowed 
the Germans to intrigue and to undermine our influence, with the result 
that they now hold the main trade routes fi*om Zanzibar to the centre of 
Afirica, and this territory will probably be closed to British goods as soon 
as the twenty years of free trade expires which were declared at the 
Treaty of Berlin. If our Government were to consult men like Mr. 
Hutton, who are intimately acquainted with all the details of the trade, 
and also with the geography (this latter the Government official is always 
ignorant of) of the foreign countries they have to deal with, we should 
see fewer of those blunders made which so often act ruinously to British 

One of the last labours of Mr. Hutton was his work on the Emin 
Pasha Belief Committee. At the end of 1886 the Government declared 
they could not, or would not, undertake the work, and soon afterwards 
we find Sir W. Mackinnon and Mr. Hutton corresponding together and 
meeting together, and very soon a committee was formed, and in an 
incredibly short time the whole matter was cut and dried, and the 
expedition sent out The whole matter is such recent history that it is 
in the minds of everyone, and needs no reference to here. 

During the few weeks Mr. Hutton spent in Egypt he constantly met 
Mr. Stanley, who was then at Cairo, resting from his labours, but also 
hard at work on his book. But the meeting of these two friends, after 
nearly four years, was only for a short time ; and we can only remark, 
on the fitting coincidence, that one who had his life-interest in Africa 
should end his days there, and that his last conversation with any 
outside his own circle should have been with one who, whatever his 
fitults, is undoubtedly the greatest explorer of the Dark Continent 

In 1885 he was induced, very unwillingly, to represent North Man- 
chester in Parliament He was by no means a politician in the ordinary 
sense, but he was the very man to represent the commercial interests of 
our city. After his election his life was more active than before, but 
the irregular hours and the worries of electioneering and Parliamentary 
life probably hastened his end ; for the work of his own business alone, 
and also the active part he took in the management of the two African 
Companies of which he was a director, in addition to his energetic work 
in the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, was sufficient alone for any 
man, without the addition of sitting through wearisome meetings in the 
House of Conmions, and unable to leave for fear of a division, to say 

Digitized by 


8 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

nothing of the constant little worriee to which any man is subject who 
puts up as a candidate for a large town. 

During his short Parliamentary life he wafl respected by all, and 
listened to with interest, for he never spoke unless he had something to 
say. He also took an active part with Mr. Henniker Heaton in endeavour- 
ing to get our postal service with our colonies reformed. Although so 
short a time in Parliament, he made his mark ; and, later on, when a 
committee was appointed to inquire into the workings of the various 
laws on trade marks, Mr. Hutton was selected by the Government to 
serve on the committee, as a man capable of representing Manchester 
in a question which perhaps is of more importance to her large export 
trade in cotton goods than any other ; for the opinions arrived at by 
this cofnmittee were the origin of all the recent legislation against 
infringement of trade marks, false folding, and other fraudulent 

Mr. Button's work on this committee may be gauged by the unani- 
mous vote of thanks passed to him by the Manchester Chamber of 
Commerce : '' That this Chamber gratefully records its special thanks 
to Mr. J. F. Hutton for his services to the trade of this district upon the 
committee of the Board of Trade appointed to inquire into the (|uestioii 
of the Trade Marks Act. It would record its high appreciation of Mr. 
Hutton's great sacrifice of time in his attendance at the meetings of the 
committee, and his tact and judgment in bringing out in the examina- 
tion of the witnesses the strength of the Manchester case, and the 
strength of his recommendations embodied in the report." 

Mr. Hutton, besides being Consul for Belgium in this city, was also 
J.P. for the County of Lancaster, a Fellow of the B.oyaI Geographical 
Society, and a member of the Organising Committee of the Imperial 
Institute, of which the Prince of Wales is chairman. 

Mr. Hutton had large numbers of African curiosities, which have 
been exhibited from time to time. He had also one of the finest collec- 
tions of carved ivories in England, which was exhibited at the Art 
Treasures Exhibition in 1878, and a large case of which was lent for 
some time to the Philips Park Museum. 

As we said to start with, this is not a memoir of Mr. Hutton's private 
life. Suffice it to say that the main feature of his character was the 
determination that if he did a thing at all it should be done thoroughly 
well Nothing could exceed the patience and perseverance that he gave 
to any work ; and anyone who came into contact with him felt that he 
would deal with them in the same manner, that he would expect the 
best from them, and yet at the same time would make the best of them, 
and would treat them as if they were the same perfect gentlemen that 
he himself always was. 

Digitized by 


The Honey Bee. 


By the Rbv. T. SLEVAN, Poulton-le-Fylde, LancajBhir^ 

[Addrened to the Members, at the Memorial Hall, Wednesday, February, 4th, 1891, 

at 7-30 p.m.] 

THE great fire in London, by clearing away the nests of 
disease and death, thus making way for open streets, &c., 
did great good. So a fair and honest apology like mine may 
clear the ground and put me right with those who hear. To 
those present who may have given critical and scientific atten- 
tion to this subject I have nothing to say. To those who stand 
on the border of this interesting wonderland in an inquiring 
spirit I have a little to say. I don t know much about bees. 
Well, the fact is, the man who knows most on this subject 
admits that he has but touched its border lines. What I have 
to say is not new, but true, and there is a sense in which what 
is true is new. My findings on this subject are the result of 
extensive reading, careful observation, and some practical experi- 
ence, like the bee, I have for years been gathering knowledge 
from every opening flower. And just as the bee gives a new 
character to the sweet nectar she gathers from every opening 
flower, 80 have I endeavoured to give to all I have heard and 
read the colour and strength of my own thought and experience. 
At the outset, let me say that I am greatly mdebted to Mr. H. 
Carr, Newton Heath, Mr. W. B. Carr, of London, and specially 
to the two great kings of bee-keepers, Messrs. Cowan and 
Cheshire, and many another beside. 

Poised one day on the crest of a North Sea wave, with the 
genial Secretary of the Manchester Geographical Society by mv 
side, I made a rather rash promise. Whether I was too much 
excited by strong sea-breezes, or a too free use of toast and 
water, I can't tell, but I did promise that in return for a lecture 
on the Mediterranean delivered at Poulton I would come to 
Manchester and speak about beea In anxiety ever since I feel 
sure that I have paid very dearly for my whistle. I would have 
retreated, but found the bridge burnt behind me. Like the 
man who rides a bicycle, I felt that I must either go on or go 
oflf. To go off and lick the dust would be unworthy of a north- 
countiyman. So here I am to do my best, and leave the rest 
to critics. I have no serious intention of delivering a lecture, 
properly so called, but to talk familiarly so as to interest you in 
the honey bee, its history, culture, and utility ; and, if possible, 
to so interest you that when you see a bee you may not feel it 

Digitized by 


10 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

to be your duty to kill it, nor even to be afraid of it, but that 
when you sip the delicious honey, or burnish your chairs or 
light your room with wax, you may rejoice in its " sweetness 
and light." 

Every man should have a hobby (not a fad). If he have not 
brains for a biff one, then get a little one ; but be careful that 
you do not ride it to death. Just take it out for a little trot 
now and then, just to secure a little healthy recreation as a 
relief from or preparation for the larger and more important 
duties of life. If ot that I think the study and culture of the 
honey bee a little thing. The novice may so regard it, but as 
he intelligently advances he finds himself m the presence of the 
infinitely great. Grod and Nature are never so great and so 
grand as when we bend to examine what we in our ignorance 
call the infinitely little. Every jot and tittle of Hebrew writing 
is significant, so is every living organism, however small The 
daisy has never been a little flower since Robert Bums apos- 
trophised it. To the thoughtless and unobserving it is still but 
a daisy. You remember tne words put into the mouth of Peter 
Bell by Wordsworth, that 

" A primrofle by the river'e brim 
A yellow primroee is to him, 
And it is notiuDg more." 

To many people a beehive is only a skip or box of myste- 
rious mischief, a point of danger, a thing to be dreaded. I want 
to make it more than that. Our old fnend Adam had an early 
knowledge of the bee, to which he gave the name " Deborah, ' 
or one that speaketh. Speech is not always in words. Men 
speak with their eyes and by clever attitudes. In this case the 
tongue of the bee speaks in honeyed deeds, which are always 
more eloq^uent than honeyed words. In more than twenty books 
of the Bible we read of honey and wax. Old Jacob was a 
generous bee-master. Seeing his sons preparing to go down 
into Egypt he said, " Take the man (Joseph) of the best fruits 
of the land," and among other things a " little honey." In the 
Bible the highest style of living is connected with milk and 
honey. *' With honey out of the rock will I satisfy you." The 
good time coming is described as a " land flowing with milk and 
honey." The only riddle in the Bible, and the oldest riddle in 
the world, is about honey, and in a queer hive, too. The most 
remarkable reference, however, is that the first and last food of 
Jesus Christ was honey. " Therefore the Lord himself shall 
give you a sign. A virgin shall bear a son, and his name shall 
be called Immanuel ; butter and honey shall he eat, that he 
may know to refuse the evil and choose the good." To this day 
the Jews give honey to their new-bom babes. After the Resur- 
rection, "Have you here any meat ? And they gave him a 

Digitized by 


The Honey Bee, 11 

piece of boiled fish, and of an honeycomb, and he did eat before 
them." The earliest records testify to man's appreciation of the 
wisdom and value of bees. In Hindoo mythology, in represen- 
tations of Persian worship, on coins of Athens and Ephesus, we 
find reference to the bee as a symbol of fecundity. It is figured 
in the E^ptian hieroglyphics as denoting a people obedient to a 
king. Virgil says, "The honey bee is a ray of divmity." Plutarch 
says, *' The honey bee is a magazine of virtue." Quintillian 
calls her " the chief of geometricians ; " and Dr. Montford says 
that " the honey bee surpasses in architecture the skill of Archi- 
medes." The notice given to mead in the days of the Druids 
would lead us to believe that bees were domesticated by the 
Ancient Britons ; but we have no authoritative information on 
this point, and the honey used in their drinks may have been 
collected by wild bees. The Romans when they came (a.d. 43) 
no doubt taught the Britons how to hive and domesticate bees. 
Mead was the ideal nectar of the Scandinavian nations, which 
they expected to quaff in heaven out of the skulls of their 
enemies ; and, as maj reasonably be suj)posed, the liquor which 
they exalted thus highly in their imaginary celestial banquets 
was not forgotten, as those which they really indulged in upon 

" Fill the honey'd beVrage high, 
Fill the BkulLi, 'tis Odin's cry ! 
Heard ye not the powerful call, 
Thundering through the vaulted hall ! 
Fill the mead and spread the board, 
Vassals of the griely lord ! 
The feast begins, the skull goes round, 
Laughter shouts — ^the shouts resound." 

The King of Wales, about the year a.d. 490, made a code of 
laws relating to bees, fixing various prices of a hive at different 
seasons ; and so highly was mead thought of 1,000 years ago 
that the mead-maker m the household of the Prince of Wales 
ranked next to the royal physician. The Anglo-Saxons of the 
earliest period were probably more anxious to domesticate bees 
than horses. Their produce was an article of food necessary to 
brewing of mead, and extensively used in medicine. In the 
sixth and seventh centuries bees were altogether wild (some 
think them wild yet). They swarmed in woods and formed their 
honeycombs in hollow trees, and were at first classed by law 
with foxes and otters, as incapable of private ownership, because 
they were always on the move. Anyone who found them had 
a right to the honey and wax, though from certain ecclesiastical 
regulations in the seventh and eighth centuries we may infer 
that their capture was a dangerous amusement, and that their 
half-naked captors had often a bad time of it. A favourite 
mode of taking them was to cut off the branch of a tree in which 
they had lodged themselves, taking care, of course, when sawing 

Digitized by 


12 The J(mmal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

off the branch to sit on that part of the branch nearest the tree, 
then taking home their treasure. As the country grew in wealth 
and intelhgence bee-keeping became more profitable. By the 
law of one Saxon king it wf^ ruled that " every ten hides of 
land shall furnish ten vessels of honey." The clergy encouraged 
bee culture, teaching that the bees had been sent n*om heaven, 
because the mass oi God could not be celebrated without wax. 
It has been said that man alone is capable of living in all lands, 
and of migrating freely to any portion of the globe ; that each 
species of animal, as well as vegetable, has an organisation fitting 
it to the climate of a certain portion of the earth's surface, and 
that when they are removed from theii* natural districts they 
cease to exist, or, if the change is not too violent, they vary their 
habits so as to adapt themselves to their new conditions. For 
instance, if a fine-wooUed sheep be taken to the torrid zone 
the wool is changed to hair. The dog of the tropics is naked. 
The elephant and the camel do not, as a rule, live long in tem- 
perate zones. The arctic bear and the lion cannot exchange 
places. Therefore to man alone has been attributed the power 
of inhabiting all climates ; for, whether in the polar regions, 
where now and then mercury freezes, or in India, where at times 
the thermometer marks almost semi-boiling heat, his body main- 
tains an equable temperature, his blood having (under ordinary 
circumstances) in all these places its natural warmth of 98"* 
Fahrenheit. Man is not alone in his proud nre-eminence in 
this resnect, for the honey bee, in an organised, colony, during 
the worldng season, has the power of maintaining an equsd 
temperature in the hive of 70 , regardless of the heat or cold 
outside, and, during the winter, of living in any climate with 
less protection than man. More: however short the summer, 
wherever vegetation blooms, it can gather its own food. So the 
bee belongs to all nations, climates, and men. The honey bee 
is one of the most fortunate of insects, for, unlike most of its 
class, having a practical " bearing," and sometimes a painful 
" bearing," it has obtained more attention from naturalists than 
even its interesting economy would have attracted, and repays, 
in a tangible form, the care that man has bestpwed upon it lor 
his own pleasure and profit. 

There is a charm in modem bee-keeping which never 
existed when the hive was a sealed book and the bee supposed 
to possess two points of interest only, and those at its extre- 
mities — its tongue and its sting — which had nothing particular 
between them, to use the words of a humorous writer, save 
'' skin and squash." Here the naturalist and the trader find a 
common point of interest. The hive is the home of the honey 
bee. On this point I have but few remarks to make. While 
David dwelt in a house of cedar he failed to feel comfortable 
when the Ark of God dwelt within curtains. The bee is the 

Digitized by 


The Honey Bee. 13 

firiend of man. Our interests are bound up together. Let us 
be as careful for the bee's comfort as for our own. It is true 
that hives gather no honey, but in so far as they effect the 
objects we have in view they are the cause of much being 
gathered. Environment and home comfort go for much among 
men ; they are not less important among bees. Therefore, 
turning from the clay jpipe of the Egyptian and the straw skip 
of the peasant, we direct our attention upon those modem 
inventions which have ^ven to bee culture its high place among 
the industries and studies of this practical age. There is great 
difference between hives for bees and hives for the bee-keeper. 
Just step inside the hive, if you please ; the accommodation is 
not large, but the work and workers are fiiU of interest. There 
are three kinds of bees in the hive at certain seasons and two at 
others — ^the queen, the drone, and the worker. The queen is 
the mother of the hive, and the only mother. The drone is her 
royal consort. The worker is the neuter on whom there comes 
the honour and dignity of labour. The queen bee lays an egg, 
and in 24 days it becomes a worker bee. The same egg that 
produced a worker would by different feeding and environment 
m 16 days produce a queen. She lays an unfertilised egg, and 
in 25 davs there comes forth a drone. The great charm of the 
hive is the queen. She is supposed to be the centre of influence 
and authority. She differs widely from those around her. 
While not so bulky as the drone her body is longer, and as it 
is tapering she has a waspish appearance. Her wings are much 
shorter than those of other bees, her colour is brighter, and her 
movements slow and matronly. No colony can long exist with- 
out her. She is treated with the greatest possible affection. 
Her dutiful children attend her every want. They back out of 
her way like so many courtiers as she moves about, Her shy 
and retiring disposition is a manifest disadvantage to the bee- 
keeper. Wnen the hive is opened she hides among her chil- 
dren, preferring to be heard, not seen. She is a wonderful creature, 
sometimes laying as many as 2,000 eggs per day. Her wings 
are short, rendermg her incapable of long and continuous flight; 
in fact, she seldom leaves the hive more than twice — first, when 
she goes off on her wedding tour ; and, secondly, when she leaves 
the nive with a swarm in order to make room for a younger and 
more vigorous successor. Wonders multiply when you come to 
know more about this illustrious lady. A queen may be pro- 
duced from a worker larva, when the larva is less than tnree 
days old. This is a great mystery. These royal scions simply 
receive a more abundant and sumptuous diet, and occupy a 
more comfortable home. Not only are the ovaries developed 
and filled with eggs, but the mouth organs, the wings, the legs, 
and the sting ; yes, and even the size, form, and habits are all 
wondrously cnanged. That the development of parts should be 

Digitized by 


14 The Journal of the Manchester OeographicaZ Society. 

hastened, and the size increased, is not so surprising, because it 
is well known that the kind and quality of food helps or retards 
growth in other insects; but that food should so essentially 
modify the structure, is certainly a rare and unique circum- 
stance, hardly to be found except here and in related animals. 
The ^ueen has a sting, but so far as at present known she never 
uses it, except in combat with another royal lady. Nature has 
evidently taught her that a common foe is unworthy of her steel. 
So then, when you have the chance, you may handle a queen 
bee as freely and fondly as you would a baby. 

I come now to the drone — ^the father of the hive and the 
best-abused member of the bee community. "Big, fat, and 
burly, and studious of his ease," he is an ill-usea bee. He 
appears in May, and often stays until November. The drone is 
shorter than the queen, being less than three-fourths of an inch 
in length. He is more robust than either the queen or the 
workers. He makes his presence felt by his loud humming noise. 
Mark, the beehive is not the only place where those who make 
the most noise do the least work ! But does he do less work ? 
Less certainly, but he is by no means the proverbial idle fellow 
he is often described to be. Inside the hive he helps to hatch 
the young by increasing the temperature of the hive. Outside 
his cheery song and well-to-do appearance gives to the hive an 
air of respectability. The drone has no sting and no pollen 
pockets, and no proboscis suitable for honey gathering. No 
wonder, then, that he is ill-used, for how can a utilitarian age 
like this think well of a member who has neither power to get, 
nor keep, nor fight ? We have the best German authority for 
saying that the drone is the product of an unimpregnated egg. 
Many curious reasons, more or less reasonable, are given for uie 
wholesale destruction of drones. One, and the most likely, is 
this : A check in the fine summer weather indicates famine. In 
view of this the cautious, far-seeing bees stay all proceedings 
likely to increase the population of the hive, and to be an unre- 
munerative strain on the food supply. After all the drone has 
a merry life, though a short one. When the queen goes off on 
her marriage flight he is to the fore. The drone who follows 
the farthest, thus proving both his strength and his affection, is 
chosen as the royal consort. Alas ! poor fellow, he never again 
regains the hive. Dr. Evans thus describes a drone : — * 

" Their short proboflcis sipe 
No lusciout neotar from the wild thyme's lips ; 
From the Ume's leaf no amber drops they steal, 
Nor bear their grooveless thighs the f oodf ul meal ; 
On other's toil in pampered leisure thrive, 
The lasy fathers of the industrious hive." 

In a hive we have a population of from 15,000 to 40,000 — one 
queen, 600 drones, the rest workers, emphatically " the bees." 

Digitized by 


The Honey Bee. 15 

The workers are of two kinds — ^small ones called sculpturers, 
and larger ones called waxworkers and outdoor labourers. The 
age of bees is always a subject of interest. Those hatched in 
the autumn will (with care) survive the winter and start the 
work in spring. Those reared in the spring wear out in three 
months. In the busy season few live more than thirty days — 
they usually die of nervous exhaustion. Bees never live through 
a year. One great secret of success is to get a strong stock of 
young bees in the autumn ; in the sprinj?, to stimulate the 
queen to egg-laying, so that by the time flowers bloom there 
may be an army of workers ready to take the field. 

I now come to the product of the hive, but not being learned 
in chemistry I can only say a little. Honey is the main point. 
Beekeeping has been called the grace of agriculture. Still, it 
has a very prosaic side. However poetic and romantic, we still 
look for " divy " in the shape of honey and wax. What is honey ? 
A Chinaman called it the juice of bees.* Honey is not gathered, 
but made. It is first nectar, or sweet water, found on or in 
flowers, and containing cane sugar. Eeceived by the bee it is 
changed into grape sugar, then an entirely new character is 
given to it by the bee, which diflFerentiates it from all sugars. 
The short season and the quantity won is the great marvel. 

Pollen is the dust of flowers, and is gathered to be the food 
of young bees. It is most needed where there is least to get. 
So we advise our friends to make artificial crocuses, and fill 
them with peameal or fine oatmeal, and place them in the 
garden where the bees may find them. 

Wax is an important product of the hive. It is a solid, 
unctuous substance — ^a fat-like material It is secreted by the 
bees, and may be seen in scales under the abdomen. 

Comb BuiLding : The bees first gorge themselves with honey, 
then hang themselves in festoons in a cluster, and by a swing- 
ing motion get up great excitement, the temperature rising to 
a great height. Then the wax exudes from tne body, the bees 
disengaged come to the cooler part of the hive, the fatty sub- 
stance sets in layers on the abdomen ; they then proceed to the 
place for comb building, and are relieved of their load. 

The Sting : I have intentionally and appropriately left this 
until the last. It is what the Americans call the business end 
of a bee. Many have a very wholesome but needless dread of 
bees because they sting. N#ver go near in windy weather. 
Why? Bees think that you cause the disturbance. Nor in 
gloomy damp weather. Why ? The bees are discouraged and 
ill-tempered. Always move quietly, firmly, and decidedly. 
People can get accustomed to stings. Keep calm, and the ill- 
effects are almost nil, 

* Aiifltotle betterod that honey fell like dew from heaven, where it formed the ^food of the 
gode and of the IndiutiHoua. Pliny calls it the juioe of atan. 

Digitized by 


16 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

Lastly, its Cominercial Value : The honey possibilities of 
this and other lands it is hardly possible to Delieve. In the 
United States we have 400,000 million of acres yielding lib. oiF 
honey per acre per year. In England alone, ana without occu- 
pying a single bit of land useful for other purposes, it is said 
that one million fruit trees might be plantea with marked 
advantage. Mark! the success or failure of such a planting 
depends more on bees than at first sight appears. The want of 
interest in bee culture renders fruit trees and clover crops less 
productive, and himdreds of tons of honey are annually wasted, 
for when honey is not gathered the flowers simply " waste their 
fracrance on the desert air." Scotland alone could maintain a 
sufficient number of bees to provide four million pounds of 
honey and one million pounds of wax each year. Our flowers 
will bear very favourable comparison with those of Russia and 
Hungary, and yet not a single mile from John o' Groats to 
Lanas End is sufficiently stocked with bees. Why should the 
farmers of Lancashire complain of poverty when they allow all 
this land to waste ? Let the nobleman with his mUes of heather, 
the squire with his park and woods, the farmer with his bean 
and clover fields, and the cottager with his garden, all join 
together this rich harvest of good things. Bees are free reamers. 
They never trespass, for they have right of way everywhere, and 
are ever welcome. The German Government encourages bee 
culture in every way possible. Teachers paid by the State travel 
through the rural districts giving instruction on the best methods 
of bee culture. Schoolmasters before receiving their certificates 
must pass examination on this question. Bee clubs are com- 
mon in the villages, money for prizes and expenses being freely 
and heartily given by the Government. Here, then, you have 
an illustration of the principle of the " three acres and a cow." 
The result of this fostering care is that Germans are the most 
skilled apiarians. With the German it is a science as well as a 

Let us all love bees. Mahomet made an exception in favour 
of bees when he condemned all flies to be kiUea This love of 
bees made Napoleon prefer as a national emblem of industry 
the bee instead of an idle lily. The Athenians ranked the 
honey bee among their national blessings ; and so should we, 
did we understand it rightly and care for it wisely by adopting 
rational methods of culture. When you see the busy bees in 
your garden do not kill the friend of man, but think of Him 
who made both them and you — ^think of the part they play in 
the economy of Nature, as high priests at the marriage festivals 
of flowers ; remember their mdustry, their love of home, their 
bravery in the defence of it, their strict and zealous attention 
to the business of their lives, and the joyous hum with which 
they set about their daily task ; their division of labour, and 

Digitized by 


The H(yaey Bee. 17 

how willingly each one performs his allotted task, whether it 
be that of courtier in attendance on the queen, or, as Shakspere 
has it — 

" The singing maaonB building roofs of gold ; 
The io^ eiticens kneading up the honey ; 
The poor mechanio porters crowding their heavy burdens 
at the narrow gate." 

Is it not enough, think you, to excite the interest of the dullest 
minds when we consider that within so small a body should be 
contained apparatus for converting the "virtuous sweets"' 
which it collects into one kind of nourishinent for itself, another 
for the common brood, and a third for the royal lady of the 
happy home ? More. Glue for its carpentry, wax for its cells,. 

goison for its enemies, and honey for its master ! Think ! This 
ttle busy bee has a tongue almost as long as its body, which it 
can contract or lengthen at pleasure ; and a sting so sharp, with 
a point 1,000 times finer than the finest needle you ever saw, 
and, more wonderful still, that that sting is a hollow tube ! All 
these wonders in a body less than half an inch in length, and 
only two grains in weight ! Well may our thoughts turn from 
Nature to Nature's God. Whether we contemplate the minute 
or the majestic in Nature we may exclaim — " Great and won- 
drous are thy works. Lord God Almighty ; just and true are 
thy ways, thou King of Saints. Who shall not fear thee, G 
Lord, and glorify thy name ? " " There is something better than 
honey, more to be desired than gold, yea, than much fine gold \^ 
sweeter also than honey in the comb. ' 

Brehxn's Zoological Atlas, classified in 55 sheets, folio. About 900 illustra- 
tions. Ruddiman Johnston and Oa, Limited. — ^This is a selection of some sheets of 
the ThierM>en of Brehm. The classification has been revised and the English popular 
Dames supplied. The pictures are very beautiful, and to anyone wishing to interest 
children in Natural History are very valuable. Th^ are correctly drawn, and the 
relation of the picture to the size of the creature is indicated. This is one of th» 
books which make it a delight to teach and a pleasure to learn something of the crea> 
tores, both tame and wild, inhabiting our globe. The book is not expensive. 

A Hew Oeography on the Oomparative Method. With maps and diagrams. 

Fourth edition. 1890. 504pp. Index. 

The British Emjrare: ita Geography, Resources, Commerce, Land Wsys, and 
Water Ways. By J. M. D. Meiklejohn, M.A. 886pp. and Index. Diagran^ 
maps marked in colours, the natural products, &c 1891. Simpkin, lUrshall 
and Co., London. 
The comparative method is the only true method of teaching Geography, and 
Professor Meiklejohn, in these two volumes, gives us examples of the application of 
the metiiod in a practical form. The diagram maps in the " British Empire", ar» 
Tery useful and valuable, and the books will be heartily welcomed. There are some 
things in the volumes which might be altered, but we are not concerned with littlo 
blemishes. We are concerned to welcome any attempts to make the study of 
Geography more interesting both to teachers and pupils, and these two books do tha& 
weU. They are very well printed, and not too trying to the eyes. 

Digitized by 


18 The Journal of the Mcmchester Oeogra^hical Society^ 

Digitized by 


The New ZedLamd of To-day. 19 


[Addreflsed to the Members, in the Memorial Hall, Friday, February 27th, 1891.] 

ONE of the most cheering signs of the times in which we live 
is the fact that Old England is taking a particular interest 
in her Colonies, and that schemes of emigration, settlement, 
responsible self-government, and colonial federation are being 
formed and promoted by many good and true men carrying 
weight and influence amongst us.' 

The working-man is now " reading-up " the Colonies (aided 
by the excellent Emigration Bureau) and making himself better 
acquainted with our vast Transatlantic and Antipodean estates. 
The colonial-born all over the world call Britain " home," thus 
showing some domestic tie to the old country ; and those of us 
who may be contemplating emigration ou^ht to reciprocate that 
noble sentiment to the extent of preferring to live under the 
British flag rather than under the American or any foreign flag, 
all other things being equal. 

After a dozen years of travel and residence abroad, during 
which I have been round the world, and have lived in the 
United States and then in New Zealand, I am convinced that 
Great Britain can maintain her ascendancy as '' mistress of the 
seas " and her command of the world's markets only by a closer 
union or partnership, at first {)olitical and defensive, then com- 
mercial and fiscal, with those vigorous young nations which even 
now own a vaster extent of the Earth than was ever embraced 
by the greatest empires of antiquity. If we bear in mind that 
sparsely-peopled Canada and Australia are each almost as large 
as the United States, that the half-million square miles of South 
Africa hold less than three million people, and that New Zealand, 
small as it looks on the map, is but one-sixth less in area than 
our own islands, yet has but the population of Liverpool — we 
must conclude that surely there is plenty of room within our 
empire for the ever-growing surplus of our crowded millions. 

jSTow, I hold that Colonial Federation is a necessary prelude 
to that grand idea of Imperial Federation which may be realised 
sooner than some of us dream o£ Australian or Australasian 
federation is now coming almost within sight, since New Zealand 
has abandoned her attitude of reserve towards the movement, 
and has deputed two excellent representatives — Sir George 
Grey^ and Captain Russell — ^to take part in the Federal Con- 
vention at Sydney. 

i Since this aadress was written the Convention has been 
with great success and enthusiasm — ^''one people, one 

Digitized by 


20 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

destiny," having been the prevailing sentiment. Most important 
resolutions were passed, for which see the London daily papers 
of March 3 to 14, greatly accelerating union among the colonies 
of Australasi^ 

Imperial Federation would soon come within the sphere of 
practical politics if the following concessions, amongst others, 
were granted : The Agents-General of the self-governing colonies 
to have ex-officio seats in the House of Lords, and to be received 
at court on the footing of ambassadors ; the Secretary for the 
Colonies to be always an ex-governor of considerable colonial 
experience ; one member at least of the Judicial Committee of 
the Privy Council to be a colonial ex-Chief Justice ; in the 
Church, colonial ordinations to be recognised as equal to those 
at home ; and more inducements to be held out to the colonial- 
bom to join both army and navy, whether as officers or as 

The new mail route across the North American continent, 
vid the Canadian Pacific, to Australia, the Fijis, and New 
Zealand, will do much to promote the union of the Colonies, 
besides providing a safe access to the East in the time of war, 
should the Suez route be blocked. The tendency of the age is 
towards confederation, not disintegration, among the nations of 
the Caucasian race. Never let the narrow-minded economists 
persuade you, my fellow-countrymen, that our Colonies are but 
a source of embarrassment and expense to the old country. 
Quite the contrary is the case. In spite of "protective" tarife 
(necessary to them for revenue), England absorbs more than 
two-thircfs of all their trade ; they provide an outlet for our 
surplus population, for the investment of capital, and for travel 
and exploration, bringing health. and enjoyment to many; they 
afibrd valuable coaling and recruiting stations for our navy and 
commercial marine ; they are loyal to our sovereign, and, as 
far as New Zealand is concerned, they are British to the back- 
bone. The Colonies are a source of moral, physical, and political 
strength to us ; and if wise and timely concessions are made by 
our statesmen and Legislature to reasonable colonial demands, 
as expressed by the Federal Conventions, the mistakes of the 
eighteenth will not be repeated in the nineteenth and .twentieth 
centuries, and our children will see a Dominion of Australasia 
stretching out one hand across the Pacific to the Dominion of 
Canada, and the other across the Indian Ocean to a United 
British South Africa, thus encircling the globe with that grand 
old flag — 

" The flag that brayed a thousand years 
The battle and the breese." 

Now to-night, with the help of a selection of views of its 
scenery and volcanic wonders, I shall try to interest you in the 
far-distant colony of New Zealand, and I hope that in the end I 

Digitized by 


The New Zealand of To-day. 21 

may even be able to infect my audience with some of my own 
exuberant enthusiasm for that grand country. Any advice I 
may incidentally give to the emigrant, invalid visitor, or tourist, 
must be considered as disinterested, seeing that, having com- 
pletely " sold up" in order to settle at home in my native city 
of Liverpool, I ao not now possess a foot of land nor a share in 
any company out there. My admiration for New Zealand is 
but a fitting tribute of gratitude to the climate which so com- 
pletely restored my health ; for the novel, pathetic, quaint, and 
varied phases of life I there met with ; for the kindness and 
hospitality I and my family received during our nine years' 
sojourn ; and for the many warm, true, and hie-long friendships 
we there formed. It was with these feeling in my heart towards 
the colony that, after my return home,! endeavoured to set 
forth the claims of New Zealand as a world-sanatorium, and also 
as a desirable place of settlement for the emigrant, in a compact 
but comprehensive illustrated Handbook (published by Sampson 
Low and Co.), entitled "New Zealand for the Emigrant, 
Invalid, and Tourist," a synopsis of which is printed upon the 
small hand-maps kindly supplied this evening by the Council 
of this Society. In this work I have collected and condensed, 
not only the observations, experience, and conclusions of my 
own life in New Zealand — where I mixed freely, as a doctor 
naturally should do, with ''all sorts and conditions of men," 
from the Governor down to the poorest emigrant — but also all 
the general information that the reader who stays at home 
would naturally expect to find in a Handbook about the colony. 
Each chapter completes its own subject, and a copious index 
(my own labour) enables anyone to find the precise information 
he wants, quickly. I have been abundantly satisfied with the 
kind reception the book has met with from reviewers, both at 
home ana in New Zealand ; and more especially am I pleased 
with the gratifying encomium pronounced upon it oy Sir 
Andrew Clarke, Bart., who is our leading medical authority 
upon "Change of Climate." 


A glance at the map of the Southern Hemisphere shows that 
the geographical position and extensive coast-Une (3,000 miles) 
of New Zealand mark her out from Australia as the great mari- 
time country of the Southern Pacific Ocean. Possessing at 
least eight good natural harbours (Whangaroa, Auckland, 
Kawhia, Raglan, . Picton, Wellington, Lyttelton. and Akaroa), 
as well as several others (Napier, New Plymouth) being im- 
proved by the engineers; endowed with coal, iron, timber, 
abundant fresh water, and almost every known mineral that is 
useful to man, this colony seems by destiny the best fitted both 

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82 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

for the coaling and naval depot for Australasia, and also for the 
central emporium where the manufactured goods of Europe and 
America will be (as they are now to' some extent) distributed to 
the countless islands of the South Pacific. 

Auckland, the most northerly of the four capitals, with the 
grandest harbour and largest dry-dock of the colony, lies about 
equidistant from Sydney (1,312 miles) and from Levuka in the 
Fijis (1,500 miles). It is 1,900 miles from Samoa, 3,900 from 
the Hawaiian Islands, and about 6,000 from San Francisco. 

There were in 1889 no less than 140 steamships and 444) 
sailing vessels registered as belonging to New Zealand. The 
Union Steamship Company of New Zealand, which controls all 
the coastal and mter-colomal trade, owns more than 40 Clyde- 
built steamers, ranging from 3,500 tons downwards, all of wnich 
are models of speed, comfort, and elegance. 


The quickest access to the colony is by steamer to New York, 
thence across the continent by the Union and Central Pacific 
Railways to San Francisco, whence every four weeks a large 
steamer leaves for Honolulu, Aucklana, and Sydney. By 
travelling with the mails a passenger can actually reacn Auck- 
land on the thirty-fourth day after leaving Liverpool But 
those who study health and wish to profit By the sea voyage 
should take one of the two lines of direct mail steamers which 
pNBrform the transit from London, calling at Plymouth, Tene- 
riffe, the Cape of Good Hope, and Hobart (Tasmania), in about 
42 day& Tne refrigerating chambers on these vessels insuro 
the epicurean traveller a wonderful choice of table luxuries all 
the year round; and the dangerous heat of the Red Sea is 
escaped by this route. The safety of the homeward route, vid 
Cape Horn, is much promoted by the prohibition issued to the 
captains against going through the Strait of Magellan. Twa 
other steamship lines — the Colonial and the Snire lines — 
send monthly boats to New Zealand, calling first at Melbourne 
or Sydney. The Peninsular and Oriental Company and the 
Orient Company carry through passengers for tne colony, vid 
the Suez Canal, and these are forwarded by the Union Steam- 
ship Company's steamers from Melbourne or Sydney — a transit 
of lour or five days. 


The first thing that strikes the ** new chum," as he is colonially 
called, from England, is the absence of apparent poverty, especi- 
ally as displayed in our seaports by the crowds of ragged chil- 
dren touting for odd jobs or selling articles in the 'streets. A 
general air of prosperity, and a brisk business activity pervades 

Digitized by 


The N&iv Zealcmd of To-day. 28 

both the seaports and the capitals — Auckland, Wellington, 
Christchurch, and Dunedin. He cannot fail, moreover, even if 
he arrives in winter, to be &vourably impressed with the climate 
and the scenery ; and as he becomes better acquainted with the 
country and its inhabitants, he is astonished at the great extent 
and variety of its resources, productions, and industries, and at 
the enterprising spirit of the people. 


The climate is a temperate marine (and therefore humid) 
one, subiect, indeed, to sudden and sharp fluctuations, but free 
from great extremes of heat and cold. The colony comprises 
within its thirteen degrees of south latitude four distinct 
climatic zones, which I have been the first to describe and 
differentiate carefully (in the book above-mentioned), and which 
include atmospheric environments resembling those of Italy, 
Sicily, Switzerland, and England. There is a great prevalence 
of wmd throughout the vear, a feature of the climate which 
serves to keep the towns healthy. In sea-coast towns a day of 
Italian warmth and dryness may be followed by one of damp 
mist (warm, however) and rain sug^gestive of the west coast of 
Scotland. A brilliant suimy morning may be succeeded by a 
stormy deluge in the afternoon. But, on the other hand, there 
is only a difference of 23"" between the averages of the coldest 
and the warmest months in the year, and the air is so mild that 
for two-thirds of the year a man may safely sleep without further 
shelter than that afforded by a blanket and a macintosh any- 
where in the North Island. The atmospheric activity, caused 
by the all-surrounding nearness of the ocean — no mhabited 
place being more than 75 or 80 miles from the coast — and by 
the lofty mountain ranges, occasions a similar activity in the 
circulation of the blood in man and in his nervous system. 
Hence comes, in my belief, in great measure, the energy of the 
(white) New Zealanders, who in fifty years have developed their 
adopted country into its present highly-finished and even 
luxurious civilisation, though the population even now numbers 
only about 630,000 — equal to that of Liverpool and suburbs. 
Although electric disturbances — summer lightning, for instance 
— are common throughout the year, thunderstorms are infrequent: 
in the districts of Auckland, Taranaki, and Hokitika they are 
rare. But minor earthquakes are frequent at Wellington, 
Nelson, Napier, less frequent in Cihristchurch and Dunedin, 
and very seldom so severe as to be destructive of buildings or 
of life. The great volcanic outburst at Tarawera, in June, 1886^ 
of which I shall speak later on, was an event unparalleled in 
New Zealand history. The northern part of the North Island- 
namely, above the latitude of Tauranga on the east coast — ^ia 

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24 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

free from earthquakea As compared with other British colonies 
and the United States, New Zealand possesses the great advan- 
tage of being free from tornadoes, hurricanes, blizzards, snow- 
drifts, droughts, malaria, locusts, and other plagues. 

The great fertility of her soil, and its wonderful adaptiveness 
to the cultivation of all imported cereals, grasses, fruits, vege- 
tables, shrubs and trees. New Zealand owes to her abundant 
rainfdl, the average of which for the whole colony never faUs, 
though locally it varies from 25in. per annum at Napier to 112in. 
at Hokitika. In fact, so well-watered is the country that it is 
calculated that no settlement is more than ten miles from a lake, 
river, creek, or spring of good fresh water. Thus, while Aus- 
tralia is laDguishing in drought — I have known a time when 
citizens of ^dney were paying sixpence per bucket for water, 
for example, and the sheep in New South Wales dying by tens 
of thousands from thirst and want of grass — New Zealand sup- 
plies her neighbours with plump cattle, excellent dairy produce, 
and potatoes and oats of splendid quality. 

I found, as to weather, that the rainy or " cold season " in 
Auckland was more endurable than our uncertain and showery 
summers in England. As compensation for three days of con- 
tinuous downpour we had a week or so of bright, dry, bracing 
weather, the wind having changed from the north-east, which 
is always accompanied by mist or rain, to the south-west, which 
is the coldest but diyest wind in New Zealand. In this favoured 
seaport the rain quickly evaporates from the surface of the soil 
where that is volcanic scoria, or percolates through to the 
numerous underground springs, or, if the surface soil is of clay, 
it forms for itself channels which from all parts carry the rain- 
water into the harbours. 

Throughout the colony there are no hot steamy mists arising 
from swamps, marshes, or lagunes, as in Africa, New Guinea, 
and the Fijis, carrying up the malarious fevers into the homes 
of the settlers. Despite the variability I have admitted to exist, 
we had in Auckland, every spring, summer, and autumn, many 
consecutive weeks of sunshine, and even in winter many a day 
to which we could apply the poet's words — 

" Sweet day, so cool, bo calm, bo bright, 
The bridal of the earth and sky." 

That the New Zealand climate is one of the healthiest in the 
world is proved by the following facts : The death-rate is very 
small, being, for 1888, only 9*43 per 1,000 — exactly one-half the 
mortality of the whole of England and Wales. The birth-rate is 
large (88'5 per cent for 1887). There are 5'3 children to a 
family on an average, as against 416 in England; and the 
excess of births over deaths is actually nearly four times as 
great as in the old coimtry — 200 per cent as compared with 57 

Digitized by 


The New Zecdcmd of To-day. 25 

per cent. Old men and women whose wants are provided for 
live to greater ages thiuoi they would have obtained, judging 
from their family history and their own disease tendencies, in 
England. Once I attended a centenarian, 102 years old, who 
had lived a hard life of 40 years in the " bush," and another of 
my patients at 91 retained all his faculties bright and clear, and 
his caligraphy was wonderfully good. 

Concerning the particular diseases alleviable or curable by 
this grand climate — this exhilarating compound of sunshine, 
sea-breezes, and mountain showers — and by the superb mineral 
springs (the richest in chemical composition in the world), this 
is not the occasion to descant. Two whole chapters (chapters v. 
and xii.) in my handbook are devoted to this subject. With 
my differentiation of the climatic zones of New Zealand before 
him, the invalid seeking a climate suitable for any form of chest 
disease will now, for the first time, be able to select his appro- 
priate climate before starting. 

• In an interesting letter Sir Andrew Clarke observes: "I 
cannot doubt that an accurate and comprehensive account of 
New Zealand climates will be of great service to the public and 
to the profession. To intending colonists and invalids especially 
a book of the kind must prove of inexpressible value, not merely 
as a guide to seeking what is right, but ... as a guide to show- 
ing what is wrong. Mistakes made by persons seeking climatic 
change in. New Zealand are frequent ; and I know of some which 
have been attended with the worst results." I will merely state 
that I can corroborate this eminent physician's latter sentence 
by many sad personal experiences. But I have known a large 
number of persons permanently delivered from bronchitis and 
inflamed throats, and several saved from consumption of the 
lungs, by a timely change to a well-selected spot in New Zealand. 
The sea voyage commences the amelioration, which the climate 


The scenery (of which the illustrative lantern views shown 
this evening will give you some idea) includes the best features 
of Norway, Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Italy, set in a brilliant 
atmosphere resembling that of Greece. And, in addition, the 
North Island central volcanic zone displays terrific manifesta- 
tions of plutonic energy — active volcanoes and solfataras, geysers 
of steam, water and mud, boiling springs, roaring " blow-noles," 
blue, green and yellow lakes, underground caverns, vast cliffs 
and terraces, built by Nature, of sinter, sulphur, lime or scoria, 
and other wonders, such as can only be paralleled in Iceland or 
in the less-accessible Yellowstone Park oT Wyoming. The mag- 
nificent lake, river, forest, and mountain scenery of this colony 
deserves a Walter Scott to immortalise them in flowing verse ; 

Digitized by 


26 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

a Buskin to describe them in glowing prose ; and the brush of 
a Turner or a Cox to depict them on canvas. The fascination 
exercised by Nature in New Zealand over the senses and 
imagination of artists who visit the colony lasts for a lifetime. 
Foiled, it may be, in his first attempts to portray the forms, 
colours, and excjuisite atmospheric effects of some favourite 
" bit," the sensitive devotee of art returns to the district year 
after year in the endeavour to attain his ideal. Photography, 
also, nowhere m the world finds subjects more grand and 
striking. But what art has colours rich or varied enough to 
transfix on a picture the glory of the sunset rays falling on 
Mount Cook, on Mount Earnslaw, or on Mitre reak? Q>me 
with me, in fancy, for a moment, to one of Earth's fairest scenea 
We are camping out, let us say, at the edge of the Tasman 
glacier in the Middle Island. We are gazing etntranced at the 
pure loveliness of the peak of Mount Cook, poetically called 
Aorangi, or " Sky Piercer," in the Maori language, shooting up 
far into the sky, clad in its mantle of virgin snow. As we look, 
lo ! it blushes red in the splendour of the setting sun, while the 
side valleys become clothed in deep-blue shadow. What brush 
or pencil can fix on paper or canvas the unceasing play of 
colours ? the wondrous purples of the summit deepening in the 
alpine after-glow? the dull greens of the forest? the sepia 
shadows in the ravines and hollows, growing ever darker as 
evening steals on ? and, at last, the gradual fading away of all 
as the sun goes down, and over everything spreads the grey 
cloud-curtain of night ? 

Amid scenes like this the alpine traveller and the enter- 
prising explorer will rejoice ; and for the keen sportsman and 
angler there are even additional attractions provided by the 
successful science of acclimatisation, which has nowhere 
triumphed more than in New Zealand. One will now find 
some of the forests stocked with game &miliar to him in Europe, 
and most of the rivers and lakes abounding in well-known fish. 
Pheasant, quail, partridge, blackcock, snipe, and teal have all 
taken kindly to tneir antipodean home, and breed in the same 
prolific way that the human race do out there. Salmon, trout, 
oass, carp, and perch have found a congenial habitat in various 
parts of the colony. Even deer-stalking and fox-himting may 
now be enjoyed in the valleys north of Wellington. By a sensible 
law the fees for shooting and fishing^ licences go into the treasuries 
of the various provincial acclimatisation societies ; and fines for 
shooting game in the prohibited ''close season" also aid in 
defraying the expense of carrying on this very useful work. 

New Zealand is now regarded as the holiday-groimd of the 
Southern Pacific. Here the sun-baked Australian, the fever- 
weakened Ando-Indian and planter from the Fijis, Sandwich 
Icdands, or Tahiti, and others, find in the cool green shades of 

Digitized by 


The New Zecdcmd of To-day. 27 

the ferny dells, or on the grassy lawns of delightful seaside 
resorts like Waiwera, perfect rest, refreshment, and reinvigor- 


New Zealand is primarily a pastoral coimtry. In May, 1890,, 
there were over 16,200,000 sheep, nearly 774,000 homed cattle, 
and about 180,000 horses in the colony. In 1890 the export of 
wool was 101,000,000 pounds, valued at £4,172,226. The 
Hawera plains, in the North Island, are so excellent a pasture- 
ground for horses that Colonel Carr^, of the War Office, has 
reported that the North Island of New Zealand is the best 
aoapted of all the British colonies for breeding horses for the 
Indian army. 

The trade in frozen meat — t^t is, entire, dressed, and 
trimmed carcases of sheep andoxenfrozen in New Zealand, kept in 
that state during the voyage in special chambers, and landed in 
London or elsewnere in exactly the same condition — has in the 
short period of its existence, namely, eight years, attained vast 
proportions. It was in 1882 that 1 myself witnessed the ship- 
ment of about 3,000 frozen sheep to London by the ship Metaura. 
The greater part of these proved to be unfit for food on arrival 
in London, three months later. Increased knowledge corrected 
these failures so perfectly that the direct mail steamer Tainui, 
by which I returned, in September, 1888, to England, delivered 
30,000 frozen sheep at Bio de Janeiro and at London, in perfect 
condition. Last year (1890) there were 32 large steamera 
engaged in this trade, and the value of frozen meat exported 
up to the end of June, and afloat, reached one million pounds 
sterling. Already, thanks to this beneficent traffic, our working 
man is able to provide meat for his family three or four times aa 
often in the week as he could have done before this importation 
of a commodity so cheap in the colonies that both in Australia 
and New Zealand thousands of sheep are skinned and boiled 
down merely for tallow, their flesh being absolutely thrown 
away ! 

Secondly, New Zealand is an agricultural colony Both its 
wheat and oats are well known in the markets of the world 
for their very excellent quality and weight. The Hawke's 
Bay district grows, in some years, the high average of 
37 bushels of wheat to^ the acre, and the Wellington district 
grows (1890) 36 bushels of oats to the acre. The total value of 
the cereals (wheat, oats, barley, and malt) exported during the 
year ending 30th June, 1889, was £970,659. 

The forests of the colony afibrd millions of feet of most useful 
timber. The special timber of New Zealand is the kauri pine 
{Dammara Australia), which now grows only in the northern 
half of the North Island, and is becoming scarcer year by year» 

Digitized by 


28 The Joumcfl of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

Its tough, silky, durable wood, capable of taking a high polish, 
is much in demand for house-building, small sailing vessels, and 
furniture. ' Of this, besides other timber, the value of £176,608 
was exported in 1889. 

Kauri gum, which is greatly in demand in England and 
America for coach varnish, is another specialitv of this colony. 
It is the amber-like gum-resin that has exuded in past ages 
from the kauri pine, and is found underground by digging 
beneath the sites of former kauri forests. In 1888 no less than 
£380,900 worth was exported. 

The native flax or nemp {Phormium tenax), a plant which 
grows like a common weed throughout all damp places in 
the colony, is now so successfully manufactured into ropes, 
mats, twine, &c. (after many failures arising from the gummy 
nature of the leaf fibre), that its export has more than quadru- 

Eled in the last two years, the value of the export for 1889 
aving been £361,182. During that year there were 246 flax 
mills in operation, employing 4,804 hands. 

Thirdly, New Zealand is a mining and manufacturing country. 
Gkild is foimd in almost every district, though not always in 
paying quantities, and the Government tax of 2s. ^er ounce 
forms in some years a considerable item on the right side of the 
colonial Exchequer. Sometimes, as in a new goldfield I visited 
in the Coromandel district of the Thames peninsula, the gold 
deposit is so near the surface that fine grains of it can be picked 
out of the soil by hand ; but a good deal of the gold in the North 
Island is found in hard and often refractory ores. Up to the 
end of 1889 no less than £44,000,000 m value of gold had been 
produced from New Zealand sources. 

Silver, copper, quicksilver, antimony, and manffanese are 
also found in various parta Large deposits of tin have been 
latelv discovered in the South or Stewart's Island. 

Coal is abundant in New Zealand. From its 130 coal-mines 
are now turned out about 600,000 tons of good steam and house- 
hold coal every year. Lignite and petroleum are also found in 

Iron exists in immense quantities, in the curious form of 
titanic iron-sand (72 ^er cent of iron blended with titanium, 
mechanically mixed with 28 per cent of siliceous sand), along 
the shores of the Auckland and Taranaki districts, and in the 
common forms of hematite and chrome-iron ore in several places 
in the Middle Island. After proving an expensive crux to 
capitalists for years, at last, in 1889, Messrs. Minett and Jones 
succeeded in working this iron-sand into malleable bars. 

Good building-stone is found eYerywhere ; lime is abundant. 
A huge cliff of " Carrara " marble, 80 feet high, and of 800 acres 
in area, has been recently discovered near Nelson. I could 
enumerate quite a long list of other minerals and deposits of 

Digitized by 


The New Zealand of To-day. 29 

economic value, and fresh discoveries are continually being 
made. But capital, employed with intelligence and integrity, 
is much required for the development of these productions. 

The Annual Industrial Exhibitions held in the four chief 
cities (Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin) afford 
opportunities not given to many English towns for the display 
of new inventions, products, ana newly-discovered materials for 
manu&cture. The great number, variety, and good finish of 
articles of food and clothing, of carpets, woollen goods, and 
household matters, all made within the colony, astonish the 
stranger. So inventive are the New Zealand colonists, encou- 
raged, as the inventor is, by the cheapness of the process of 
legal patenting, that the number of patents issued per head of 
the population exceeds that of the United States, though the 
Americans have hitherto been considered the most inventive 
nation in the world. 

Great Britain sends two-thirds of the imports received by 
New Zealand, and receives more than two-thirds of her exports. 
In 1889 the total value of our trade with the colony was esti- 
mated at £10,726,000. 

New Zealand has indeed been passing through a grievous 
financial and business depression smce 1885; but now, under 
the wise and economical management of her affairs by Sir Harry 
Atkinson and his colleagues, her financial position is being 
righted, and confidence in her securities restored. In place of 
an annually-recurring deficit, the colonial Premier was enabled 
last year (1889-90) to announce an actual surplus of £115,000. 
The trade of the colony during the same period nad so vigorously 
revived that the exports exceeded the imports by no less a sum 
than £3,500,000 — always a good sign. The revenue of New 
Zealand averages four millions a year, chiefly derived from 
excise and customs duties, the only direct Government tax being 
the property tax of one penny in the £ on everything one pos- 
sesses above the sum of £500. Thus the working man escapes 
all direct taxation. 

Possessing still above thirty million acres of land for sale or 
lease, 1,900 miles of railway, 5,000 miles of telegraph, 9,000 miles 
of road, 800 bridges, profitable postal and telephonic services, 
valuable public buildings, waterworks and harbour-works, having 
among its citizens (in 1889) 100,000 thrifty men and women, who 
possessed two and a half million pounds sterling in the Govern- 
ment and other savings banks, the colonv of New Zealand is not 
only perfectly solvent but is now on the way to a prosperity 
more solid and lasting than that which Sir Julius Yogel forced 
upon her from 1870 to 1884 by the rapid and too lavish expen- 
diture of borrowed money. I allude, of course, to the public 
works and immigration policy upon which that astute financier 
was floated into office in 1870, 1873, and 1876. The absolute 

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so The Journal of the Mcmchester Oeographical Society. 

necessaries of life— com, meat, milk, eggs, &c — ^are wholly 
untaxed, and the semi-necessaries, such as tea, coffee, cocoa, 
sugar, and salt, are but lightl^r taxed. Upon luxuries and all 
imported manufetctures the tariff is heavy — ^from 15 to 25 per 


Social life in New Zealand is freer, less conventional, and 
more full of leisure and recreation than at home. The climate 
is conducive to outdoor sports, and the eight-hour dav of 
labour allows so much leisure that the games of Old England 
are played with an ardour and persistence unknown to the 
toUing masses here. In Auckland alone, with a population, 
including suburbs and the other side of the Waitemata Harbour, 
of 60,000, we had no less than 50 clubs or associations for 
cricket, football, tennis, bowls, athletics, boating, yachting, and 
such like. The mayor of a town in New Zealand, being elected 
•directljr by the ratepayers (as in the United States), does not 
like to incur unpopularity by refusing a holiday or half-holiday 
on the occasion of a visit from an English or colonial cricket or 
football team, inconvenient though it often was in Auckland, 
when such a visit happened to fall upon the monthly " mail day." 

There is much spontaneous and informal hospitality shown 
to strangers, and much inter-neighbourly good-iellowship. It 
is well for neighbours to live on good terms with one another, if 
cnly for one reason, and that is, the deplorable frequency of 
fires, for the towns are built of wood, as a rule. Of late years, 
American recreations have been introduced into New Zealand, 
such as roller-skating, moonlight riding parties, ''surprises," 
calico balls, and so on. Nor am I acquainted with any country 
where "presentations" are so frequent and liberal. 

New Zealand is emphatically a musical colony. Almost 
every house or cottage contains a piano, harmonium, or violin, 
sjid some performer upon one or other or all of these instru- 
ments. Some surprise and gratification was expressed by the 
Right Hon. Lord Sandhurst, who, in company with my friend, 
Ohief Justice Way, of South Australia, called on me, en paeaard, 
at finding a number of Auckland vouths practising Mendelssohn's 
part songs with me. He had thought that the public-houses 
and billiard-rooms would have absorbed their eveninga But 
there is a widespread desire for culture and self-improvement 
among young colonials, and I have always done my best to foster 
it. In Art, again, there is so much talent displa^red in the pic- 
tures of amateurs shown at the Annual Art Exhibitions in the 
four chief cities, that I am certain that if ever Macaulay's New 
Zealander should sit upon a broken arch of London Bridge and 
sketch the ruins of St. Paul's, he would execute an uncommonly 
good drawing ! 

Digitized by 


The New ZeaJLamd of To-day. 31 


Religion is not trammelled in New Zealand by the State 
endowment and establishment of any one church. All Pro- 
testant denominations co-operate with harmony in their work of 
providing for the spiritual and moral wants of the nation and 
the support of their poor. The bishops of the Episcopal Church 
of New Zealand, founded by that great and good man, Bishop 
Selwyn, are real working clergymen, and some of them are 
liberal enoiogh to invite Nonconformists to preach in their 
churches. Ineed not trouble you with details of the census of 
religions, taken in 1886, further than to state that four-fifths, in 
round numbers, of the population were Protestants, and of these 
one-half were Episcopalians, one-fourth Presbyterians, and one- 
tenth Methodists. 


The public education system upon which New Zealand 

E rides herself, spending nearly £400,000 per annum upon it, is 
■ee, absolutely secular, compulsory, and of excellent quality. 
It has, in my humble opinion, but one blemish, and that is the 
total exclusion from all public schools of Bible reading and of 
any religious observance or instruction during school hours. 
As colonial parents are careless on this matter in their homes, 
and as denominational schools cannot exist in competition with 
the public free schools, the young colonials grow up r^ardless 
of any higher principle than their own advancement, profit, or 
pleasure, and develop that lawless spirit of what is termed 
" larrikinism," which will give (nay, is even now giving) serious 
trouble in the future. The school age is from 7 to 13 years. By 
an excellent sjrstem of graduated free scholarships, a clever boy 
or girl, even if the parents are very poor, may rise from a 
primarv to a high school, and thence to the University College, 
where he can be trained for a degree, with little or no expense. 
As the very numerous daily and weekly newspapers are read 
by every man, woman, and child, the New Zealanders are well 
informed on both local and imperial affairs. Their mental 
itctivity is shown by the amount of correspondence with Oreat 
Britain, America, and other parts of the world, the large demand 
for home literature, and so on, which, considering the smallness 
of the population, assume enormous dimensions. The reduction 
this year (1891) of the letter postage from sixpence to twopence 
halfpenny, for which the colonists nave to thank Mr. Henniker- 
Heaton, the fluent advocate of " ocean penny postage," has been 
A successful move in binding the colony still closer to the old 
country. If I am addressing any parents who have sons out 
in New Zealand, I would urge upon them the great importance 

Digitized by 


32 The Journal of the Mcmcheder Geographical Society. 

of writing often to their children, for a father's or mother's 
loving letter has the greatest influence, in many instances, in 
preventing a youth from going wrong. 


While there is a good deal of rough street rowdyism, called 
" larrikinism," after dark, in the towns of the colony, there is not 
much serious crime in the colony, even among the Maoris, to 
whom, until thoroughly Christianised, utu, or revenge (" a life 
for a life," &c.) and muru, or plunder, in lieu of compensation, 
were legitimate and proper proceedings. For a full ana accurate 
description of these customs, and of Maori life generally, I refer 
you to the " Old New Zealand " of Judge Maning. 

A murder sends a thrill of horror throughout the whole 
colony. Though drunken assaults on women and children are 
not infrequent in New Zealand, they are not of every-day and 
unnoticed occurrence as in England. Five hundred policemen 
only keep the whole population, including the Maoris, spread 
over more than 100,000 square miles of country, in order, peace^ 
and security to life and property. This proportion of one con- 
stable to 1,270 citizens contrasts rather strongly with our home 
arrangement, which gives one policeman to 5y 1 persons. 


I do not wish my audience to conclude, from what I have 
stated, that there are no destitute poor in New Zealand. There 
are many poor invalids who have to make a living for themselves, 
many deserted wives with families, and many^ educated men 
who have lost their positions at home through intemperance or 
other vices. There are no workhouses or casual wards as yet^ 
but for all really necessitous cases there is plenty of outdoor 
relief, wisely and kindly administered by Gh)vemment officials, 
who work in co-operation with the benevolent societies of each 
city, and the hospital and charitable-aid boards of each county, 
Befuges are provided for the incurable sick and hopelessly 
infirm. There is nothing in New Zealand, thank God, at aU 
approaching to the dense weight of pauperism {*' the submerged 
tenth ") which exists in Britam. In fact, there is no " pauper 
class " in the colony, and I devoutly hope that there never will 
be. " Work for all, and everyone able and willing to work," is 
the colonial motto. It is true that hundreds of utmilies in the 
colony are just earning sufiScient for the necessaries of life, and 
are unable to lay by for a rainy day, owing to the uncertain 
state of the labour-market, compulsory strikes, &c., but no man, 
woman, or child need starve in New Zealand so long as there 

Digitized by 


The New ZedUmd of To-day , 88 

are oysters on the rocks, fish in the sea, and kauri gum to be 
dug up from the ground. 


The laws, which are modelled after those of England, with 
many additions and improvements, are both just and humane ; 
and are administered by honest judges, impartially, to rich and 
poor alike. Litigation is more simple and less costly than at 
nome. As far as Acts of Parliament can effect the purpose, 
New Zealanders are compelled to be honest, moral, and sober, 
legally. In fact, the New Zealand Houses of Parliament are 
sometimes accused of *' ^andmotherly legislation." But surely 
the Socialist reformer would be happy in New Zealand, for 
there every "point " in the charter and all the most advanced 
Liberal doctrmes (except Free Trade) are carried into 
practice. Triennial parliaments, manhood suffrage, pajrment of 
all representatives, responsibility of ministers direct to the 
electors, and so forth, are all in fiill swing in New Zealand. Also 
you may marry the sister of your deceased wife (if it is any 
comfort to you !) in New Zealand. 


This cause, under the leadership of my veteran friend and 
neighbour. Sir William Fox, in former years three times Premier 
of uie colonjr, has gained greatly of late years in New Zealand. 
Local option is now in force over the whole colony, and I have 
myself witnessed the great improvement in the streets of 
Auckland, and the marked decrease in police offences since ten 
o'clock week-night and entire Sunday closing were adopted. As 
a striking proof of the increased sobriety of the citizens of this 
type of a New Zealand city, let me tell you the remarkable and 
gratifying fact that on the day after the general parliamentary 
election of November, 1890, there was not a single person brought 
up before the magistrates for intoxication. Life and limb are 
better protected, and property safer from thieves, than in manj 
countries of much olaer settlement. Householders lock their 
doors and leave home for a day, two days, or even longer, and 
return to find everything safe and untouched. This trustful 
conduct would scarcely do in any English town. If a strai^r 
dies in the colony without relations or friends, his effects are 
promptly and carefully taken charge of by the public trustee, 
who executes the will, if there is one, or, if the deceased died 
intestate, distributes the property to any persons who can prove 
their right of inheritance in any part of the world, the Govern- 
ment deducting merely five per cent for the expense. 

The working man in New Zealand has abundant leisure for 
the cultivation of his garden-patch and the improvement of his 

Digitized by 


84 The Jaumal of the Momcheeter Oeographical Society. 

mind. Afi a rule, he owns his own house and allotment. 
Mechanics' Institutes and Free Public Libraries abound in the 
colony, even in the smallest towna The ideal of the Chartist — 

Eight hours' work, eight hours' pUy, 
Eight hours' sleep, and eight bob a day — 

is even ex.ceeded, for in some handicrafts the waees are nine 
and ten shillings a day. But it is to be remembered that just as 
"high interest" means "doubtful security," so "high wages" 
means " inconstant employment." There arises a break in the 
demand for a certain class of labour ; and a man may have Uy 
leave wife, feimily, and home, and travel .500 or 600 miles ta 
find a new job, or may have to journey to Australia to procure 
employment. The fares by sea are far too high, compared with 
our Atlantic fares, because of the monopoly of inter-colonial 
trade by the Union S.S. Co. Trades unions are powerful in the 
Australasian colonies, but somehow or other the employers 
generally triumph in the end by vigorous and intelligent co- 
operation. New Zealand offers a welcome, like the parent 
country, to all foreigners who conform to the laws. The children 
of Israel, concerning whom there is so much stir just now, are 
in good positions everywhere. But New Zealand, following the 
lead of her neighbours, draws the line at the Chinaman, npon 
whom she levies a tax of £10 when he enters the colony, xhis 
tax does not prevent the influx of Celestials, and market gar- 
dening, laundrywork, and the mining of certain poor distncts 
(unremunerative to the European), are falling into their handis. 
But New Zealand ought not to be crowded with foreigners, 
whether Eastern or Western. This grand country is better 
adapted to the constitution, habits, and pursuits of Britons than 
any other Southern Pacific possession, and it is its glorious 
destiny, 1 hope and trust, to become the happy home of millions, 
of our own race. 


As all assistance to emigrants on the part of the Govern- 
ment has ceased, on account of the enforced economy found 
requisite to rehabilitate its finances, the intending emigrant 
must very carefully ascertain what his prospects are of employ- 
ment, and of taking up land, farming, &c., before he selects this 
colony as his new home. As I keep always in touch with the 
Agent-General for New Zealand (my friend Sir Francis Dillon 
Bell) and with the Emigrants' Information Office (31, Broadway,. 
Westminster, S.W.), I am enabled to give the latest information 
on these points. The chief present requirement of this colony 
is for practical farmers with a capital of from £600 upward. The 
land laws are simple and excellent. My eighth chapter gives 

Digitized by 


The New Zealand of To-day. 


a summary of them. A man with £500 remaining after purchase 
of 100 acres of first-class land in a good agricultural district, say 
Taranaki, can comfortably clear, fence, and stock his farm, build 
a small house, and maintain his family imtil his produce was 
marketable. In poorer districts, sucn as Otago (interior) or 
Southland, a man could fairly start on 200 acres, with a capital 
of £300, if he took up the land on " deferred ipayment, by 
which he would become possessor at the end oi ten years by 
paying 2s. per acre per anniun, or a perpetual lease at Is. per 
acre per annum. Thus a first experiment has been made in 
New Zealand, by this latter system, of land nationalisation. 

There is now a good demand for sober, hard-working agri- 
cultural labourers in most districts of the colony. As the 
demand for special kinds of labour vary month by month, the 
quarterly circulars issued by the Emigration Office must be 
studied. But I am safe in stating that at the present time 
(June, 1891) there is a demand for hush-fellers in Taranaki and 
North Auckland, for miners in Otago, and for female domestic 
servants in all parts of the colony. How happy " Mary Jane " 
is, or may be, in New Zealand may be guessed by the comical 
way in which the following bona-fide advertisement from the 
Auckland Evening Star turns the tables upon mistresses: 
" Situation wanted — To take charge of a laundry or dairy. 
Advertiser can cook, and understands housekeeping. None but 
a respectable mistress, who wishes to leave tier servant in 
uninttTrrwpted discharge of her duties, need, apply!" The wages 
of domestics range from two-thirds to two-and-a-half times the 
average English rates for the same kind of service. 

Tnere is no demand in New Zealand at present for clerks, 
shop assistants, or dressmakers. The clerical, legal, medical, 
and educational professions are fully stocked, only the highest 
appointments being filled up in England by the Agent-General. 
All employes in New Zealand have to work harder in the hours- 
of labour, and to do a greater variety of things, than in England, 
where duties lie in ^oovea But once he obtains a stable situa- 
tioli, the employ^ will have shorter hours of work, better pay, 
better food, more personal independence, and the speedier 
attainment of a home than he could have in this crowaed old 
country. It is certain that Britain has too much population for 
her comfort, and that New Zealand has teo little for her develop- 
ment. Capable as this colony is of sustaining twenty millions 
of people, its wonderful growth during its first half-century, and 
the energy and hopefulness of its inhabitants, inspire me with 
the belief that in tne course of a generation New Zealand will 
be at the head of the new Australian Confederation. 

The lecturer then proceeded to exhibit, describe, and explain 
the following views of New Zealand, selected from his collection : 
Map of the colony, showing the four climatic zones, as first 

Digitized by 


36 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

•described and diflferentiated by the author of " New Zealand for 
the Emigrant, &c/* The Waitemata Harbour of Auckland. 
The city of Auckland, lookmg N.W. from Albert Park. The 
Tree Public Library of Auckland, which cost £40.000, and has 
an annual income of £1,600. Portrait of Sir George Grey, 
K.C.B., the " G. O. M." of New Zealand, who has been Governor 
of the colony twice, and Premier once, and the founder of the 
free constitution of the colonjr in all its essential principles 
(1862). He is now (1891) in his 80th year, and by far the most 
impressive orator in New Zealand. The Auckland residence, 
built of concrete, of Sir William Fox, K.C.M.G., erstwhile Pre- 
mier of the colony three times, now retired from politics, but an 
ardent leader of the Temperance movement, being president of 
the New Zealand Branch of the United Kingdom Alhance. The 
oldest stone (compact scoria) church in New Zealand, an object 
of interest as having been built by Bishop Selwyn and his 
assistants in early times, at Remuera, near Auckland. A 
. settler's cottage in the forest of Waitakerei. The Nikau palm, 
the pith of which is edible, and other forest vegetation. A giant 
kauri pine tree, 120ft. high, and 47ft. in circumference. A 
" corduroy road " in the bush, made of stems of tree ferns and 
of ti-tree laid transversely across the path. The Falls of 
Waitakerei, 300ft. high, a lovely bush scene 20 miles from 
Auckland. The town of Devonport, on the north shore of the 
Waitemata, the favourite seaside residence of Auckland mer- 
• chants. Hotel and hot springs of Waiwera, 30 miles north of 
Auckland. City* of Napier (8,800 population), capital of 
Hawke's Bay district. 


Dr. Moore showed a map of the volcanic zone of the North 
Island, covering 4,700 square miles of country, on which the 
following scenes and places are situated: Wairakei Geysers, 
near Lake Taupo ; the Wai-o-tapu (Sacred River) Valley, show- 
ing mud volcanoes ; the crater of Ngauruahoe, still active, 7,481 
feet above sea level ; Grovemment Sanatorium at Lake Botorua ; 
Wairoa, before and after the eruption of Mount Tarawera, June 
10th, 1886 ; the White and Pink Terraces (now destroyed) ; new 
craters of Rotomahana and Okaro ; the Great Rift in Tarawera 
Mountain, and other phenomena of the great outbreak. 

Having been requested by the Secretary to give some 
account of the Tarawera Eruption in the course of his lecture. 
Dr. Moore gave the following (condensed) exposition of that 
remarkable event: Geologists are nearly all agreed that the 
islands forming the colony of New Zealand have been upheaved 
from the bed of the ocean in Eocene times, but that the North 
/Island has appeared above the surface rather later, perhaps 

Digitized by 


The New Zealand of To-day. 87 

during the tertiary period. One-third of its area consists of 
rhyolitic and basaltic rocks, and over a surface of 10,700 square 
mUes we find blocks of pumice and of obsidian varying from a 
thousand cubic feet down to the size of a pea. It is within this 
area that all the remaining volcanic activities exist. Lake 
Taupo, a grand sheet of water, 35 miles across, 1,280 feet above 
sea level, doubtless covers the sites of several extinct craters, 
and is surrounded by the still-smoking Ngauruahoe, Ruapehu 
(8,878 feet), Tongariro, and five other extinct volcanoes at some 
distance. The long axis of this zone runs from N.E. to S.W., 
and it is in this direction that the earthquake waves run, and 
that the great rift in Tarawera and the country S.W. of the 
mountain was made by the outbreak which I shall describe. 
To show the immense volcanic activity that ages since existed 
north of this zone, I show you here a map of the isthmus of 
Auckland (a bird's-eye view), on which Dr. Hochstetter counted 
63 distinct craters within ten miles of the city. When driving 
in the neighbourhood of Aucklaifd, I was often struck with the 
hollow rumbling sound made by my carriage, marking the 
position of air caverns formed maderneath the ridges of rapidly- 
cooled and solidified lava over which I was being driven. Tne 
very name of the volcanic island I showed you near Auckland 
Harbour, Raugitoto, means "bloody sky,' whence it is just 
possible to deduce the theory that some manifestations may 
nave taken place there in far-back times when the Maoris first 
arrived in New Zealand. But strict geological laws are against 
this supposition, and the name may have been brought from 
their primitive seat by the Maoris, and given to the island 
which most nearly resembled the original in that distant group 
from whence they came. . Be this as it may, there is no district 
in the whole colony so ifree from seismic and volcanic distur- 
bances of any kind as that which extends from Papakura and 
Drury northward to Cape Reinga. 

Mount Tarawera (3,650ft.), on the eastern shore of the lake 
of that name, is of igneous origin, but possessed no trace of a 
crater previous t j the day of the eruption. I passed the moun- 
tain in 1880, when visiting these exquisite terraces I now show 
you, and noticed that it resembled Table Mountain at the Cape 
of Good Hope. Two Maori settlements, Te Ariki and Te Moura, 
nestled at its foot, and the small Lake Rotomahana, on the 
borders of which the terraces of sinter had been formed, was 
about a mile from the nearest part of its bit)ad base. The village 
of Wairoa is about four miles from its summit, and the half- 
European, half-Maori town of Ohinemutu is distant sixteen 
miles. Suddenly, without any definite premonitory signs, at 
2 a.m. on the 10th June, 1886, amid earthquakes, a roaring 
noise, and a tempest of wind,' three enormous columns of fire 
and smoke shot up from the flat summit of Tarawera, and in an 

Digitized by 


38 The JovumcLL of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

hour three conical craters were formed — ^Wahanga, Ruawahia, 
smd Tarawera, each 130 to 150 feet in height. Eye*witnesses tell 
me that it was the most awful sight they had seen, or ever expect 
to see, on this side of eternity. Fireballs in great numbers were 
fihot out of these craters to an immense height, and descended 
on the Maori settlements and on Wairoa, killing some inhabi- 
tants and setting the grass huts of others, called wharea, on fire. 
In a short time the vdlcanic dust, which in enormous quantities 
had been projected into the air, fell in the form of mud, over- 
whelming Wairoa, and covering the country for many square 
miles round with a layer of from one to six feet deep. ^By these 
destructive agencies of the eruption, 111 lives — 105 Maoris and 
6 Europeans — were lost. Here you see, in the views of Wairoa 
before and after the eruption, what terrible damage was caused. 
It was in the fall of Macrae's Hotel that young Edwin Bain- 
bridge, a tourist from Newcastle-on-Tyne, was Killed. From 
one of the native huts an old priest, or tohvmga, of the Maoris, 
aged 104 years, was dug out, alive, after four days' entombment. 
He died in the hospital shortly afterwards. The ruins of the 
schoolmaster's house, where Mr. Haszard and three of his 
children perished, Mrs. Haszard escaping most miraculously, 
form a melancholy reminiscence of that good man, whose noble 
gospel and temperance work among the natives will last for 
eternity. In tne physical features of the country S.W. of 
Tarawera Mountain great and permanent changes took 
place. The Terraces utterly disappeared from view. Lake 
Kotomahana was converted into an immense steam geyser, 
-and a rift in the side of Mount Tarawera, extending through 
this crater, runs S.W. for nine miles, varying in width from a 
furlong to 1 J mile, and in depth from 300 to 900 feet. The 
mud and pumiceous sand were by the winter's rains of July and 
August, 1886, washed into the ground, or into the rivers, the 
result being that, though for the first two or three weeks hun- 
dreds of cattle and sheep perished from being deprived of grass, 
in the following spring there was better pasture than before on 
the poorer land. We in Auckland, 140 miles distant, distinctly 
heard the explosive noises of the eruption, and three dajs later 
actually saw the black cloud of ashes in the sky, which was 
carriea up to a calculated height of 44,700 feet, and spread in 
all directions by the winds and clouds. Had the Tarawera 
eruption occurred in |pmmer, there would have been a terrible 
loss of life among the visitors, who in ever-increasing numbers, 
year by year, had made the tour of the terraces, geysers, and 
other volcanic wonders. 

The Middle Island is devoid of volcanic but not of seismic 
manifestations, for, though the only traces of the former aro 
found in the hot springs of Hanmer rlains and at Sumner Lske, 
the earthquakes occur too frequently to be pleasant in Nelson, 

Digitized by 


The New Zealand of To-day. 89 

Christchurch, Dunedin, and Invercargill. The rocks of this 
island and of the South or Stewart's Island consist of gneiss, 
granite, quartzite, clay, slate, micaceous schists, and, speaking 
generally, of older formations than those of the North. Coal 
beds are found in all the islands, the most extensive being on 
the west coast of Middle Island, at Westport, Greymouth, and 

Dr. Moore then exhibited some Maori portraits — "King" 
Tawhiao, Chiefs Wi Marsh, ELawiti, and others. Also Te Kooti's 
house, with native-carved posts, rafters, and a totem on the 

fable end ; Maori girls in European dress ; the Maori *' capital," 
^arihaka, at the foot of Mount Egmont, in Taranaki. The 
scenes in the "King," or till lately disaffected, country 
selected were — the Waitomo Stalactite Caves, near Otorohauga, 
and the exquisitely lovely FaUs of Te Kakahi, on the Upper 
Wanganui Kiver. 

The Main Trunk Railway of the North Island will 
open up much wild and romantic scenery to the tourist, 
and tap some valuable mineral deposits and coal-beds. It is 
now the one great public work left unfinished, for the want of 
funds, in the North Island. The Manawatu Gorge, the prettiest 
valley of the North Island, through which the last link of rail 
connecting Napier with New Plymouth and Wellington will 
run. Views of the cities of Wellington, Christchurch, and 
Dunedin ; of Lake Wakatipu, the largest lake of the Middle 
Island ; of Mount Eamslaw (9.100ft.) ; and of the West Coast 
Sounds — Dusky Sound, George Sound, and the culminating 
glory of all of them, Milford Sound (seven views)— concluded 
the address. 

Tliacker'8 Reduced Survey Map of India. By J. G. Bartholomew, 

F.K.G.a With Index. 1891. W. Thacker and Ca, London ; Thacker, Spink and O0.8 
Calcutta. — ^This is an accurate reduction of the Ordnance Survey of India to the scale of 
69 miles to an inch. The map has been corrected to date ; political and other changes 
are shown ; the last frontier and geographic surveys have been used. The spelling of 
the place names is according to Sir W. W. Hunter^s system in his "Imperial Gaeetteer." 
There are about 10,000 names on the map, and their places are indicated in the 
Index. There are several inset maps. 

Unerowded Atlas. By T. Ruddiman Johnston, F.R.G.S. Standards IL, III., 
IV., v., VL, VII. Price from 8d. to 6d. eensL 

Bible Ailas. By Tr Ruddiman Johnson, F.RG.8. 19 maps and pictures of 
Tabernacle. 6d. Published by Ruddiman Johnston and Ck>. Limited. 

The T11Hift.11 Popular Atlas. 24 coloured maps and 2 diagrams. Six of these 
maps are of portions of India, and the atlas is laigely used in India, la. 
W. OoUins and Son, London. 

The Unerowded Atlases are capital. With broad effects they are just the thing 
wanted for young childreo, giving the main facts without troubling them with minute 
details. The Bible Atlas is useful. The Indian Atlas is capital It also is not over- 
erowded with names ; the printing is very dear, and the maps of India are remark- 
ably well done for a cheap atlas. 

Digitized by 


40 The J(mmdL of the Mcmoheeter Geographical Society. 


By Mb. F. H. BALFOUR. 

[Addreeaed to the Members, in the Memorial Hall, Wednesday, March 4th, 1891, 

at 7-80 p.m.] 

I CRAVE permission to begin my paper this evening with an 
expression of regret. I cannot help feeling sorry that, with 
such a subject as the one before us, you will not enjoy the 
advantage of being addressed by one of the two or three scholars 
now in China who possess almost a monopoly of all that is 
known about it. The gentlemen I refer to have acquired their 
experience from long-continued personal familiarity with the 
members of secret societies themselves, and that not in the 
semi-foreign treaty ports, but far away in the interior, prin- 
cipally, I believe, in the province of Shantung, where they have 
had the best possible oj)portunities of gaining the confidence of 
the Chinese and obtaining an insight into the mysteries of their 
social and domestic life. These are advantages to which I can, 
unfortunately, make but slender claim, and tne most I can hope 
to do this evening is so to excite your interest in the curious 
phenomenon about which I have, perhaps presumptuously, 
undertaken to speak, that you may deem it worth your while, 
on some future occasion, to seek fuller, trustworthier, and more 
recent details respecting it from the experts to whom I have 

Now it is a well-known fact that there are a large number of 
secret societies in China, which exert considerable influence 
upon all who are in any way connected with them, and are 
regarded with much suspicion and distrust by the Government. 
The fact of the Tai-p'ing rebellion having had its origin in a 
religious movement causes the authorities to be very jealous of 
any sect or con^egation of men professing doctrines at variance 
with the recognised creeds known as Comucianism, Buddhism, 
and Taoism. The existence of such schismatics is a source of 
real and constant anxiety to the Government, and is considered, 
with or without just cause, dangerous to the general jpeaoe and 
welfare of the Empire. The societies, in point of tact, exist 
throi^hout the length and breadth of the land, and date from 
an epoch long prior to the amalgamation of the countnr under 
a single Crown. The secrecy of their operations, which, of course. 

Digitized by 


Secret Societisa in China. 41 

forms the principal barrier to inquiry, is no less remarkable 
for the stringency of its observance than for the success which 
its inviolable nature insures whenever any widespread political 
movement has been brought about. Their name is practically 
legion ; but whether they are all separate and independent 
associations, or merely ramifications of one great body, has, I 
believe, never been accurately ascertained. For our present 
purpose, however, they may be roughly divided into two- 
categories — the political and the quasi-religious. Both are 
infusidd with mysticism — in some cases attractive enough, in 
others degenerating into the most paltry hocus-pocus ; so that, 
while the tenets of any given political sect are sure to be " veiled 
in allegory and illustrated by s^bols," it would be a great 
mistake to see a political conspiracy in every association of 
religious or quasi-religious sectaries. The Government, however, 
wages war against all alike. Men who are not satisfied with the 
teachings of Confucius must have something wrong about them ; 
they form a disturbing element in the body politic ; and their 
revolt against a system of ethics that has held sway in China 
for at least 4,000 years — ^for Confucius was only a transmitter, 
not an originator — is held to presuppose a tendency to revolt 
against the powers of whom Confucius was himself a loyal and 
consistent supporter. Besides, the Master denounced the study 
of strange doctrines as " injurious indeed," and this one sentence 
from the Analects is constantly appealed to as authority for the 
persecution of the sects. '' He is no disciple of mine ; my little 
children, beat the drum and assail him," said Confucius on 
another occasion ; and this, I may remark, has actually been 
appealed to by the ringleader of a mob in justification of a raid 
upon the premises of a European missionary. We need not, 
then, be surprised at what we find upon this point in the Penal 
Code. The clause I refer to denounces magicians who raise evil 
spirits by means of magical books and dire imprecations, leaders 
of corrupt and impious sects, and members of all superstitious 
associations in {general. All are held offenders against the laws 
by their diabolical doctrines and practices. The leaders of such 
societies are liable to death. by strangulation, while all persons 
w'ho, without being related or connected by intermarriage, 
establish a brotherhood or association among themselves by tne 
ceremonial of tasting blood or burning incense, shall be held 
guilty of an intent to commit the crime of rebellion. 

I will now give a few particulars of some of the more im- 
portant of the proscribed sects, and in doing this I shall be com- 
pelled to have more or less recourse to my own published 
writings on the subject. We will begin with the great jpolitical 
confecferacy, the most formidable and widespread, perhaps, ot 
any, known as the T'ien Ti, and sometimes as the San Ho, Hui 
the Heaven-and-Earth, or Triad, Society. This may fairly claim 

Digitized by 


42 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

to rank with the ancient craft of Freemasonry in the west, in 
point of power and extensiveness ; while there are so many 
features of similarity, and such striking analogies between 
the two as to afford strong evidence in favour of the belief of 
certain writers that the two sj^stems had a common origin. For 
not only is the highest antiquity claimed for the Triad Society 
by its members, but evervtning that is known about it goes to 
prove that its political and revolutionary character is of a recent 
and accidental nature. The mystic doctrines it embodies are 
cosmogonical and moral ; but these, if we understand the matter 
aright, have undergone important modification during the last 
two hundred years, and been twisted into concrete forms foreign 
to their primary significance. It is scarcely to be expected that 
within the limits of such a paper as this I should attempt to 
enter upon an elaborate analysis of so obscure a subject ; but 
there are a few salient features about it which are sufficiently 
interesting to deserve notice, both as regards the close relation- 
ship of tne occult doctrine with the principles of the Masonic 
<;raft, and its subsequent development in the oirection of political 

As I have already remarked, the society bears two names. 
It is sometimes known as the Society of Heaven and Earth, and 
sometimes as the San Ho sect ; and it is in the second designa- 
tion that a certain difficulty has arisen. The fact is that the 
Bound ho is frequently represented by the character for river, 
and the phrase, as thus written, is said to be simply the name 
of the place where the league is said to have origmated. But 
this is the league in its lesser and more popular sense — ^the 
Hsiao Hui, or retty League, as it is called. The Greater League, 
which is contained in the principle of Heaven, is written with 
the character for harmony, and refers to the Three-fold Harmony 
formed by Heaven, Earth, and Man, from which the sect derives 
its other designation. The more esoteric teachings of the faith 
iire intimately allied with those of the earliest philosophers, both 
Indian and Chinese, and deal almost exclusively with the gene- 
ration of the Cosmos. The mystic union of the three great 
forms or principles of beiqg is expressed by the Masonic symbol 
of a triangle, which, according to the analysis we find m the 
standard Chinese etymological dictionary, consists of the cha- 
racter ju — to enter or penetrate (forming the two sides) — and 
the character i— one (forming the base) — the combination of 
the two in the perfect triangle meaning, therefore, Three Blended 
into One. The object of the cult was, primarily, the discovery 
of the pure light — ^Ming— or truth. And here again we are 
curiously reminded of Freemasonry. In details, however, the 
resemblance is still more striking ; and I beg your attention to 
the following catechism, which is regularly rehearsed at the 
opening of a Triad lodge. It is translated from one of the 

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Secret Societies in China, 43 

authorised books of the League, and quoted by Gustav 
Schlegel : — 

How high, brother, is the lodge 1 — As high as one's eyes can reach. 

How broad, brother) — As broad as the two capites and thirteen 
provinces (the whole empire — the world). 

Whence come you, brother ) — I come from the East. 

At what time did you come hither 1 — I came at sunrise, when the 
East was light 

Whither are you bound t — I wish to go where .1 can join the 
myriad brethren. 

The lodge is square, and perfectly oriented ; while the East, as 
a source of light, is sacred. On entering the lodffe the candi- 
date is received at the point of a sword, directed against his 
uncovered breast, and is dressed in linen or cotton clothes of 
white. He has to take thirty-six oaths in all, and to undergo 
the ceremony known as Crossing the Bridge — in other words, of 
passing under an arch of steel formed of crossed swords ; while 
at a certain stage of the proceedings a cock's head is cut off, 
with the imprecation — "Thus perish all who betray our 

It was in or about the year 1630— just before the revolution 
which resulted in the fall of the Ming dynasty and the acces- 
sion of the Manchus — that the T'ieu Ti Hui assumed a political 
character. A century later, during the reign of Y<ing Ch6ng, 
the vigilance of the authorities was aroused, and the members 
were compelled to exercise the utmost caution ; while in the 
reign of Kia King their activity became so alarming that a 
systematic movement was set on foot against them, no fewer 
tnan three thousand initiates haying been captured by the 
Groyemor of Canton alone. All through these yicissitudes, how- 
eyer, they retained a most elaborate code — pages upon pages 
long — of secret signs, whereby to recognise each other where- 
ever they might meet. They continued to hold lodges by night, 
performing their peculiar ceremonies, and initiating candidates 
under oaths of tne most solemn character. These conclaves 
were held for some time in deserted places, the approaches to 
the scene of action being defended by artificial pitfalls, con- 
cealed under light wickerwork, and covered with sod and leayes 
so that any would-be intruders could not ayoid falling into the 
trap. The mysteries celebrated by this strange cabal are said 
to open with a rather riotous feast, accompanied by music, after 
which the brethren range themselyes in front of an idol, the 
Master occupying a lofty chair, supported by eight men with 
naked swords A large amount of paper seems to be burnt by 
way of propitiatory sacrifice in the course of the rites which 
^nsue, in wnich the candidate for initiation bears a prominent 
part. Stripped to the skin, with the exception of a pair of 

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44 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

trousers, he is then broupfht forward, and, kneeling with the 
eight swords resting on his neck, his examination is com- 
menced. The first question is as to his identity and birthplace ; 
the second as to his parentage ; while to the inquiry, "Are your 
parents alive or dead 1" the answer is, under any circimistances, 
"Dead," as all members of the society are supposed to be free 
from every earthly tie. Various other test-questions are then 
put, the answers to which are sometimes flatlv contradicted by 
the Master, who compels the candidate to confirm his statement 
by an oath. Finally, the vow of secrecy is taken, under the 
mystical emblem of drinking blood ; but, happily for the candi- 
date, this most disagreeable part of the ceremony only consists 
in swallowing a cupiul of wine, or arrac, into which a few drops 
of blood have been let from his own finder. The business of 
the evening is then brought to a close by the Master conmiand- 
ing the novice to apply on the morrow to the secretary of the 
lodge, who will give him a book containing all the secret signs, 
passwords, and marks of mutual recognition by dress and habits 
of eating, for which he will be charged a moderate sum. 

Such are the ceremonies of initiation practised by one branch, 
at least, of the Triad Society ; and the question, how far they 
present any analogy to the corresponding rites of Freemasonry, 
IS one that can be answered for hunself by any Mason who may 
happen to be present here to-night. 

I have said that it was with the establishment of the reign- 
ing Manchu dynasty — the Tsing — that the T'ien Ti Hui assumed 
a political character. The watchword seems then to have been 
adopted. Fang Tsing Fu Ming — "Overthrow the Tsings and 
restore the Mings " — the Chinese dynasty which preceded the 
one now in power. Ming Ch'ao, or the Reign of Light, had, up 
till then, been held to express the pure object of the brethren s 
worship; but now it assumed a more materialistic sense, for 
Ming Ch'ao also means the Dynasty of Ming, the characters, 
usea in either sense, being exactly the same. Under the 
double entendre conveyed in the formula Ming Ch'ao, the mem- 
bers engaged in the most desperate endeavours to overthrow the 
power of the Emperor and restore the deposed family, and, with 
this end in view, they associated themselves with Hung Hsiu- 
chlian, and made common cause with the T*ai-p'in^. Indeed, 
Schlegel holds that the T'ai-p'ing rebellion sprang immediately 
from the brethren of the Threefold Bond, the leader himself 
being a member of the league ; but whether this is true or not, 
we know that the Triadists took an active part in the rebellion, 
that they were constantly mistaken for the T'ai-p'ings, and that 
it was they who stormed Shanghai. The mystical ideas imbibed 
by Hung Hsiu-chUan were supplemented by still more daring 

?)eculations, drawn from an imperfect view of Christianity. 
he very designation T'ai-p'ing, so far from symbolising the 

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Secret Societies in China. 45 

spread of gospel-peace, was already in vogue among the Triad- 
ists in the sense of *' equality," and the lodges in which they met 
were called Tai-p'ing Ti, or Land where All are Equal. Accord- 
ing to this writer, who has done good service by translating 
several important secret handbooks which came into his posses- 
sion, the eight Wangs, or princes, of the T'ai-p'ing hierarchy, were 
themselves simply Grand Masters of the Order. This, of course, 
is a conjecture merely, and may or may not be true. I do not 
myself think that there is very much evidence in its favour. 
What is certain, however, is that the doctrines of the T'ien Ti 
Hui may be traced back to very ancient times ; that the politi- 
<)al character of the sect is an entirely modem innovation ; that, 
primarily, the points of resemblance between some of its features 
and those of Masonry are numerous enough to justify the sus- 
picion that the two may have had a comixion origin ; and that, 
at the present moment, the Triad Society is believed to be 
active and as powerful as ever. 

Another very formidable and well-known society is that 
which has adoi>ted as its badge the White Lily, or Lotus, imder 
which designation it has achieved no small amount of notoriety. 
This fraternity is said to have arisen during the reign of Eien 
Lung of the present dynasty ; and during the sovereignty of his 
successor, Eia King, there is no doubt that it assumed very 
formidable proportions. The rules of the Order are very strict 
All the members are supposed to live on sA-tsai, answering to 
,the French word maigre as applied to diet, being rigid vegeta- 
rians. The sect is further said to possess a common fund of 
immense wealth, contributed to by every member of it, and both 
men and women are admitted. At the period I am now speaking 
of, the Grand Master of the Order was a man of the name (^ 
Fang Yung-shfin, whose wife, known as Ma Erh Ku-niang, or 
the second Miss Ma, was celebrated no less for her enormous 
physical strength and stature than for her remarkable mental 
-energy. The headquarters of the conspirators were at Nanking, 
and it was during the leadership of this well-assorted couple 
that an extensive plot was hatched to blow up the Imperial 
Palace at Peking. Their plans were laid to perfection. No 
suspicions were raised by any carelessness or laxity of speech or 
manner on the part of the imtiated, numerous though they were. 
But at the very moment of their triumph, almost as the torch 
•was to be applied — darkness favouring their design — a violent 
istorm of wmd and rain came on suddenly and disorganised all 
the arrangements. The alarm was given and the palace saved. 
This was the signal for a crusade against the sect, and the 
Ticeroy of Nanking was foremost in his exertions to crush the 
nuisance. Some sharp fighting ensued, and the Viceroy's forces 
eventually succeeded, though after a terrible struggle, in cap- 
turing Fang himLseU*, together with a number of his confederates. 

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46 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

What became of the lady I don't know ; but the treatment of 
the prisoners by the authorities was so strange as to be almost 
mcredible. It is gravely stated that they were oflFered their 
lives and further mitigations of their penalty if only they ^ would 
consent to eat meat. This Fang, the leader, valiantly refused 
to do, and he was executed accordingly. Others of the con- 
federation acceded, but, it is said, suffered a far more horrible 
death at the hands of the society afterwards. Ever since these 
reverses the sect has been much less dangeroua The hot chase 
made after its members by the authorities has even induced 
them to renounce their designation, and to adopt the substitute- 
title of the Do-nothing, or Inactive, sect. But the fraternity 
still exists, and, what is more, the Chinese dread its influence 
greatly. They believe the members to be in possession of 
magical powers, and the celebrated paper-man scare, of which 
more anon, is said to have been attributable to their incantations. 
Meanwhile the most interesting speculation connected with this 
body is. What lies at the root of their mysteries? Is their 
object purely political, in pursuance of which they practise upon 
the credulity of the masses, or is there some deep ethical and 
religious feeling at the bottom of it all? Both elements are 
visible. One of the most extravagant pranks, confined however 
to the leaders of the sect, consists of holding the breath on 
special occasions long enough for a man to eat two meals of rice. 
They get black in the face and perfectly rigid. In the mean- 
time tne soul is supposed to leave the body, and go about 
collecting information of a more or less miscellaneous kind. 
When the trance is over it comes back ; the breath returns, and 
the revelation is made. A man once failed to recall his errant 
soul, and died— a mishap which produced much disruption 
among the members. The stringency of their moral regimen is 
certainly in favour of their being genuine mystics, who prefer 
death to breaking their vows of abstinence ; while the political 
character of the association is illustrated with equal cogency by 
the fact that its organisation is carried on in the strictest political 
form, the members assuming the ranks and titles of regularly 
appointed officials, and being bound by a code of laws as strin- 
gently enforced as that of any recognised community. 

A word now about the paper-man scare, which is fresh in the 
memory of anybody who happened to be in China fifteen years 
ago. The first scare of the sort broke out at Ningpo, in 1846, during 
the reign of Tao Kuang, and caused confusion indescribable. 
The air was believed to be full of evil spirits, under the form of 
men cut out of red paper, no fewer than three thousand of them 
haunting the city at one time. The Chinese, mad with fright, 
banged gongs to drive them off— a most logical and philosophi- 
cal proceeding, for evil spirits belong to the Yin, or Principle of 
DarKness, while the soimd of brass comes under the influence of 

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Secret Societies in China, 4fl 

the YaThg, or Principle of Light, the two being as mutually anta- 
gonistic as fire and water, or alkali and acid. Earthquakes and 
a brilliant shooting-star increased the prevailing consternation, 
and there were some who attributed the portents to the spirits 
of the British and Chinese soldiers slain in the recent war, who* 
were fighting their battles over again in mid-air. Just thirty 

J ears afterwards the same terror broke out for the second time, 
ut in an acuter form. The paper-sprite was abroad again, and 
this time his malignity showed itself in cutting ofiT people's 
Queues. A perfect panic prevailed in the principal cities of 
UhSkiang and Kiangsu, and spread rapidly. When first the 
rumour arose it was simply laughed at. But very soon the cry 
came from Nanking, Soochow, Shanghai, Ningpo, Hangchow, 
and the surrounding districts, and it proved to be no fable. 
Whole provinces, at last, seemed to go mad. Men and boys 
suddenly found themselves minvs their cherished tails, and 
the strange occurrence admitted apparently of no explanation. 
Asleep, awake, alone, in their own nouses, out of doors — under 
all conceivable circumstances — the mysterious influence reached 
them. Europeans affirm that they have themselves seen a 
Chinaman's tail — which is on the average as thick and strong as 
a moderate-sized rope — drop off suddenly, without any apparent 
agency. The victims were nearly beside themselves, and for 
weeks every man wore his appendage either over his shoulder 
in front, or twisted round his head, or tucked into the back of 
his coat, for safety. Of course, the phenomenon was regarded as 
supernatural, and was generally attributed to a paper-sprite — 
sometimes in the shape of a man, sometimes as a pair of scissors, 
cut in red paper, and endowed with diabolical powers by a gang 
of necromancers. A large business was done in paper-charms, 
which were sold at all the shops, and carefully worn about the 
person to ward off the evil spint. One talismanic sentence ran 
thus: Wa nan tea ch'ih hilng, which is the Chinese trans- 
literation of the Sanscrit Vi namati sata hilm ("He bows 
down before the hundred Attm"), a word of which I regret I do 
not know the meaning. Another, written in a grotesque and 
clumsy cypher, was to the following effect: "Ye who urge 
filthy devils to spy out the people ! The Master's spirits are at 
hand, and will soon discover you. With this charm any one 
may travel by sunlight, moonlight, and starlight, all over the 
earth." But, as may be imagined, the precaution proved ineffi- 
cacious, and for months the nuisance raged. The general 
opinion is, of course, that the whole thing was nothing more 
than a piece of superlative legerdemain on the part of the 
agents of a secret society, which was believed to be the Lotus- 
flower sect. It is said tnat the abscission of a queue was dex- 
terously effected by means of a peculiar little mstrument, not 
unlike a pair of scissors, intensely sharp, and small enough to 

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48 The Jov/mal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

be held in the palm of the hand, where, indeed, it was entirely 
concealed from view by certain curious contrivances. There 
were always two, and sometimes three, persons concerned in the 
operation — one to monopolise the attention of the victim, 
another, generally, to sell him a charm, and a third to snip the 
tail oj9, or cut it so that it subsequently dropped. This done, 
the principal operator disappeared, leaving his dupe to buy the 
talisman — too late! This was not always the exact routine, 
but the differences in method were unimportant. Of course, it 
is obvious that, the queue being essentially a Manchu appen- 
dage, and therefore a sign that the Chinese are a conquerea race, 
its abscission was intended as an intimation that the power of 
the Manchu dynasty was doomed. 

It would be a mistake to include the Mohammedans of China 
under the category of secret societies, as their religion is recog- 
nised by the State, and followers of the Prophet are certainly 
to be found among the ablest and most loyal servants of the 
Emperor. And yet it would be almost equally a mistake to omit 
all mention of them, not only because it was said, some years 
ago, that a large number of them professedly regarded the .Ajneer 
of Kashgar as their natural lord, but also because they glory in 
their non-Chinese origin. Tou cannot pay a Chinese Moham- 
medan a more acceptable compliment than to hail him as a 
fellow-foreigner. And what is more, he looks like one, for, 
although he wears the Chinese dress, and plaits his hair in a 
queue, his physiognomy is distinctly Turkish. On more than 
one occasion I have gone up to a stranger in the street, and, 
struck by his cast of features, said, "Surely, sir, you are 
Mohammedan?" "Mohammedan !" was always the prompt and 
proud reply, accompanied by the raising of the right thumb — a 
gesture i mive heard explained as referring to his belief in one 
God They are much cleaner than the other Chinese, and 
generally honest ; and it is always well to deal with a Moham- 
medan butcher, if there happens to be one in your neighbour- 
hood. The number of Chinese Moslems in the eighteen provinces 
is estimated by some officials at twenty to twenty-five millions ; 
but we have no details. The ceremonies imposed on converts 
to this persuasion are very simple. The first requisition is the 
payment of a good round sum of money. This ordinance having 
been complied with, the candidate is presented for a further 
mark of favour, and thereupon receives a sound thrashing. But 
the lustration is not yet comnlete — the most painful oideal is 
yet to be undergone. The unnappy convert is then condemned 
to drink a large quantity of soap and water, in order to cause 
the evacuation of any pork he may have eaten — a measure 
which never fails to produce very speedy and complete results. 
I ought in fairness to add that I received these details from a 
Conmcianist. The Moslems enjoy complete religious freedom, 

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Secret Societies in China, 49 

regard their idolatrous countrymen with contempt, and have a 
large number of handsome mosques in every part of the 

Numerous and powerful, however, as the Moslems undoubt- 
edly are, it is not likely that if a Mohanmiedan conqueror were 
to reach Peking he would meet much of a welcome, even from 
avowed enemies of the Manchu dynasty, for there are other 
confederacies, quite as powerful, whose cry is for a Chinese 
iknperor. To them the invader from the West would be as 
odious as the Tartar, and in the event of such a change as we 
are supposing, there would inevitably be some violent collisions. 
Perhaps the most aggressively anti-foreign confederation in the 
empire is the Ko Lao Hui, or Society of the Elder Brother. 
This is an organisation which somewhat resembles the Cave of 
AduUam, in that it consists to a great extent of malcontents, 
rowdies, persons hopelessly in debt, and desperadoes generally ; 
but it is said that it has numbered at least one Viceroy and two 
Provincial Governors in its ranks, and that its propaganda is 
actively carried on. It was started originally in tne army of 
Ts^ng Kuo-fan, the late Marquis Tsfings father, at Nankmg, 
and it flourishes most strongly in Hunan, Honan, and Anhui, 
where all the braves belong to it. Its primary and avowed 
object was mutual assistance and protection ; but it is really a 
seditious association of the men of Central China, binding them 
together ajjainst all foreign usurpers whatever, which includes 
the reigning family. Their watchword is, "China for the 
Chinese," or, as they themselves express it, " The Glories of the 
Tang dynasty ; " and all strangers, of whatever nationality or 
sect, be they Tartars, Southerners, or Western Chinamen, alike 
are the objects of their hate. They represent the old exclusive 
pure-blooa race of the Hans, and look upon the inhabitant of 
the more distant provinces, such as Canton, with jealousy, 
almost as fierce as that with which they regard the Manchu 
dynasty itself. The bulk of the confederacy consists of soldiers. 
Indeed, it is more strictly military than any other society of a 
like nature. Besides these, there are a large number of dis- 
banded braves, together with their families, and it is probable 
that if one of their old generals were to raise the standard of 
rebellion he might have a hundred thousand men around him 
by the time it took to spread the news from Anching to Hankow, 
llie agents of the society generally travel as itinerant doctors^ 
professing to sell nostrums ; really engaged, however, in convey- 
mg news from chief to chief, and keeping up the fire whicn, 
without fomentation, would, I fancy, be very likely to die out. 
There is an elaborate code of simals, as in the case of the Triad 
Society, but I have been only able to discover a very few. For 
instance, two buttons of the coat undone and the queue worn 
carelessly, in a double loop, over the shoulder in front, are two 

Digitized by 


50 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

of the signs whereby the confederates are enabled to recognise 
each other. The fist clenched and the thumb elevated — pre- 
cisely the sign made to me by the Mohammedans, by the way — 
constitutes a third ; but I expect that the ritual differs in dinet- 
ent places. The Ko Lao Hui has given some considerable 
trouble in times past, and about twenty years ago raised a 
serious disturbance in Hunan. In July of the succeeding year 
one of the conspirators was captured — ^an event which resulted 
from the misdelivery of a secret letter, in which a confederate 
detailed the plot of blowing up the powder-magazine at Hu- 
k'ou, and afterwards looting the town. The man was summarily 
beheaded, and subsequent events showed how very apprehen- 
sive the authorities had become of further plots, arising from 

So much, then, for the more active and prominent of the 
societies — those which, whether now or in times past, have 
evoked the sternest acts of precaution and retribution from the 
Government. But thera are others — curious and fantastic little 
denominations — ^which are of importance chiefly to themselves, 
and of these I will now give a brief sketch. 

The Ts'ing Ch*a M6n, or Pure Tea Society — about which we 
have some rather curious particulars in a memorial addressed to 
the throne in 1816 — is not, as might be supposed from its name, 
a commercial syndicate in connection with Messrs. Horniman 
and Company, or even a charitable institution for providing the 
deserving poor with cups of harmless comfort. It is, on the 
contrary, a religious body, bearing much the same relation to 
orthodox Buddhism as tne followers of Joanna Southcote bear 
to orthodox Christianity. A severe raid was made upon the 
members during the reign of Kia King, with very terrible results 
to the imfortunate nersons who were captured. The Head 
Centre — ^a man namea Wang Yung-tai — stated in his confession 
that the doctrines of the sect had been transmitted to him from 
his ancestors. On the first and fifteenth of each moon the 
members bum incense, make offerings of fine tea, and, pros- 
trate, worship heaven, earth, the sun, the moon, fire, water, and 
their deceased parents. They also adore the Three Buddhas and 
the founder of tneir religion. In receiving proselytes they touch, 
with bamboo chopsticks, the eyes, ears, mouth, and nose of the 
neophytes, commanding them to accept the Three Refuges and 
the Five Precepts. The Three Refuges, I may here explain — San- 
kuel in Chinese, Trisharana in Sanscrit — are Buddha, the Law, 
and the Church, in each of which the lay-devotee solemnly 
iiflirms, in a threefold formula, that he takes refuge in making 
his profession of faith. The Five Precepts — ^Wu Kieh in 
Chinese, the Sanscrit Pancha V^ramani — ^are, Take no life. 
Steal not, Be not lustful, Be not light in conversation, Drink 
no wine. The sect holds, further, that the original progenitor 

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Secret Societies in Chma. 61 

of the Wang family resides in heaven, and that the world is 
governed by the Three Buddhas in rotation. The reign of the first 
-of these is over ; the present a^e is controlled by Gautama or 
Sakyamuni ; while Mi-li Fu, Maitreya, or the Laughing Buddha, 
is yet to come. There seems nothing very heterodox about 
all this ; but when it is further asserted that the coming Buddha 
will be bom in the family of Wang, the Head Centre of the sect, 
and carry all the members thereof after death to the western 
regions — to the Palace of the Immortal Genii — ^it makes the 
judicious grieve. The teacher of such doctrines must be a pes- 
tilent heretic, and the imfortunate Wang was very naturally 
executed and his body cut into small pieces. 

At Tientsin there flourishes a fraternity called the Tsai Li Hui, 
a title that may be freely rendered, The Fellowship of Reason. 
Its tenets appear to be obscure ; but, as far as I have been able 
to discover, tne practices observed consist principally in rigorous 
abstention from alcohol, tobacco, and opium ; in the worship of 
the P8 Yun Ta Ti, the Great God of the White Cloud ; in the habi- 
tual wearing of white clothes (the usual symbol of mourning), 
even to their boots and hats ; in the preaching of doctrines 
from a rostrum ; in the severe rapping of their heads against 
the ground during prayer ; and in profound secrecy. To use the 
quaint expression of a native friend, a man may not reveal this 
creed to his father, his mother, his wife, his elder or his younger 
sister. So far, however, the association seems a harmless one 
enough, in spite of the mystery in which it is enshrouded. But 
the members are closely watched, and, on the principle of omne 
ignotvmi pro IiorribUi, the authorities have come to the conclu- 
sion that they are a very pestilent set of men. A change from 
their peculiar garb of white to the ordinary colours of the middle 
class was consequently ordered, a number of years ago, bv the 
Ts{i-ssu, or Chief Patriarch ; but this was not suflBicient to shield 
them from the jealousy of the Government. As far as one is 
able to form any idea of the society in question, it would appear 
to be a teetotallers' association, combined with a certain amount 
of that hocus-pocus and affected mysticism so dear to human 
nature — answering, in fact, in some respects to the Good Temp- 
lars that one hears about in England. The idea of the British 
Government gravely instituting an inquiry into the tenets 
professed by the scores of innocent and well-meaning sects 
enumerated in "Whitaker's Almanac" is ludicrous enough. 
The great difficulty would be where to stop. And yet, allowing 
for the narrow education of the Chinese, this excessive vigilance 
and suspiciousness is scarcely to be wondered at, and the 
authorities are possibly not far from the truth in hesitating to 
look upon the movement as purely and exclusively religious. 

Many of the other confederacies appear to be simply eccentric. 
For instance, there is one society wnich professes what it ia 

Digitized by 


62 The Journal of the Ma/nchester Oeographical Society. 

pleased to call the Rice Dumjpling religion — TztL Twan Kiao— a 
peculiar name which calls for explanation. The ceremonies 
mclude the eating of small dumplmgs made of a particularly- 
glutinous and adhesive kind of rice — a symbolical act, during 
which the initiated take oaths of secrecy and adhesiveness to 
one another and the doctrines they profess. But what that 
doctrine may be I cannot say. The Tan Pei Kiao, or relicion 
of the Spread Cloth, also has many adherents ; and these inmvi- 
duals appear to be very much detested by the Government. Of 
course I am quite in the dark as to their creed, but to judge by 
their behaviour I should simply sav that they were a lot of 
harmless lunatics. The rites are said to consist in the spreading 
of a large cloth or cotton drueget upon the ground, on which 
the members kneel and go through their devotiona These 
finished, at a given signal the four comers of the sheet are raised 
and tied in a knot — tne unfortunate worshippers find themselves 
all huddled together in a great bag, and they are then supposed 
to go to sleep. The whole thing only shows what an amount of 
personal discomfort people will imdergo for the sake of gratifying 
some preposterous whim. 

Missionaries in the interior of China have from time to time 
been much interested and perplexed at receiving visits from 
Chinese residing at a considerable distance, who assert that they, 
too, profess doctrines almost identical with those of Christianity. 
In some cases, I believe, a direct claim is made to supernatural 
revelation, and there seems no doubt that certain small com^ 
munities do exist, in remote villages, of persons entertaining a 
system of religious faith strangely akin to that of the New Tes- 
tament. It is particularly with regard to this point that there 
are men so very much better qualified to speak than I am. I 
am fain, therefore, to content myself with triis brief allusion to 
the subject. In some instances, I believe, it has been impossible 
to trace the phenpmenon to any earlier promulgation of 
Christianity, the traces of which might still remain, and have 
given rise to fresh developments ; in others, there appears some 
ground for believing that such is actually the case. About 
twenty vears ago a missionary at Ningpo stated that a respect- 
able-looking stranger had visited his chapel, and listened 
attentively to the sermon. After service he stayed to converse. 
He said that he and his ancestors had worshipped only one God. 
He knew of Jesus, and Mary, and Moses ; said he was neither a 
Roman Catholic nor a Mohammedan, neither had he seen any 
Christian books, but that the doctrine had been handed down 
by his ancestors. He did not know where they obtained it, nor 
for how many generations they had followed it He came from 
one of the western provinces of China, and said that in his 
native place there were some thirty families of the same religion. 
The late Mr. Wylie considered that this might possibly point to 

Digitized by 


Secret Societies in China. 53 

the existence of some vestige of the early Nestorian church. It 
is at any rate curious that one, at least, of the emperors of the 
Tang dynasty, in the ninth century, was familiar with the story 
of the deluge, the exploits of Moses, the exodus from E^ypt, 
the names of the Hebrew prophets, and the biography of Chnst — 
a fitet sufficiently explained, however, when we remember that 
a translation of the Scriptures had been made imder the direc- 
tion of the great Emperor T'ai TstUig as early as two centuries 

I will now refer, in conclusion, to certain other societies or 
corporations, which, though by no means secret, are far too 
powerfiil and important to be ignored. These are neither poli- 
tical nor religious; they are distinctively co-operative and 
commercial. I refer to the institution of Guilds. Now, guilds 
may be roughly divided into two categories, the apodeinic— or, 
if I may coin a word for the occasion, the compatriot! c — and 
the mercantile. The two overlap each other occasionally ; but 
the distinction I have laid down is in most instances clearly 
enough defined. Guilds of the first description are, as I imder- 
Btand them, simply co-operative or friendly clubs, consisting of 
natives from some particular city or province, residing at a 
distance from their birthplace. Thus, at Shanghai, for example, 
we have the Canton Guild and the Ningpo Guild, the members 
of which are Cantonese and Ningpomen respectively. The hall 
or headquarters of a wealthy guila is generally a very handsome 
building, decorated with elaborate carving, and very richly gilt. 
There is also a stage on which plays are acted on high days and 
holidays, when sumptuous banquets are spread, and the pre- 
cincts are illuminated with festoons of coloured paper lanterns. 
It is with the mercantile or trade guilds, however, that Euro- 
peans have most to do, and it is with respect to these that I 
wish to say a few words to you before closing. Nothing exhibits 
the Chinese love and aptitude for combining more remarkably 
than these institutiona Every trade — every industry — has its 
duly-organised guild, which fixes the market-rates of produce, 
frames rules ana bye-laws, protects its members from fraud and 
Uranny, and decides on all matters in dispute. There is the 
Tea Guild, the Silk Guild, and the Piece-goods Guild ; there is 
even the Coolies' Guild and the Beggars' Guild. And 
there is no European merchant in China who is able to 
i^ore their existence, or leave them out of his reckoning for a 
single day. The man from whom he purchases his tea or silk, 
or to whom he sells his T cloths and grey shirtings, is a member 
of the local trading-guild ; and if any serious dispute arises 
between the two parties to a transaction, it is the guild which 
eventually decides the question. It is only fair to say that in 

* C\inu€ BeemnUr, November, 1868 (Wylie). Also, '* Relation des voyages faito par les Arabes 
«k let Pcraani dans 1* Inde et k la Chine. " 1845. 

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64 The Journal of the Mcmchester QeographicaZ Society. 

many instances the arbitration of the guild is just — that when 
a native dealer has flagrantly infringed some recognised law or 
custom, or acted in glaring defiance of plain commercial 
morality, he is condemned, and the cause of the foreign mer- 
chant espoused. To take a case in point. A Chinese dealer, 
having purchased a cargo of piece-goods of a foreign firm, failed 
to take delivery of it withm the specified time. The usual 
notice was then served upon him, to the effect that, unless he 
cleared the goods before a certain date, they would be sold by 
auction. Still, he took no steps, and the goods were sold. An 
hour afterwards he calmly sauntered in and said that he had 
come to take delivery. " Too late," replied the merchant. 
" You paid no attention to the notice, and the account is closed." 
The Chinaman immediately appealed to the guild, and was non- 
suited. He had violated one of the recognised customs of the 
trade, and had only himself to thank for the result. 

But it is a terribly serious matter for a European firm when 
the guild takes sides against it. There is no appeal, and nothing 
but the most delicate and even humiliating negotiations can set 
things straight again. I do not know a more rigid boycott than 
that instituted by a Chinese trade-guild against an offending 
firm. The order goes out — No desSings with such-or-such a 
hong; and woe betide the Chinaman who dares to disobey. 
Supposing, for example, a dispute of unusual gravity arises 
between a European silk-inspector and the Chinese dealer. There 
is a deadlock. The case is reported to the guild, and the guild, 
perhaps, considers either that the foreigner has behaved with 
gross injustice or that the point at Issue involves a pirinciple 
too far-reaching and too important to be lightly waived. From 
that day the firm in question is shut out of the silk market. 
No muster-bales are sent in. He may be full of orders, he may 
be harassed by constant telegrams from his Lyons or London 
correspondents anxious to hear what he is doing for them ; but 
any Cninese broker who should venture to sell him a single bale 
or book of silk would be mulcted in a heavy fine, posted at the 
guild-house with the details of his offence, and, if recalcitrant, 
expelled from the fraternity. Only a few years ago one of the 
great English shipping firms in China had a difference of 
opinion — scarcely a dispute — with their Chinese constituents 
about the payment of freight. It had been the custom for 
freights to be paid at the end of every month, but the Chinese 
took it into tneir heads that the end of every year would suit 
them better, and insisted upon the change being made. The 
firm declined : the Hankow branch of the Swatow guild took 
up the affair, a boycott was proclaimed, and for months — I think 
it was nearly a year — no cargo was sent by the Chinese in any 
one of their steamers. It was not until the firm in question 
opened a branch of their establishment in Hankow itself, and 

Digitized by 


Secret Societies in China. 55 

engaged as their compradore a man of great influeDce with the 
members of this very guild, that the sore was healed, and then 
only gradually, and at the expense of certain compromises. Then 
the business flowed back into its old channel, and the occasion 
was celebrated by a handsome dinner — paid for, I need scarcely 
say, by the foreign firm. 

I could give you other instances, but have already detained 
you long enough. I need only add that, in any such dispute 
as I have instanced arising between a guild and a foreign mer- 
chant, it is quite useless for the foreigner to go to law. The 
^ilds are, in point of fact, stronger tnan the magistrates ; and 
he would be a courageous jud^e, indeed, who should place 
himself in a position of antagonism to one of these wealthy, 
powerful, and widely-ramified corporationa It is true that we 
are protected, by a clause in one oi our treaties, against actions 
of this sort on the part of corporate bodies, but I think I am 
right in saying that the provision is virtually a dead letter. A 
man may appeal to his consul, of course, and the consul may 
communicate with the native prefect, but the result is generally 
questionable, and in any case is attained more by careful and 
tentative negotiation between the prefect and the guild than 
by the exercise of direct authority. And there are cases, mind 

ou, in which the foreign merchant only gets what he deserves. 

am informed that only a very short time ago the boycott was 
put in force against four firms upon a charge of frivolous rejec- 
tions of cargo, unreasonable " cuts," and false weighing ; and the 
only comment made by other Europeans in the same trade was, 
" Serve them right." but such instances are, I fully believe, 
exceptional. There is only one safe rule for foreign merchants 
in China. Avoid all dilBference of opinion with a guild ; but if 
circumstances are too strong for you, then agree with your 
adversary quickly. It is clear that your fellow-merchants 
cannot help you. They have their own orders to execute, their 
own goods to sell, their own steamers to fill up — ^your extremity 
may, in fact, be their opportunity. For this is our weak point 
in dealing with the Chinese. While they combine against us, 
we compete against each other ; and I am afraid that it would 
pass the wit of man to devise a remedy. If such a remedv ever 
should be discovered, it could only lie in fighting the Chinese 
with their own weapons, and that could never be done without 
support from this side of the water. Is it possible for the 
Chambers of Commerce in Manchester, London, and Shanghai, 
acting together on however strict and equitable an under- 
standing, to exert one tithe of the authority over their members 
exercised by a single Chinese guild ? Could the foreign piece- 
goods merchants of Shanghai, say, combine in refusing to deal 
with some wealthy Chinese firm who had acted treacherously 
or unfairly towards one of their number ? and, if so, what would 


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56 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

a Manchester dealer or manufacturer be likely to reply to the 
Shanghai consignee who had refused an offer from such a firm 
on the ground that it had quarrelled with one of his own rivals ? 
Shall we ever see the Shanghai Chamber fixing the lowest price 
to be accepted for Dewhurst's Eagles, or the highest to be paid 
for Blue Elephants, and punishing any merchant who should 
undersell or overbuy his neighbours by the imposition of a 
heavy fine ? For this is what it comes to. Such conundrums 
may well provoke a smile — a very audible smile, methinks — 
from a Chinese. Still, the question has more than an academic 
interest for those engaged in the China trade, and it would be 
the height of nresumption on my part to suggest any solution 
of it to those wno are so much better fitted, lx>th from position 
and from experience, to deal with the problem than myself. 

*«* It is noteworthy that^ within a few weeks of the delivery of this lecture, 
two of the secret societies referred to — the Eo Lao Hui and the Pal Lien Eiao— broke 
out into serious anti-foreign, and it is believed anti- dynastic, demonstrations in 
the Yang-tztl valley.— F. H. R 

Cassell's Popular Atlas. By F. S. Waller, F.R.G.S. Containing 24 maps, 
in colours. With a chapter of statistics and an index to the maps. 2s. 6d. 
Gassell and Co. Limited, London. 1890. A capital little school atlas, moving in the 
right direction. 

Through the British Empire in Five Minutes. By C. R H. Vincent, 

M.P. 24pp. 2 maps. 1886. 8d. W. & A. E. Johnston and Co. This is a little 
resum^ of the facts about the British empire, and intended for a handbook to the 
large and fine map issued by Messrs. Johnstone. 


Ferdinand Magellan. By F. H. H. Quillemard. 354pp. Maps, portraits, illustra- 
tions, and index. 

Livingstone. By H. H. Johnston, C.B. 872pp. Maps, portraits, illustrations, and 

Sir John Franklin. By Capt. A. H. Markham. 824pp. Maps, portraits, illustra- 
tions, and index. The above are published by Q. Philip and Son, London. 
4s. 6d. each. 

These three books are further instalments of the handsome series of books 
being published by Messrs. Philip and Son, under the title of '* The World's Great 
Explorers," and they fully maintain the high opinion we have expressed upon some 
of the previous issues. The life of Magellan is quite new to English readers, and will 
gp'eatly interest those who have not heretofore been able to get at the facts of the 
great navigator*s history in an English dress. The life of Livingstone is interesting, 
but is made in some parts painful by the interjection of the author and his opinions 
where they are not wanted. Franklin, by Capt. Markham, is a glorious book. The 
story of Franklin's early life and his great work in Australia are fully told, and the 
summaries of arctic work are valuable. Those who are fortunate enough to get 
these books will read them with delight and profit. 

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Korth-eaet Cochat of British New (hiimea. 57 


By J. P. THOMSON, F.R.S.G.S., ftc., &c, corresponding Member of the Manchester 

Oeagraphical Society. 

[Communicated by Mr. Thomson and read to the Members in the Library, Wednesday, 
February 25, 1891. Rev. S. A. Steinthal in the Chair.] 

Thb north-east coast of the British possession in Papua extends from East Cape to 
Mitre Bock, where the Anglo-Qerman demarcation boundary is defined by the 8th 
parallel of south latitude. Adjacent to this seaboard are several islands and groups 
of islets that also belong to the British ; some of these lie close to the mainland 
ahoree, while others, such for instance as the Nada (Lauchlan Islands), Murua (Wood- 
lark Islands), and Trobriand Groups, are located far away to the northward and north- 
eastward. It is upon these, and upon the geographic conditions of the adjacent coast 
of the mainland, we propose to descant. 

Previous to the establishment of British power in Papua, nothing useful was 
known of this part of our possession — less, indeed, than of other equally accessible 
regions— owing, no doubt, in great measure, to its geographic position, which 
makes it inconvenient to the trading ports of Northern Queensland, as compared 
with the southern and south-western coast on either side of Port Moresby. It was 
supposed to offer no tempting inducements for oonmierdal enterprise ; the native 
inhabitants thereof were regarded as notorious anthropophagi ; the coastal waters were 
known to conceal many dangerous reefs, shoals, and rocks ; and the inhospitable aspect 
of the shores extended no alluring invitation to approach them. The hills and moun- 
tain ranges, when viewed from afar, appeared to rise abruptly from the seashore, 
leaving no extensive areas of lowlands, and presenting no favourable inducements to 
settlement upon their rugged and precipitous faces, while no harbours or ports of 
refuge were known to exist, the indentations known as Gbodenough, Collingwood, 
Dyke, Adand, and Holnicote Bays being too open and exposed to the north-east wind 
and sea to afford safe retreat in rough and unsettled weather. Viewed from a 
geographic standpoint, we cannot therefore regard otherwise than with very great 
satisfaction, coupled with our sense of gratitude to the administrator himself, the 
results of the inspection of this coast and some of the adjacent islands by the govern- 
ment of the possession during the end of July, 1890. By these we are now for the 
first time made acquainted reliably with the ethnography of the natives inhabiting 
this part of the Papuan territory. We now also for the first time know that Mount 
Victory possesses great internal activity, and that for maritime enterprise this north- 
eastern coast offers greater fodlities than elsewhere in the possession, as indicated by 
the discovery of several secure harbours and anchorages in places where formerly 
itinerary data showed none, and hypothetic evidence discredited their possible 
existence^ More than these, we have succeeded in initiating ourselves into the good 
graces of the savage tribes, showing them, very probably also for the first time, the 
good instead of the bad phases of European character, which may inspire, but not 

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58 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

divide. We have restored to some of them weapons and other ethnological objects, 
which ill-advised hands had robbed them of, and, by other equitable acts and imitable 
examples, the national character has been vindicated, and their feelings of resentment 
and hatred have given place to those of love and admiration, in itself no little achieve* 
ment for either governments or individuals to have accomplished. 

On the ooast-line the Anglo-German boundary is defined by Mitre Bock, sup- 
posed to be located, by a singular coincidence, upon or near to the aforesaid 8th 
parallel of south latitude, and within a quarter of a mile of the shores of Boundary 
Cape, so named by the late Biajor-G^neral Sir Peter Scratchley, from the position it 
occupies in defining the limit of the spheres of German and British influence in that 
part of the Papuan territory. This huge conglomerate mass, bearing the name of 
Mitre Rock, projects 60 feet above the surface of the water ; its base, which is also 
about 60 feet in diameter, has an opening of about 12 feet in height and a yard in 
breadth, extending right through the entire block in the direction of north and south. 
The top of this most prominent and distinctive landmark is covered by bushes and 
small trees. About half the size of this remarkable feature, and located a short 
distance to its southward, stands a bold, pyramidal mass, upon which the name of 
Craig's Pillar was bestowed by Sir William Macgregor, as a mark of respect to the 
second officer of the Merrie England. About half a mile farther south a small 
harbour was discovered, with water of from three to fourteen fathoms in depth ; to 
this indentation the name of Douglas Harbour was given, after the second engineer 
of the Government steamer aforesaid. In general character, Boundary Cape is com- 
posed of low, forestrclad hills, from 400 to 500 feet above the sea, of metamorphic 
rock. No native villages were observed in this immediate neighbourhood, and the 
first indications of occupation were met with to the south of Caution Point, where a 
powerful tribe inhabits a large coastal village. Both here and in Holnicote Bay the 
natives were friendly disposed, and both men, women, and children approached the 
expedition without fear or distrust. With some the hair of the men was worn in 
matted ringlets, or in the form of great mops. They decorated their heads with 
the feathers of the cassowary, shells, and fibre, and in their ears rings of coooa- 
nut and turtle shells were worn. They were ignorant of the use of iron, and could 
not be induced to exchange their weapons for any European article offered. These 
weapons consisted of spears, adzes of jade and of basalt, and clubs, also of basalts 
They did not appear to practise tattooing, but the men ornamented their chins with 
false whiskers, extending from ear to ear. This custom was regarded as somewhat 
remarkable, from the well-known fact that in other known parts of British Papua the 
growth of hair upon the face is discouraged. The largest tribe met with on this coast 
was that inhabiting the lowlands south of Boundary Cape. The women wore net 
corsets, inwoven with coiz lachryma jobi, and the men were clothed with " sihia " of 
coloured native cloth. The district they inhabit is physically composed of hilly 
ground and sago swamps, with a fringe of flat land along the seashore, clothed by 
oasuarina, mangroves, and forest trees, while the whole is backed by an extensive area 
of undulating country, extending towards the outliers of the Great Owen Stanley 
Range. Upon one of the low hills in the neighbourhood of this large village a site for 
an Anglican mission station was chosen. Notwithstanding that no apparent inter- 
course had previously been held by Europeans with these people, they were decidedly 
pacific, and the terms upon which they parted with the expedition were felicitous, 
although the language they spoke was not understood. At first they did not know 
the use of iron, nor were they subsequently anxious to procure it. They were neither 
demonstrative nor suspicious, although at times when inspecting their European 
visitors their numbers were not less than 600. The impression they left upon Uia^ 

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North-east Coast of British New Guinea. 69 

Honour the Administrator wm decidedly a favourable one, and, if dealt with in a 
proper manner, they will very probably be of some use to the Gk)Yemment of the 
oonntiy, or to private enterprise in territorial settlement. 

The bottom of Dyke Acland Bay is occupied by the group of villages known as 
Oro. The country upon which these are located is flanked by the Hydrographer's 
Bange, which extends its broken, high, forest and grass covered ridges to the seashore, 
and whose elevated spurs are inhabited by a native population of probably 3,000, who 
Hve in villages scattered over the mountain slopes, in some places in the midst of 
■mall groves of the coooanut palms. The country upon the southern aspect of this 
bay is of a very poor character, being low, wet, and thinly populated, the characteristic 
timber being casuarina, mangroves, and forest trees. Upon the ridges overlooking Oro 
Bay, a site was also chosen for an Anglican mission station, which, with that formerly 
mentioned, will doubtless in time develop into important centres of organised effort^ 
being surrounded by a populous country, apparently healthy, which is now a virgin 
field for evangelical labour. In general appearance the Oro natives resemble those 
met with in Collingwood Bay, their dress and ornaments being almost similar, excepting 
in the case of some of the men, who wore corsets of network, inwoven with Job's 
tears. In this respect they differed from their more northerly neighbours, whose 
women, as before stated, were clothed with a similar garment. Some bore indications 
of marks tattooed upon the face, but this distinguishing feature, indifferently executed, 
-waa not general Some doubt existed as to whether Oro is the tribal name by which 
these people are generally known, the appellation having been first used by the local 
guide, who shouted, " Oro kaivara enao," when approaching them. The eastern flank 
of Dyke Acland Bay is occupied by Cape Nelson, a prominent headland, upon which is 
situated Mounts Trafalgar and Victory, with their spurs shooting out to the seashore 
'where fringing reefs protect them from the angry billows of the ocean, which at times 
are furious ; when tossed to and fro by stormy winds they fall upon the coral-bound 
ahore with mighty, crashing sounds. ' The coast-line of this cape is interesting and 
picturesque, being remarkable for its numerous indentations, which are separated from 
one another by grass-covered, conglomerate ridges, rising abruptly to probably 160 
feet, their projecting ends being fringed by mangroves. Some of these inlets are 
perfect havens of refuge to shipping, especially Maclaren Harbour and Port 
Hennessy, so named by the administrator. A large population appeared to 
occupy the country at and in the neighbourhood of Cape Nelson. Some of the natives 
met with were engaged fishing in canoes on and around the projecting reefs of the 
cape. At first these were shy, but after overtures of a pacific nature had been made 
to them, confidence was established, and distrust quickly gave place to cordial friend- 
ship. Although anxious to procure beads and red cloth, they were perfectly indifferent 
to the use of iron, and evinced*^ no desire to obtain knives, even after their use had 
been practically demonstrated to them. Their elaborate head-dresses consisted chiefly 
of the feathers of the cassowary and ground shells, curved across the head from ear to 
ear ; their ear and nose ornaments were made of marine shells and tortoise-shell, and 
their breasts were plated with pigs' tusks. Their villages were some distance inland, 
and their plantations appeared to be located chiefly on the slopes of the low spurs of 
Mount Trafalgar. It was when in the neighbourhood of Keppel Point that Sir William 
Macgregor first discovered the seismic character of Mount Victory. Steam was first 
obeerved in the early morning issuing from the summit of its two crests, and from a 
ridge of lower altitude ; as the morning advanced the whole top of the mountain was 
completely obscured by the dense exhalations, which resembled a thundercloud. The 
altitude of Mount Victory is probably 3,500 feet above the sea, and that of Mount 
Trafalgar about 4,000 feet. The latter is forested to its summit ; upon the former 

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60 The Journal of the Manchester Oeogrwphical Society, 

vegetation u not luxurUnt, it being very predpitous, its top ooeapied by bare, rocky 
manes, and its rugged faces contorted by what appeared to be enormotu landslips. 
Sharp shocks of earthquakes were reported to have been experienced some weeks 
previously by fishermen in the neighbourhood of Sydney Islands, while on the main- 
land similar phenomena were also observed at Port Moresby, but on no visible part of 
the mountain could lava streams be detected. 

Colilngwood Bay is a large exposed indentation, bounded on its eastern aspect by 
Gape Sebiribiri (Cape Yogel), and overlooked by Hornby Range, Mounts Sudding and 
Dayman. Its south-western waters are obstructed by numerous shoals and coral 
patches which constantly menace navigation. Little shelter is afforded by this bay, 
excepting that of an imimportant indentation, to which the name of Phillips Harbour 
was given, in honour of the Merrie England*s chief engineer. This is situated 
approximately in latitude 9*" 80' south, and longitude 149'' 18' east ; its water ranges 
from eight to fourteen fathoms in depth. From this place to Keppel Point the coast* 
line of the bay is occupied by the Maisina tribe, who live in villages scattered along 
the seashore. The cotmtry between the ranges and the seashore is flat, and densely 
covered by forest and vegetation, the casuarina variety being conspicuous. The inter- 
vening country between Mounts Victory and Suckling for about twenty to thirty miles 
in extent is also low and thickly wooded. The village dwelling-houses are of an infe- 
rior order ; they are built just lax^ enough to accommodate one family ; tiie roofs 
project on one side from the walls to within about three feet from the surface of the 
ground, so as to form a verandah ; beneath this a platform was constructed for resting 
upon and for family use generally. These small dwellings were supplemented by a 
large dub house, from end to end of which a platform extended for general use as a 
sleeping place ; this style appeared to be in general use in this part of the possession. 
The people salute by touching the nose and navel. The general practice of destroying 
the eyebrows is to cut them off, instead of resorting to the usual method obtaining in 
other parte of the territory of pulling them out by the roots. They consume the 
betel-nut, but the lunespoons dedicated to its use are very inferior in design and in 
make. Some wore beards^ and others wore their hair in long, matted ringlets ; they 
also wore the usual ornaments met with in this part of the possession. Their canoes, 
which measured about 40ft. in leng^, were made of one log of wood, with sharp ends, 
and about two-and-a-half feet in breadth, with very small outriggers projecting some 
distance from their sides. Of the use of tobacco and iron they were quite ignorant^ 
and at several villages nothing would induce them to accept knives in exchange for 
their jade adzes. The practice of tattooing was not met with amongst these people, but 
they ornamented themselves profusely with head-dresses of shells and feathers, ear- 
rings, armlets, strings of the small white cowrie shells, and dogs* teeth, and some of 
the women were habited with short petticoats of native doth. Their dead are buried 
in the villages, the graves being ornamented by planted draccsnas and crotons. They 
maintain friendly relations with the Europeans, and on several occasions showed 
unmistakable marks of kindness. 

The coast-line between Sydney Islands and the Mukawa district^ in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kibirisi Point, is uninhabited, this section of the country being composed 
of imdulations formed of coral which occupy an area of probably 20 miles broad 
between the watershed range and the sea-shore. This tract gradually rises towards 
its western end, culminating opposite Sydney Islands at an altitude of probably 1,000 
feet, where the surface assumes a more rocky character than that of the lower levels 
of this area. Sydney Islands are each a few acres in extent, being of coral formationy 
very low, covered with trees, and uninhabited. From Kibirisi Point, which consists 
of several grassy plateaux, terminating in the sea, and separated by deep, narrow 

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North-east Coast of British New Ouinea. 61 

golliesi to Cape Sebiribiri, tb« coMt-Iine of the amall inteirening bay ia oocapied by 
the villageB of El^pik^pi, Eitora, Qinada, Ogerena, Inageto, and Ataiyo ; these are 
backed by low mangrove and undulating grassy country. Two interesting features 
exist opposite Kilpik^pi in the shape of huge masses of coral, each of probably 80 feet 
in height, being flat on the top with perpendicular faces ; these are occupied by pro« 
bably a dozen houses each. To gain access to these wooden ladders are used, which 
can be removed when not required. These houses, which were stocked with spears^ 
are apparently used for retreats when necessary. The houses on the shores of the 
bay were comparatively inferior, being built on piles, and having roofs so low that the 
interiors could not apparently be kept free from wet. The people were very friendly, 
being neither over shy nor demonstratively forward. 

The subject of our discourse upon the north-east coast of the poesession cott> 
dudes with Qoodenough Bay, a hook-shaped indentation between East Cape and 
Cape Sebiribiri. Its eastern arm comprises Ansell's Peninsula, a district rendered 
notorious by its horrid associationa in connection with the massacre of Captain Ansell 
and the destruction of the "Star of Peace" in 1888. The country at the head of 
this bay is interesting for the number of miniature plateaux, elevated probably 800 
feet above sea level, of which it is chiefly composed ; these picturesque areas an 
simply washed-down deposits from mountain ravines. The coast range, which is pro* 
bably 3,000 feet above the sea, trends towards the direction of north-west, its moun* 
tains and peaks being precipitous, rugged, and unclothed by forest mantle. 

Cape Sebiribiri is a broad projecting point of undulating, woody country, with 
no features of remarkable character to which special attention may be given. Judged 
by the general appearance of its native inhabitants, the climate of this part of the 
possession is probably healthy. The apparent absence, however, of navigable water- 
courses is greatly against settlement on land that may probably be available for that 
purpose back from the coast-line. 

The Trobriand, Murua (Woodlark) and Nada (Lauchlan) Islands are situated far 
away to the north and north-east of East Cape, between the parallels of 8° 25' and 
9" 23' south latitude and the meridians of 150° 30' and 153° 40' east longitude. 

Nada is a group of islets of about nine in number occupying the most easterly 
position, the whole forming an atoll, the lagoon of which is from seven to twelve 
fathoms deepi It is shaped like a horse shoe with the opening facing the west, and 
its value as a harbour is very considerable. The group is very low ; the vegetation 
consisting of trees, cocoanut palms, and other less prominent forms. The soil is poor, 
which necessitates dependence to some extent by the natives upon the productions of 
the island of Murua, for which privilege they make payment to the people thereof. 

According to Mr. Tetzlaf^ a resident trader of Nada, the natives of the group 
number 169 ; these provide themselves with numerous canoes in which their fishing 
and trading movements are conducted. The group is well supplied with fresh water, 
and, being apparently healthy, the several islets are desirable places for settlement. 

Murua Island, which lies west of Kada, possesses a good harbour on the southern 
aspect of its eastern end, the geographic position of which is in 9° 10' south latitude 
and 152° 55' east longitude. Longitudinally the island extends east and west for 
about 88 miles. This island was visited in July, 1890, by Sir William MacGregor, 
who examined Guasap Harbour, pronouncing favourably upon its natural advantages 
aa a secure haven. The natives of Murua, who are of the usual Papuan type, are 
active and intelligent ; they have entered the. iron age, consequently stone imple- 
ments were difficult to procure. Their arms consist of the spear, shield, tomahawk, 
and knife, the former being made of ebony, and the shield of a light, soft wood, 
painted white. Their food, which ia in great abundance, consists of yams, taro, and 

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62 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographiccd Society. 

Bweet potatoes. During the yean 1847-1852 the island of Muroa was ooeapied by 
the Mariste, who, in the midat of very great priyatbna, and in the faoe of the moat 
difloooraging obetaolea, laboured in the noble cause of Christianity, with self- 
sacriflcing love and aeal to duty which more modem preachers might emulate with 
credit to themselTes and advantage to the race. 

To the north-west of Murua lie the Trobriand Islands, the largest of which is 
situated in latitude 8^ 30' south and longitude about 151** east. The whole group is of 
coral formation, being densely forested, and the abundance of cultivated food every- 
where met with indicated the unmistakable fertility of the soil. The natives were very 
friendly, and ednced eager desires to trade with the members of Sir William 
Macgregor's expedition. They are typical Papuans, possessing a useful knowledge of 
wood-carving. They are remarkable experts in shield dancing, and performing 
graceful movements in social pastime. In general appearance these people bear a very 
dose resemblance to their neighbours of Murua. They catch great quantities of fish, 
which are, with other articles of food, cooked in wide-mouthed clay pots. It was 
found upon inspection that^ both in respect to resources and population, the 
Trobriand Group is of greater extent than previously reported, even of such magni- 
tude that the satisfactory accomplishment of its examination could not occupy less 
time than several weeka 

Astronomical Qeography. By E. P. Jackson, A.M. 74pp. Illustrated. 
Topics in Qeography. By W. F. Nichols, A.11 174pp. 

The Teacher's Manual of Geography, (l) Hmts to teauhersi (2) Modem 
facts and ancient fancies. By J. W. Redway. 174pp. 

The Reproduction of Geographical Forms, (i) Sand and day modelling with 

respect to geographical forms. (2) Map-drawing and map-projection. By J. W. 
Redway. 84pp. Tables and diagrams. The above are published by Heath and 
Co., Boston, U.S.A. 

How to Enliven Geographical Instruction and to Lighten It By Dr. K 

Ganzenmuller. 80pp. Reprinted from the American Geographical Society's 

These little books, inexpensive, but of considerable interest and value to teachers, 
abound in hints which will make the teaching of Geography a pleasure to the teacher. 
Some of them are illustrated with beautiful diagrams, most of which can easily be 
reproduced by the teacher, on a larger scale, on &e black-board. Dr. GanzenmiiUer^s 
sxnall pamphlet is interesting, and shows the way to make dry names full of interest 
to an intelligent dasa All the books are useful to those who are able to use them 
judiciously. They are intended to be suggestive text-books for teachers. 

The Student's Geography. Second Edition. Physical and Descriptive, 
Industrial and Commercial, Political and Social, Etymological and Historical. 
By George Gill, Member of the London Chamber of Commerce. 1,000 pages. 
200 maps and diagrams. 4s. 6d. 1891. George Gill and Sons, London. — ^The 
Second Edition of "Gill's Student's Geography" has been almost totally re- 
written, and is a full and ample text-book for teachers in relation to ordinary 
geographical teaching, and particularly to that latest development, Commercial Geo- 
graphy. The book has been produced in response to " the recent action taken by the 
leading members of this great commercial community, in harmony with the several 
examining bodies ;" and tids manual is characterised by the way it deals with the 
various industries of the nations and their economic products as connected with 
international trade, and, as is most fit in an English Geography, with British Com- 
merce more especially. The book is a perfect mine of facts, and marks a distinct 
advance in the production of admirable text-books on the subject There are a laige 
number of tables. Of course, if the book is to be of permanent value, new editions, 
carefully revised, wiU be necessary. A full index completes what is for the teacher 
and the student an admirable volume. Great care has been taken in this edition 
to present the most modem facts. 

Digitized by 


The Journey Acroea Thibet 68 


By Mr. MARK STIRRUP, F.O.S., one of the Members of the Counca of 

the Sodeiy. 

[Reed to the Members in the library, Tuesday, April 14th, 1891.] 

A SOMKWHAT remarhable journey of adventure and exploration across the Thibetan 
plateau, by M. Gabriel Bonvalot, a distinfi^ished French traveller, and the Prince 
Henri d'Orleana, the young son of the Due de Ghartres, was successfully accom- 
plished last year. M. Bonvalot had previously been engaged in conjunction with 
M. Gapus, a naturalist, in exploratory work in Central Asia, in 1880, 1881, 1882 ; and 
again in 1887 in a mission of exploration organised under the auspices of the Minister 
of Public Instruction of France, the expenses being voted by the Government, with 
the object of exploring the valley of the Upper Oxus and of penetrating into 
Kafiristan. This latter expedition returned to France in September, 1888,- after an 
absence of one year and seven or eight months, having explored the Pamir, crossed the 
Hindu Kush and the Himalayas, bringing home a collection of natural history, ethno- 
graphical objects, and numerous sketches and drawings. 

A few months after M. Bonvalot*s return to France, overtures were made to him 
by the Duke of Chartree* to undertake yet another journey into Central Asia, for 
exploratory purposes. This being an entirely private expedition, the expenses were 
borne by the Duke, who arranged that his eldest son, Prince Henry of Orleans, 
should accompany the party as cartographer and photographer. It says much for the 
courage and hardihood of the Prince, a young man of some 24 or 25 years, in thus 
undertaking a journey of exceptional difficulty and privation. 

The character of the country marked out to be traversed is of the most inhos- 
pitable description, and such as to deter any but the most determined travellers. 
The itinerary to be followed was entirely by laud, commencing at Paris and ending at 
the French possessions of Tonkin, thus traversing Asia and the plateau of Thibet ; 
croBsing the great rivers of China and the Indo-Chinese peninsula. Thibet is remark- 
able as being the most elevated mass of land on the globe, averaging about 15,000 
feet above the sea, some of its mountains ranging to upwards of 18,000 feet. This 
elevated land presents large desert tracts, basin-like depressions with grassy plains, 
often enclosing great lakes, which are frequently salt, and surrounded by snow-clad 
mountains. Not only are the physical features of the country and its extreme 
climate (owing to its elevation) a barrier to exploration, but under the regime of the 
Thibetan Government, which is largely influenced by China, penetration into the 
country is practically forbidden. Especially is this the case in any attempt to reach 
the capital, the holy city of Lhassa (the centre of the Buddhist religion), which stands 
on a plain surrounded by mountains, at a height of 11,000 feet above the sea, the 
roads to which are even kept secret, so as to prevent and bar the approach of profane 

Due do Cbortres, youngetit sou of the late Duke of Orleans, and gnmdaon of Louia Philippe, 

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64 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

or ourions eyes. To show the uduooB chaneter of exploration in oountrieB like Thibet^ 
it may be mentioned that recent well-appointed Ruasian expeditiona to Central Asia, 
in endeavouring to penetrate Kafiriatan, and reach the frontier of China, have saffinned 
aeverely, and been obliged to return with loaa of all their hones and baggage animale^ 
not'ao much from want of food, but owing to the extreme severity of the climate, 
due to its enormous altitude and constant storms. It does not appear probable that 
any trade route can either be practicable or profitable across such inhospitable 
steppes, where human beings are as scarce as the necessaries for sustaining life. 

An account of the journey of IL Bonvalot and Prince Henry of Orleans has been 
recently published in a special supplement of Le Tempt newspaper, and from this I 
have translated the following incidents of the expedition, which will give a lively idea 
of the difficulties of such an enterprise, and the obstacles to be overcome. IL 
Bonvalot's emphatic denunciation of the duplicity of Chinese diplomacy is especially 
worthy of attention, and may serve as a warning to future travellers in regions over 
which China's influence extends. 


Quitted Paris, July 6th, 1889. Traversed Russia ; stayed at Moscow to make 
numerous purchases ; pursued our way by Nijni Novgorod, Perm, the Oural, 
Tioumen, Tobolsk, and Omsk, making further purchases of European goods at Omsk ; 
departed for Semiretchid with all speed of troikas, only stopping at Tjarkent to 
organise the caravan before leaving Russian territoiy, as China commences two days' 
journey thence. To organise well a caravan for a journey, which will finish one knows 
not when, is one of the most difficult things explorers have to da Nothing must be 
forgotten— care must be used to cany only the useful — for in these countries carriages 
are not in use and rivers are* not navigable. In Africa the rivers are vehicles, 
here barriers. It is necessary then only to take that which is immediately service- 
able for exploration to avoid lengthening the file of camels, horses, and asses. The 
recruiting of the men is the worst part of the business on the frontier of Siberia^ 
and we regretted that our base of operations was no6 in Turkestan, where brave 
fellows are recruited easily. 

At Tjarkent we found only men of little value to enrol, and not by any means 
cut out for a long travel Rachmed, our old exploring companion, came to join us 
at Moscow ; he was the recruiter. Not a single earnest or good one ofifored ; none but 
the idle, the indebted, people who wished to pass the frontier under our protection — 
none of those bold adventurers of Turkestan, with decided, vigorous air, who, having 
been face to face with death, would follow through fire the master that chance 
gives him, provided that the master knows how to attach him, sometimes by an equal 
mixture of good and bad treatment. 

At Konld ja we received with pleasure into our band Father Dedeken, a Belgian 
missionary, speaking Chinese fluently, who was resolved to follow us as far as the 
Indo-Chinese coast. The Russian consul at Kouldja gave no encouragement to the 
expedition, smiling with incredulity when the Prince told him we were going to try 
to arrive at Batang. '* Remember," said he, " you have no escort, no tent of felt, no 
Chinese passport." But experience has demonstrated that we could do without these 
three things said to be absolutely indispensable. Moreover, as regards the passport^ 
the principal cause of our success was the not having acquainted the Tsung-Ii-Yamen 
of Pekin. If we had asked for a passport to travel in these seldom-visited parts of 
China, we should at the same time have aroused the attention of these excellent 
Chinese diplomatists, and their Qovemment would have given us the warmest letters 
of recommendation ; but, once our itinerary known, secret orders would have been 

Digitized by 


The Journey Across Thibet. 65 

■ent in advanoe, so that all means should be employed to bar the route and to 
oblige us to retrace our steps. Such has been the fate of aU travellers in China, 
from the late Prjeyalsky to Riohthofen, of Count Bela Szechny, and many others. 
It would be necessary, rest assured, to persuade oneself once for all that the perfidy 
of Chinese mandarins, be they diplomatists or goyemors, has no equal but the sim- 
plicity of Europeans, sufficiently European to believe in the good futh and in the 
honesty of the ceremonious sons of the Celestial Empire. Upon this point we 
advance nothing lightly or thoughtlessly. 

Depart from Kouldja, with the authorisation of the Chinese Qovemor of the 
Province, and with two guards, who conducted us to the frontiers of the Province 
of III. At the same time there departed, by a more rapid route, the order to stop us , 
once that frontier passed. 

Arrived there in traversing the valleys of Kaoh, of Koungez, and of Touldouz, 
i.e., all the chain of the Tien-Chay, Monts Celestes. We had picturesque encamp- 
ments there, good fires of pines in the evening, good hunting, and a pleasant time 
under the tents of the EirKhiz. There we also came into contact with the Buddhist 
world among the Ealmouks, the last survivors of the great exodus which took place 
in the last centuiy. Being nomads, they have monks who are equally so. Saw a 
Lamasery installed under the tents of felt. In winter the Lamas return to their 


In this region one frequently meets some oboe along the roads and at the 
summits of the passes. The obos are not only heaps of stones, but also stones on 
which a prayer has been engraved. Travelling Lamas, or simple workmen, go about 
the Buddhist world and offer their services to the faithful. They are lodged, some- 
times they are paid, and according to the generosity of one's behaviour they engrave 
mysterious formulse upon a more or less number of stones, which are deposited upon 
the heights, especially at points where, in the passes, the beasts are allowed to breath 
after a laborious ascent. Passers-by add to the engpiived stones other stones, and it is 
always in praying that they add to them. Sometimes they plant poles in the heap, 
and attach streamers, squares of stuff, on which are printed long prayers, which 
the wind agitates, and in this way the wind participates in the redemption, or better, 
it facilitates the transmigration of souls that are separating from bodies not very fit to 
live in. We see, for the first time, traced in gigantic letters on the flanks of the Monts 
Celestes (Celestial Mountains), the sacred words Om man6 Padmi houm. Millions 
of men murmur them during their short life, in the hope of a better eternity Our 
tent was neither large nor comfortable, its height being that of an ordinary man, 
but it was just so long and wide that all three of us could stretch ourselves 
under the felts and make our notes by the light of the lantern — eating, with legs 
orosaed, out of a single bowl of wood, wherein was heaped, on fortunate days, a 
charming palao, and in which, later on, were congealed, in grease not very odoriferous, 
morsels of leathery meat, that one fished out with the fingers. All just like what 
the heroes of Homer did. Slept well in the tents, rolled up in a warm pelisse made 
of the long-haired skins of the Turkestan sheep. Learned to bear the transitions 
of temperature. In the low valley of Koungez the heat had ranged from plus 40'' C. 
in the shade, and in the high valley of Youldouz the cold registered minus 20^ during 
t>he night. Here we loet by desertion three of the servants. 

Arrived at Korla on 6th October. Here we bought rice, bread, com, salt, &a, 
for traversing the high plateaus. Here also arrived the order to stop us and forbid us 
going further. 

Digitized by 


66 Tfie Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

Departed on lOth. Menaced by an attack outtide the town, bat we never^ 
theless proceeded. 

At some days' distance from Korla had to cross the Koutch^ I)<^^ but neither 
bridge nor ford exist on the route of Lob Nor. We had to employ the nattTes to 
construct rafts, over which we had difficulty to pass the camels, which were frightened 
at this means of transport. The horses swam across and rolled in the sand on the oppo- 
site shore. Twice we had to cross the river upon rafts, then pursued the route along 
the TarinL The rare inhabitants who occupy its banks are fishermen and hunters ; 
their misery is great ; the richest among them would be deemed poor with us. 
The soil being saline, hardly provides them the wherewithal to furnish a little 
bread. At Tcharkhalyk, west of Lob Nor, we sent back, with three of our Russian 
Siberian followers, our ethnographic and natural histoiy collections, and engaged 
others, who turned out very useful, and to whom the success of the expedition is 
partly owing. In the account of the travels of the Englishman Carey, there is the 
question of a route going to Lbassa by the Kizil Sou, a river which would be 
found beyond the chain that Prjevalsky saw, and called Columbo. Carey had 
heard speak of this route by natives, but they had not shown it to him. It was 
necessary to find it at all costs. 

During our sojourn at Tcharkhalyk the natives were questioned, but without 
obtaining predse information. We decided to take up the itinerary followed by Carey 
when he passed near to the ^ Lake which freezes not," in order to reach Bokalik, the 
land of gold. All sorts of difficulties were raised by the followers — the camels could 
not go. It was enough to discourage less decided and less experienced travellers. ** Ton 
cannot cross that pass, that river, this desert." Rachmed concluded with Bonvalot, 
we will go and see. 


November 17. — Caravan quitted Tcharkhalyk in the afternoon, and encamped a 
few kilometres from village in the sands, not far from water. The desert waited on 
the threshold of the oasis. The temperature began to be disagreeable, and all w«re 
clothed in pelisses. Thus on November 17th we had to support 50** of difference 
of temperature — 16** of frost in the night after 84° of heat in the sun. The air was 
calm, and we did not complain. The wind is the great enemy of the traveller. 

November 18. — ^A light breeze from south dissipated a little the mist which hid 
from us the Altyn Tag, and we perceived high mountains. Abdoullah said that on 
the other side commenced the country of the icy winds. This is quite characteristio 
of the plateaus of Thibet. 

November 28. — Quitted the narrow valley in which we were and cleared the P«to« 
des Sables, and ascended some hundreds of metres. Following on the fatigue of the 
ascent^ several commenced to complain of headaches, buzzing in the ears, and a wish to 
vomit. Our gold-seekers explained this as being due to the heaviness of the air — mal 
de montagne. In night of 27th November this feeling was much worse. Our troop was 
harassed — many bled from the nose, for we had ascended to nearly 5,000 metres ; the 
inclination being very steep, one was obliged in places to hoist the camels and carry 
the baggage on men's backs from the bottom ; and after the men, new to these parts, 
saw, as recompense for all their pains, that they were in the middle of a narrow stony 
▼alley, arid, naked, without water and without the least brushwood, they became dis- 
couraged. If, further on, the road is not better, what will become of us, they said ? 
They reproached one another for being dragged into such an adventure. Nothing 
was heard in the bivouac but complaints. Frozen rivers — ^plains shining with salt- 
true desert 

Digitized by 


The JouTTiey Across Thibet. 67 

December 4, 1889.— Enoamped near a little saline lake ; met some himten of 
Lob Nor, from whom we tried to get some information of our route southwards 
{across the Thibetan plateau), but without success. The route to Lhassa is kept 
secret) and this we tried to find. Fortunately a caravan of ^almouk pilgrims, 
coming from south, is espied in the distance. Two horsemen are detached to examine 
it, and finding the feet of the camels in good condition, notwithstanding their long 
journey, we endeavour to follow the tracks left by them, although often there are 
few, owing to the hard ice-bound soil. We found, however, preceding years' tracks, 
as well as fresh, which we followed joyfully southwards. We informed the members 
4>f the caravan of our intention to proceed direct upon Lhaasa. The prince was charmed, 
but some of the others were depressed. "We are without papers. What shall we do f 
How shall we escape out of the hands of the Thibetans, whom the Chinese direct I " 
Some of our band refused to go further. They left the party near the lagoons of 
the lake which Prjevalsky and Carey named the " Lake which freezes not.*' We are 
now in the desert, which is without brushwood and without water ; the wind blow- 
ing with violence, and 20*" C< of cold — before us the unknown. 

December 11. — ^Departing southwards the spectacle was not exhilarating ; travers- 
ing belts of ice, which bar the route, upon the border of which were carcases of camels, 
mangled by wild beasts, and one saw springmg out of the ice the backs of camels 
which had been drowned with their conductors. 

We had followed up to December 31, not without trouble, the track, sometimes 
losing it. We encamped where previous caravans had encamped, making use of the 
duQgof yaks and camels, the only fuel obtainable on the plateaus of Thibet, for 
warming purposes. We then pursued our way, keeping a sharp eye on the direction 
of the footprinta before us. Occasionally a troop of antelopes was seen feeding on 
the Ugneous herbage of the lower grounds ; here and there a wolf or fox. One day a 
flock of crows was heard croaking above us, waiting for the body of some abandoned 
beast of burden. We had a flock of sheep with us as part of our provisions. 
As we advanced southwards we insensibly mounted higher. At first our camps 
were at 4,000 metres, then at 4,500 and 5,000 metres. All sufifered with mal de 
montaffne^ pains in head and stomach, bleeding at nose, coughing. The beasts rapidly 
lost their strength, and both the horses and camels dragged themselves miserably along. 
Glacial nights, with occasional storms, enough to kill man and beast. 

December 22. — First horse died. One of the men fell down helpless. Horses 
had had no water to drink for seven days. They were not yet resigned to bite the 
ice or lick the snow to satisfy their thirst. Some of the men were seeking a spring. 
Men lost for a time. Difficult on these plateaus to recover your path. No trees, 
houses, animals, &c., to guide your wandering gaze. AU idea of perspective is lost. 
The only means of finding the way back is to return upon your traces or feet marks. 
Rachmed was lost for thirty hours. In a desert like this every man was valuable. Niaa, 
the camel driver, died of fatigue and cold (30** to 35° of cold). 

January 1, 1890. — ^Tempest. Blinded by wind and sand. Lost all traces of the 
route. Directed ourselves by compass. During the whole month of Januaiy marched by 
compass in the most monotonous and most deserted of deserts. Nothing but ascents 
and deecents, rounding the hills, and traversing frozen lakes. Sometimes a chain of 
hills barred the path, over which a pass was searched for. Found lavas on the steppe, 
and extinct volcanoes to which we gave names. Cold augments. Mercury frozen. 
40"* oi cold. 

January 8. — Arrived on the borders of the great lake, 70 or 80 kilometres long 
And 20 kilometres wide, which we called Lake Montcalm. 

January 18 and 14. — Encamped at 5,500 metres. Still volcanoes and lavas. Our 

Digitized by 


68 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographiccd Society. 

tent at foot of a peak of 8,000 metres. On morrow, oroeaed a paaa of 6,000 metres, witb 
glaciers on the west, and enormous peaks. We were in the middle of the highest massif we 
had seen, all covered with snow and ioe. Called them Monts Dapleix. Marched upon the 
ice of the river, whose direction was southwards, as the most easy and convenient path. 
We were not far from glaciers, which perhaps are the origin of the Tang-tse-Kiang. All 
around were small lakes and ponds, then this wide river, and immense blocks of ice of 
great thickness. When later on the sun melts these prodigious " preserves '* of ice, 
there must be, in this region, in the neighbourhood of Monts Dupleix, a prodigious 
breaking up, an inundation, leaving lakes upon the high plateaus, which they traverse 
in rivers, carrying thick mud, and leaving on the flanks of the hills, in the creeks, 
deposits made from the debris of the heights. These deposits remain there until the 
following sununer. The winter arrests anew the course of the rivers, then under the 
heat of the sun the aolidifled masses again become liquid. They begin to move and to 
give way, carrying with them deposits which from year to year, from stage to stage, they 
finish by carrying still lower, unceasingly obstructing the valleys, widening the gorges, 
spreading out deltas, as if a superior will had said to them, " Gro, you waters, in 
concert with the winds and the oold, and demolish the mountain and level the land." 

January 18. — Saw wolves, foxes, and monkeys, at 5,500 metres, and traces of 
summer camps. Killed hares with red feet Passed near some hot springs, barely salt. 
In the naked plain, some blocks, isolated pyramids of ice, astonished us ; they were 
frozen geysers. 

January 20. — Large troops of wild yaks traversed the plain out of range of odr g^ns. 
The men were anxious to see signs of fellow men, were tired of the desert, and of long 
marches without seeing anything, even the smoke of a fire. We advanced up hill and 
down dale. Our stages were short, our beasts without strength, the surviving 
horses only able to carry the saddles and bags. 

January 27. — ^Saw running water ; tasted it, and found it not to be salt The neigh- 
ouring hills covered with old grass, a feast for our weary beasts. The water was 
warmed by numerous hot springs, and we saw small fishes — rare occurrence — 
swimming in the stream. All was hope and joy in the camp, thinking the journey 
almost ended, but this stream ended in a frozen lake at a few kilometres distance. 
The traces of encampments and tracks of flocks were more frequent as we advanced. 

January 80. — Were convinced we were upon the Lhassa road. On t^e morrow we 
heard the cry of a man. One of the party was sent to invite him to come near. He 
turned out to be a Thibetan — short, thin, bareheaded, with small eyes, beardless, 
with long hair falling over his face and forming a thick trees upon the back, a thick 
pelisse of sheepskin covering his otherwise naked body, never washed since he was 
bom. On our appearance he rose and presented his respects in a strange manner. 
He bowed, raised his thumbs, and put out his enormous tongue, allowing it to hang 
down half a foot Conversation was difficult, as he knew neither Chinese nor Mongol, 
and our stock of Thibetan was very slight. Other Thibetans now arrived, carrying 
lances, matchlocks, and sabres. They entered into conversation, but gestures rather 
than words were the medium. We showed ingots of silver, and evinced the desire of 
purchasing some of their sheep. We endeavoured to obtain information about Lhassa, 
but it was contradictory, and as we were persuaded we were on the right road we 
continued on it, disbelieving the false tales of these frightful savages. 


We perceived from time to time the tents of natives in the sheltered valleys. 
Horsemen mounted upon diminutive ponies fled when they perceived us. It seemed 
as if a void was being made before us. 

Digitized by 


The Journey Across Thibet, 69 

February 2. — Small companies of horsemen watched us. They followed us, but 
at a distance out of reach of oar g^ns. Sometimes two or three of the boldest would 
approach our camp, of which our dogs warned us. 

February 5. — Were accosted by a chief speaking Mongol, accompanied by a 
numerous escort He was a&ble, very amiable, and invited us to go no farther. 
Frequently lesser chie&, surrounded with horsemen, came to g^ve us similar counsel 
in a few Mongol words. We answered by asking for sheep and milk. If they refused 
the sheep we took them by force, paying for them at double price. 

February 18. — Still pursuing our way, we are upon borders of Lake Namtso, " Lac 
du Ciel," a mirror of ice seventy kilometres long, by ten to twenty in width, which 
spreads out at a height of 4,700 metres. Many times had we thought to be near this 
lake; but lakes are numerous in this region, and when, from the height of a 
pass, we perceived across the mountains a patch of ice, the extremity of a pool or lake, 
we supposed it to be Lake Namtso, but on approach found it to be too smalL This great 
lake is surrounded by mountains on the east On this side it has a beach, on which 
we encamped. To the south it is dominated by the white peaks of Ninjin Tangla. 
Li this region the horsemen who were watching us increased in numbers, though keeping 
at a distance. We marched again for two days, leaving Kamtso behind us. But it 
was necessary that a stop be put to our march in the mountains, in the pass which leads 
to Lhaasa. The Thibetan authorities invited us to encamp, in order to palaver. The 
tribes of the plateau seemed to have been summoned. Three or four hundred horse- 
men, armed with lances, sabres, and matchlocks, were grouped within view of our 
small band. 

Februaiy 17. — We decided to open negotiations. On December 17 we entered the 
desert, and without leaving it we had marched about 1,400 kilometres. All our horses 
were dead, our camels worn out ; in eight days more all would be dead. The camel 
driver still possessed seven or eight capable of marching a few days. The men were 
exhausted, without strength, broken down in spirit, astomshed, surprised al this 
journey, which they had accomplished much against their wish, and they were now 
worth little for a coup de main. The negotiations opened with the Thibetans, who 
commenced with menaces and finished amicably. 

On February 17, serious pourpctrlers commenced. They lasted until April 5, date 
when we continued our travel These Thibetans of Lhassa are very suspicious 
temporizers. They took us at first to be Russians, members of the Petzoff Expedi- 
tion, which they had received notice from Pekin to stop by all possible means. 
How, remark that Petzoff was furnished with all the passports, all the Chinese papers 
that a Chancellor's office can imagine. It is the custom of Pekin : smiles before 
your fiioe, treachery behind your back. It would seem that straightforwardness does not 
exist in the oountiy ; neither plighted word nor signed papers have any value, from 
what we have been able to judge. These yellow men only bend before force and 
accomplished fact. With regard to the Thibetans, they have not left with us any dis- 
agreeable, souvenir, although they have often furnished the occasion to swear at their 
slowness in being persuaded. Thus, it took twelve or thirteen days to convince them 
that we were French and not Russian. It is true they had never in their life seen 
any of our oountiymen. Our nationality established, it remained to prove to them 
that our intentions were not bad ; that we did not nourish any black designs ; and 
that when we asserted something, we had the habit of executing it. Thanks to some 
aiguments ad hominem, we perfectly established this last pomt It took us one long 
month to convince them we were friends, not enemies. These principal men of 
Lhassa were acute diplomatists, of unheard-of patience and incredible tenacity. 
Had they a suspicion, they sought to clear it up, a hundred times returning to the 

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70 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

subject niey excelled in the art of turning a man inside or out — getting at his 
secret thoughts. In the tent of each chief was set up a little chapel, a lamp burning 
before it, or small wax candles, on fdte days. Each night they prayed for several 
hours, singing in loud voices, among which were some superb basses. 

At last, April 5, we set off towards the '* Little Tea Road," which would lead us 
to Batang, en route to HanoL We were furnished with means of transport and left 
good friends. Our guide was a big Lama, of whom we had not in the least to com- 
plain. Before directing our course to the east we bid adieu to part of our men, to the 
half which returned towards the north by the grand route of the caravans. The 
Thibetans f urmshed us with food, for we had to traverse deserts where nothing was 
cultivated and men are rare. Our men of Lob Nor melted into tears on quitting us ; 
some months of common suffering had made them devoted friends. We know not 
what has become of them. 

The new route, unknown, that we followed from north of Lhaasa to Batang, 
is a secret road, of which the Chinese are ignorant—it is easier than the "tn'eat 
road" followed previously by Fathers Hue and Qabet Have difiBicultiee with the 
savage tribes that we visit. Encounter the hostility of those which are independent 
and live by brigandage. However, by diplomacy and by force our troop of six 
persons has been able to make about 1,600 kilometres in the unknown, before 
reaching the route of our French missionaries. After 2,600 or 2,700 kilometres of 
the unknown it remains to tell of the long road in the mountain of Tohangka to 
Batang, then to Litang, to Tatsien Lou, the extreme frontier of Thibet, and from 
there towards the south, across Setchuen, and then Yunnan to Tonkin. 

From April 5 our luggage was carried on the backs of yaks, or of men, as far as 
Tatsien Lou. I hadunpleasant reminiscences of the yaks at Wakham (north of the Pamir). 
Those of Thibet were more robust, faster, but quite as savage and intractable. It 
was difficult to load them, to bring them together ; they marched pell-meU, according 
to their fancy, climbing to right or left, running after a tuft of grass, leaping from 
almost perpendicular bluffo, although laden, with surprising skill Our poor trunks 
were subjected to many a shock, owing to these cursed oxen, which have tails like a horse. 
But these yaks thrive where any other beast would die of hunger, and the products 
of their digestion constitute a very precious combustible. 

Although more picturesque than the one we had followed previously, the new 
route appeared very long to many among us. Nothing but mountains ; they were 
wooded as we approached the east, and inhabited by miserable Thibetans. Moreover, 
we had charming landscapes, especially as we approached Batang, and it was with 
joy that we again met with the majority of our European trees. 

June 24. — ^We arrived at Tatsien Lou on St. John's Day, and the anniversaiy of 
Solf erino. We were welcomed there by compatriots, French missionaries. The whole 
of France was represented in this comer of China. The first father among the 
vanguard that we saw was from Langres (Father Couroux) ; the second. Father 
G^eraudet, from Nantes ; then Father Dejean, of Bordeaux ; lastly, M. Biet, of 
Langres, having at his side an Albanian mountaineer. Natives of Breton, Franche- 
Comt^ Champagne, Gascony, and Burgundy, all were as good as they could be to us. 

Thanks to the kindness of Monsignor Biet and his missionaries, we were able to 
regain sufficient strength and health to depart July 28, and arrive, crossing Setchuen 
and Yunnan, at the Red River, which we descended in canoes. 

Lastly, all the six of us arrived September 28 at HanoL It was almost France, 
at the very least it may be said to be a morsel of fatherland, in the extreme east 
Useless to say with what joy we entered again into civilised life, heard our national 
tongue, saw again our flag and our soldiers proudly wearing their imifonn. Useless 

Digitized by 


The Journey Across Thibet. 71 

to speak alflo of the warm reoeption given to the Frenchmen who arrived from the 
west aoroae the Asiatic continent by a route that no one had ever trod. We stayed 
at Hanoi about a month, resting from our fatigues, before starting again for France, 
vi& Saigon, Singapore, Ceylon, Suez to Marseilles. Thus our journey had led us 
through Siberia, and the immenie icy plateaus of Central Asia, to the tonid regions 
of Indo-China, and in 15 months we had traversed the old continent^ explored 
Thibet^ and gathered rich oollectioDS for France. 

On November 22, 1890, M. Gabriel Bonvalot, the Prince Henry of Orleans, and 
Father Dedeken disembarked at Marseilles. 

The following day they arrived in Paris, and were warmly received at the railway 
station by a delegation of the Paris Qeographical Society, by whom they were 
felicitated on their happy triumph over the dangers of every kind which had beset 
them ; and in the words of the President of the Society, M. A. de Quatrefages, they 
were thanked "for the great and glorious psge which they had just added to the 
history of the earth, in tracing an entirely new route of about 2,500 kilometres in the 
highest region of the globe." 

The coUections made during the journey have since been given to the State by M. 
Bonvalot and the Prince, and an exhibition of them has been opened to the public 
(June, 1891), in the Zoological Gallery of the Museum, Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 

They form two groups :(1) natural history ; (2) ethnography. 

The first contains a numerous and interesting series of mammals and birds. 

Among the former may be mentioned examples of the wild horse (FqiMt Hcmg) 
from the region of Lob Nor, an antelope {Pantholopa Hodgsoni)^ Ovis potij the laif^est 
of the Ovidse, a wild yak, a member of the family of Bovid», or oxen, bearing the 
scientific name of Pcephagta grunnienSf from its grunting like a pig — this wild species 
is larger and stronger than the domesticated variety, and is a native of the mountains 
of Thibet — a bear from Lob Nor, a variety of Ursui Sjfriacus, and a specimen of 
Urtut eoUariij several species of Fdii, as the ounce {Pdis irbU\ or great panther, 
which is very numerous in Thibet^ Fdis chinensiSf Fdia niffripectut (manvl)f Felis 
Skawiawij a large lynx (Lynx rufut), and many representatives of other and smaller 

Flora. — The collection of plants, the work of the Prince, consistB of 484 species, 
among which are 80 new to science. The character of the vegetation is Himalayan, 
that of high summits, in which dryness and violent winds prevaO, which cause the 
shrubs and herbaceous plants to be stunted and dwarfed. 

The second group, ethnography, contains a series of curious objects having con- 
nection with the costume and religion of the people. In addition to these there are 
nearly 800 photographs, all good and sucoeasf uUy taken, representing Thibetan types — 
groups of men and women, views of the country traversed, and of the primitive-looking 
habitations of the natives, &c. 

Albnm des Services Maritimes, Postanz Fran^a^B ^^ Etraagers avee 
Notices Oommerciales snr les Principanz Ports, Fran^ais et EtrangerSi 
By MM. Paul Jaccottey and Maxime Mabyre. 8 maps. 34 pages of Notes and Index. 
Ch. Delagrave, Paris. — This series of maps g^ves the postal services of France, the lines 
of navigation, telegraphic communication throughout the world, and the principal 
ports are marked. The maps are of large size and beautifully printed. For 
commercial purposes and for the teaching of commercial geography they are of very 
great value. One of the maps may be seen at the Library of the Society. 

Digitized by 


72 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

[Mrs. Moir'8 letters, read at the Library, February 25th, 189t] 

Ujiji, Lake Tanganyika^ 14th July, 1890. 

I want to tell you about our journey and our new experienoee. On Tueedny, 
8th July, we got all our loads ready, viz., three cases proYisions, two baskets 
food, and cooking utensils, one tin box, one bed, one bag, blankets, one camera 
box, and a number of loads of calico and stuff for trading. Some of these were sent 
on by road (about three hours' walk) to Niam Rorlo, and we went in the faithful big 
canoe. We left Chuanganya* behind in a state of great griel We reached Niam 
Borlo about 1 o'clock, and had lunch and dinner with Mr. Carson, and at 6 o'clock got 
on board the Morning Star and arranged our things. Sailed at 6-80 p.m., leaving 
Mrs. Swann on the beach in a forlorn state. Mr. Swann, Fred and myself Kiongwe, 
and twenty natiyes, formed the passengers and crew. We made a quick paasage to 
Karema, one of the stations of the French Roman Catholic mission. We arrived on 
Fridifty at 7 in the morning, but to do this we sailed night and day — ^indeed none of ua 
undressed all the way to Ujiji, and Mr. Swann never slept at night all the way. 

I want to tell you about Karema, and the wonderful progress the French Roman 
Catholic Mission is making. The missionaries themselves are called " Lavigerie's 
White Fathers." There are five of these men on each station, and a bishop over 
them who sails about Tanganyika and visits each of the three stations in turn. The 
missionaries guarantee to protect the people, but not to go out and fight. So their 
stations are built like forts, and are very strong and loopholed all round. A colonel 
or captain, Tubert, a soldier in the Papal army, has come out to do the fitting 
department. He is not a missionary^ and lives by himself with his native troops, and 
his work is to defend the mission stations if they are in danger.t 

These White Fathers are dressed in long white (when clean) flannel, white and 
black rosaries, and great big helmets, and are very nice men. When they are sent 
here they come for life ; they leave only when they die 1 One of the Fathers at 
Karema has been twelve years on Tanganyika ; he looks very weak and ill, but is able 
for work. Their plan of operations is to buy from Arabs, chiefs, parents or relatives 
several hundred small boys and girls from three to five years old. The children live 
in houses round the court of the monastery or fort, and gradually grow up. £very 
child is taught to work, and each hoes its little bit of garden, and they are brou^^t 
up strictly as Roman Catholics. I forgot to say the Fathers plant their stations in 
districts where there are no villages, but lots of ground for cultivating. As these 
children grow, the big boys are sent to live in a village by themselves near the convent 
and the big girls ditto. Then when a boy wants to marry he gets a girl, and they 
live together in another village further off and are pure Roman Catholics, knowing no 
^ther religion or superstition. As each person cultivates his garden the Mission is 
practically self-supporting, and the only heavy expense is the buying of children year 

* Her native servant. 

t Mrs. Moir adds in a poetscript : " Since writing i^e above we have beard that Captain 
Yubert is an agent of the Ck>n£ro Free State. He has done some fighting in defence of the lois- 
■ions and the people under him, and has tiierefore rather got into hot water with the Arabs, 
whose influence is pretty well panunount on Lake Tanganyiluu From all aocounts ho does not 
seem to be very well supported from headquarters, yet this may be from the diflSculty of trans- 
port through the district of Stanley Falls, where Tippoo Tib is governor and practically ruler. 

Digitized by 


Gorreapondence. 78 

by year. The priests do not teaoh ^lany of them to read, but rather encourage them 
in indnstrial oooupationi. One station has now one thousand church goers. Two 
Protestant missionaries said to us, '^ Don't be surprised if some time you find the 
whole shores of Tanganyika Roman Catholic." The weak point is the buying of the 
children, as it enoouragee slavery ; but otherwise, it seems to me, they show great 
wisdom, and their natives turn out satisfactory. 

Well, I have told you a lot about the Karema Mission, but we felt great interest 
in it. There is no comparison between the progress they have made and that of the 
L. M. S. Mission on the lake, who so far have little hold of the people, though they 
work bravely. 

Two days more, with favourable winds, brought us to Ujiji, where we landed on 
Sunday forenoon, and were conducted to the verandah of one of the leading Arabs. 
Here we squatted on mats, and slaves brought us tea, and Huntley and Palmer's honey 
wafsrs, and then coffee. Soon Rumalisa* came, a tall, very thin, middle-aged man, 
extremely quiet and gentle in his manner, but with a certain dignity about hiuL He 
took us to his house, which is much the largest in Ujiji, and presently we were seated 
in his verandah on a Persian rug, and went through the same programme of tea, coffee^ 
and sweets. As we were tired we said we should like to wash and rest, so ten girl 
slaves were sent to bring water in large copper pots, with which they filled great clay 
pots in a most ingenious bathroom. After washing we were taken to the chief room 
of the house, a magnificent apartment, though not over clean, some 40 by 15 feet. 
It opened off the women's court, and during all our stay in Ujiji our ears were 
refreshed by the constant loud shrill chatter of some sixty to eighty girls. We were 
requested not to allow our boys to attend upon us, but Rumaliaa told us, through 
Kiongwe, we might have four, six, or eight girls to do everything we wanted — girl 
boys as Kiongwe called them. We had an old slave, Atibo, to cook for us, and a 
capital oook she wss, and two girls sat constantly, either outside or inside our room, 
to get whatever we wanted. At first they were very attentive, but latterly were 
impudent and not so willing. What a laughing, talking, quarrelling, idle lot these 
women were. The most of them plaited grass, with which they made beautiful mats, 
but many of the wives did little or nothing. There are two Muscat wives, who live 
in one room, and do not go out, and some twenty slave wives, very handsome women, 
who each have five or six common slave girls to wait on them. And these make up 
Rumalisa's Ujiji household. He has many other such, and his chief wife is in 
Zanzibar. All are well dressed and well fed, and proud of their position ; very dif- 
ferent from the wretched creatures in chains and slave sticks, who are sold in the 
market ss beasts of burden to carry ivory, Ac., to the coast. 

July 16th. 
What a day this has been of being interviewed, and trying to speak to 
the women, and to understand what they are saying to me. As soon as I was 
dressed, I was carried off to see them cook a sort of bread they make from wheat. 
They make it into fiat cakes and drop them into boiling butter, but the butter is not 
nice like ours. They also cook quantities of all sorts of sweet things for Rumalisa and 
his guestSp and we see every morning a huge brass tray being carried across the court 
to his house on a slave boy's head. They always bring us our share of the dainties. 
After seeing the bread finished we had breakfast as usual of beautiful rice and the 
invariable sort of curry stew. Then the old cook, Atibo, made some very nice blanc- 
mange of fine rice fiour and milk, and instead of putting it into a big dish she filled 

* The chief Anb at UJIJL' 

Digitized by 


74 The Joumai of the Manchester Geographical Society 

all the sauoen and shallow plates she oould lay hands on with it. We did not know 
if she was cooking it for us or for Rumalisa^ but after we had about finished break- 
fast in came one after another eight or ten women, each carrying a plate of this stuff, 
which they set down beside us. Fred said that was a great deal to brings but one of 
the head slave wives answered, ** It wouldn't do for you to say that the people of 
Rumalisa did not give you enough to eat." I have forgotten to say that before 
breakfsst we went out to the market and took three photographs. I can*t tell you 
what a queer place Ujiji is — in fact one must see it to understand what a mixture of 
civilisation and its opposite are herei Think of a daily market in this outlandish 
place, where goat meat, salt, a sort of butter, flour, rice, mats, ivory, ground nuts, 
bananas, dried fiah, are sold for regular prices, and whiore the money consiBts of beads. 
It is not as with us at Mandala, a case of barter, but regular buying and selling, the 
special beads used being valueless except as money. Here we saw the most primitive 
of natives in his skin apron, and the wealthy Arabs, and their head-slaves, swathed in 
calico, and the various grades between. Ujiji is composed of Rumalisa's house, the 
chief Arab, and some half-dozen other Arabs, who live in their tembes, or big houses, out- 
side of which live in their huts the married slaves and odd people, such as boys and old 
people. There are also some tradesmen — ^native smiths, tailors, sugar makers, &o., 
and the natives of the place, who are of little or no account To go on with to-day, 
however. After breakfast, and on till evening; I had a constant flow of women in, 
so that both Fred and I are now quite tired — he with buying quantities of ivoiy and 
marking all the tusks, ninety I think — and I with talking and being agreeable. The 
two white wives ventured across the court to call for me this afternoon, and were in 
a state of fear lest Fred should come in and see theuL I showed them photographs 
of Mandala House, baby, &o., and gave them sweeties and biscuits, but must say 
they are disagreeable-looking women. The head one made no effort to be pleaaant, 
but lolled in a chair and stared about, and wanted to see things and to get sweets to 
eat She wasn't pleased because we hadn't the sort of biscuits she wished, but con- 
descended to let her slave take away a few, which, no doubt, she would try in her 
own quarters. They are totally ignorant, and have no ideas beyond the gossip and 
scandal they and the other women talk about all day long. I wasn't sorry when they 
took their departure. 

I will now go on to give you an account of the return voyage and of our dhow 

A Tanganyika dhow is a rare-looking piece of patchwork. Its foundation is a 
large canoe, say 40 feet long, into which they nail strong ribs, and add several planks 
to the sides to make it higher above the water. There isn't a straight line in its 
whole construction, and unless you saw one you couldn't believe the way they cobble 
them up and cut out rotten bits, putting in new pieces of wood. We saw several 
boats waiting for repair at Ujiji, which were in such a terrible state of dilapidation 
that they looked fit for nothing but firewood. Still the native carpenters seldom lose 
hope of even such wrecks, and patch and caulk with palm oil and cotton till they 
have the old things afloat again. There is a small platform at each end of a dhow, 
and seats for the rowers in between, a mast, and one huge lateen sail. We have in 
our boat fourteen rowers and a captain, besides our own eight boys, whom we brought 
with us, who live in the bottom of the dhow on the top of the cargo and bilge water. 
We live on the stem platform, and have a sort of erection to keep the sun ofL In 
this place — five by four and a half feet — ^we have existed for eighteen days and nights, 

Digitized by 


Correspondence. 76 

through atorniB, and calms, and burning son. When the eaptain remembers to put it 
up, we have the Arab flag flying. It is oompoeed of pieces of Turkey red and white 
calico sewed together, and on the white part is written a bit of the Koran in ink. 

Well, theo, pictare as departing from Ujiji at midday on Saturday, 19th July, in 
the best of spirits at finally getting o£E^ and quite pleased with our barks. For the 
first two days and nights we thought we had discovered the very pleasantest way of 
trsYelling. How delightful it was to glide along for a few hours before a fair wind, 
and then when it ceased to anchor in some out-of-the-way bay, where the primitive 
inhabitants came, first warily and with some fear, to offer dried fish and obher things 
for sale, and then, when they gained confidence, coming in numbers, the queer 
-women, with their babies tied on their backs in a goat's skin, hearing there was a 
-white woman to see, venturing out to the bdat to have a good look ; then on again in 
the evening when the land breezes began. 

Tanganyika is a curious lake. It is said to have been two lakes in olden times, 
and this is very likely to be true, for the northern and southern parts are quite different 
The northern half is very windy, and there are frequent heavy gales. The hills round 
it are not high and are very sandy, and as a rule run parallel with the water line. The 
southern portion is quite different and much prettier. The usual winds are gentle, 
and for the greater part the shore is composed of the ends of numberless mountain 
ranges which run into the lake. At some time or other the water level here muet 
have fallen twenty feet, and the effect is to expose a series of wonderful combinations 
of boulders heaped together and on the top of each other in the most fantastic way. 
All the rocks which have been under water are now pure white, so it is a very pretty 
coast line, and there are endless sheltered bays to run into if a wrong wind comes. 
On the third night after we left Ujiji, about two a.m., as we were peacefully Bleeping 
sund floating along, a sudden gale came from the south, and very soon the sea rose to 
an alarming extent. It was very dark, and all we could make out of land was a line 
of clifia. Our crew, as is their custom at critical times, were all talking at the pitch 
of their voices, all squabbling, each giving different advice and seemingly doing 
nothing. At last they threw out the big stone which serves as anchor, and let the 
boat drift Then she began to roll, and such rolling I never before felt Every time 
she righted herself after a big one we felt thankful, but hardly thought she could 
hold together for many more. How we longed for the morning, and the first red- 
dening of the sky that comes about an hour before sunrise was never more welcome. 
When it was light enough the men decided to run out before the wind to tho middle 
of the lake and tack back again. But there was no tacking for us that day, and 
sometimes with bare poles, sometimes with a corner of the sail up, we scudded across 
a sea of white-crested waves, and did not know what it meant to be free of painful 
anxiety tiU we got to the west coast, and into the still waters of a small lagoon, about two 
in the afternoon. The wind died completely in the evening, and reluctantly we set 
aail again about midnight We sailed gently all night, and reached another lagoon in 
the early morning, where we stayed all the day and watched the great south waves 
tearing past us again. We went on this way for four days. Then the winds lightened, 
and we crossed the lake again, arriving just a few miles south of the place where the 
atorm drove us from on Saturday morning. Again we had to stay in shelter all day, and 
went on at sunset with the land breezes. We have both written, in separate letters, 
of the dreadful Sunday which followed — how, struggling on, we were caught in the 
morning by a sudden gale, and driven ashore on the Attongwe country. I am not 
going to repeat all the details of that day. On Monday we anchored in a small 
desolate cove in the rocks, and kept a sharp look-out for people, but we saw none. 
Another weary night brought us next forenoon to four miles from Earema the 

Digitized by 


76 The Jou/mal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

longed-for. By thu time every Btnmger we law waa looked at most anspiciouily, and 
when we noticed two great strapping fellows coming tearing along armed with guns 
I just wondered what it meant, and never before felt the benefit of a Mission Station 
so much as when we saw cmcifixee hung round their necks. They brought us a very 
kind note from the White Fathers ofifering us hospitality. Fred had fever then, but 
in a few hours, when he was rather better, we dragged ourselves along the four milea 
of loose sand, and reached the convent about five o'clock in the evening, two weak 
and very wearied travellers. We received the very greatest kindness, and had sudi 
a good rest. Next morning we felt much refreshed, and walked about the Mission 
Station and took photographs. The mast and helm of our dhow, both of which were 
injured during the storm, were mended, and we started at sunset on Wednesday (SOth 
August) veiy much refreshed and enoouraged. The White Fathers gave us lemons, 
and bananas, and beans, and eggs, and tomatoes when we left, and we gave them 
some tinned foods. 

Near Earema, Lake Tanganyika, 

In a lonely harbour among rocky cliffs, 

Monday, 28th July, 1890. 

[This letter reoounts the adventures of Sunday, 27th July.] 

We had such an alarming day yesterday that I would like to write and tell 
you about it, and how wonderfully our lives were spared. For the last week we 
have hardly been free of anxiety for an hour, and have had several narrow escapes. 
Travelling in a dhow is far from safe, and as you will see in my other letter we had 
to cross the whole lake to escape one storm. Yesterday morning we found ourselves 
in an immense bay, called here Deep Bay, in the centre of which is the R.C. Mission 
Station of Earema, for which port we were making. Before we could reach any 
shelter a strong gale came up from the south, and the dhow made so much leeway 
that very soon we found ourselves being carried wholesale on to the shore. We fully 
expected the dhow to break up, but the boys, with very primitive means, managed to 
keep her afloat though bumping heavily. Fortunately the beach was mostly sand, 
with some stones. We all went on shore, taking a lot of things with us, but leaving 
the ivory and boxes. Our other dhow, with more ivory, went ashore in the same way 
about a mile north of us, and twice the boys told us she was broken, but this wasn't 
true, and they managed to keep her afloat too. The land where we went ashore 
belongs to the Attong^e tribe, a people well known to be treacherous and usually at 
war with all their neighbours. We were most anxious not to have to land in their 
country, but we were forced to do sa Soon they came in numbers to see as and 
to beg, but we were thankful to find them friendly and inclined to bring fowls and 
food for us to buy. They had a great beer drinking on, and kept us uncomfortable all 
day, being rather rude and forward in their ways and very greedy, but knowing how 
dangerous they were we did our best to keep them in good humour. The women and 
children came in great numbers, a sign that war was not intended. At last, by dint 
of presents to the chief and head men, we got the rowdy party to leave, apparently in 
good humour, about five o'clock, when we had some dinner with all speed, and longed — 
how much I can'fi tell you—for the terrible breakers to calm, so that we might escape, 
for the boys told us the people would be sure to come back when it was dark and try 
to kill us— a fact which Fred more than suspected all day. The wind on this lake 
always changes at sundown, so we told the boys to get everything on board to be able 

Digitized by 


Correaponderice. 77 

to Btsit at onoe, and to have the guns in readinesB. At 5-20, just as we were busy at 
this, we heard a gunshot near us, and I saw Fred look anxious. He at once told 
eTeryone to go the boat. I wish you oould have seen what followed at a safe distance. 
Bveryone went helter-skelter into the water, carrying as much as possible. One cut 
loose the anchor, and numbers seized the dhow and pushed her through the surf out 
to sea, the waveB breaking over her. Two boys carried me out on their shoulders, and 
the waves went over their heads and over me too. By this time the natives were 
running along the beach and firing at u& I got on board somehow, and the boys told 
me to keep down in the bottom of the boat» as they all were. BtU Fred wanCt 
there. He was the last to leave the shore, and I can never f oiget the agony of seeing 
him walking out to the dhow up to the neck in water, the waves breaking over him, 
and bullets whisssing dose by him. At last he reached us, and managed to hold on 
with his one good arm.* I entreated the boys to help him, and did the best I could 
to get him in, but they were all engrossed with their own concerns, managing the 
boat, and saving their skins. This was perhaps the most awful moment, for the 
scoundrels on shore aimed at Fred to kill him, and the one splendid fellow, Lojanga, 
who came to my help, was shot down, just at my side, before he could reach Fred. 
At the same time also, although we did not know till afterwards, a bullet went clear 
through my double tend hat in two places, so near that half an inch meant life or 
death. This was just when we were getting Fred in, which really only took perhaps 
two minutes, though it seemed much longer. We now began to fire rapidly from the 
boat^ and the pluckiest boys rowed slowly through the great waves, and after perhaps 
ten minutes we saw the people on shore running away, and soon we. were out of their 
bullet rangeu The boys say we killed six, but probably not so many. Fred saw one 
body on the sand. They did not gain much by their cowardly attack, for we managed 
to carry off everything except one iron plate and a little native porridge. They had 
beard of the ivory, and one man had seen some of it, and they evidently thought they 
would take us by surprise and kill us before we could escape, and get all the booty. 
It is not the custom of natives to attack before the sun goes down, so this attack was 
all the more mean and treacherous. Lojanga was the only man wounded in either of 
the boats, and I think he will recover.f The bullet went in on his left side, and 
came out between the shoulder blades. No bones seem broken, and he is so patient 
and gentle, and never complains at all, though in a good deal of pain. He is lying in 
the bottom of the boat, and we have given him a blanket to keep him warm, and 
bave bound up his wounds. 

*«.* Since these letters were read a collection of the letters of Mrs. Moir have been 
reprinted in a little volume (price Is. 6d.), and published by J. Maclehose and Sons, 
Glasgow. The volume is illustrated with views, portraits, and sketches, and sketch* 
maps, from Mrs. Moir's drawings and photographs. The letters were written to 
Mrs. Moir's friends, and she will be surprised to find they have been printed, but 
'' A Lady's Letters from Central Africa" are very interesting ; and as the members of 
the Society have had the pleasure to make the personal acquaintance of these two 
pioneer trading brothers, Mr. J. W. Moir and Mr. F. L. M. Moir, they will read these 
very interesidng and unconventional letters with as keen an interest^ and with as 
much pleasure, as Mrs. Moir's friends in Qlasgow. 

* Mr. Fredk. L. M. Moir had the joint of Mb right arm ahattered yrith a bullet when leading 
ftn attack upon Arab alaTO raiders near Karongaa Station on 10th April, 1888. His brother, Mr. 
John Moir, was shot through the 1^, a few months before, in similar circumstances. 

t Later accounts report Lojanga's recovery. 

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78 The Journal of the Marhchester Qeogra/phical Society. 


The 147th Meeting of the Society, held in the Library, Friday, Jan. 16th, 1891, 
at 7 p.m. The Sborbtabt in the chair. Coffee was served at 7. Minutea of meetingi, 
Dec. 19th (145) and 27th (146), were read and approved. 

The Chairman led a very interesting review of the Qeographioal explorations of 
the year 1890, in the discussion of which most of the members present took part. 

The 148th Meeting of the Sodety, held in the Memorial Hall, Monday, Jan. 19th, 
1891, at 7-30 p.m. The Rev. S. A. Stunthal in the chair. 

The Victorians— Messrs. Rekd, Gbihdlst, H. and R Sowrbbutts— gave a capital 
resume of the Stanley march across Africa, and a short monograph on the Pygmies 
was read. 

The addrflss wss illustrated with maps and lantern views, and was listened to 
with very great attention. The usual votes of thanks condnded the meeting. 

The 149th Meeting of the Society, held in the Memorial Hall, Wednesday, Feb. 
4th, 1891, at 7-SO p.nL The Rev. P. Raicaqx, of Radcliffe, in the chair. 

Rev. Thomas Slkvan, of Poulton-le-Fylde, gave an interesting and valuable 
address on '' The Honey Bee ; its Natural History, Geographical Distribution, and 
Commercial and Industrial Value," illustrated with diagrams, beehives, &c. (See 
page 9.) 

A large number of questions were asked, and a lively discussion ensued, Mr. Oarr, 
of Newton Heath (a bee master), Mr. O'Connor, and others speaking at length. Very 
hearty votes of thanks were given to Mr. Slevan and the Chairman and were responded 
to, and the meeting dosed. 

The 150th Meeting of the Sodety, hdd in the Libraiy, Wednesday. Feb. 25th, 
1891, at 7-80 p.m. The Rev. S. A. Stsinthal in the chair. 

The minutes of meetings, Jan. 16th (147), 19th (148), and Feb. 4th (149), having 
been read, presentations to the library and the election of the following members 
Were announced : — 

HoiroRABT : Dr. Carl Peters. 

CoBRBSPONDDfo : Prof essor Ferd. Borsari (Naples) ; Messrs. J. P. Thomson (Brie- 
bane) and J. S. Thornton. 

Lm : Mr. £. W. Mellor. 

Obdinabt : Messrs. Joseph Bolton, Joseph Booker (in lieu of Associate), Thomas 
Bostock, Councillor J. H. Butterworth, J. C. Chorlton, Harry Eastwood, J. Harrison, 
Walter J. Hunt, Mrs. Bosdin T. Leech (in lieu of Assodate), J. R. Plows, Rev. P. 
Ramage, Professor Watson Smith, John Thompson, J. Trueman, and Charles Wilde. 

Absociatk: William Booth Leech, Rev. Q. Cranston, C. J. Davies, and Miss 
Annie Perkins. 

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Proceedmgs, 79 

The Sborktabt reported the meeting at the Schiller-Anstalt, on February 11th, 
to receive Dr. Carl Peten, and explained that, owing to the short time available, it 
was found impoesible to communicate with the bulk of the members. 

The Sbobbtabt gave an address on '' Geography in the Newspapers and Maga- 
zines/' illustrated with various examples of magazines, &o. 

A paper on " The Korth-east Coast of British New Guinea and Adjacent Islands," 
by Mr. J. P. Thomson (see page 57), a letter from Mrs. F. Moir to Mr. Gilbert Beith on 
" The Perils of African Travel" (see page 72), and several letters from Corresponding 
Societies, &a, were read. Thanks to the writers of the papers and to the Chairman 
concluded the meeting. • 

The 15l8t Meeting of the Society, held in the Memorial Hall, Friday, Feb. 27th, 
1891, at 7-30 p.m. Mr. Mark Stibbup, F.G.S., in the chair. 

Mr. J. MuBBAT Moorb, M.D., F.R.G.S., addressed the members on "New 
Zealand." (See psge 19.) The address was of great interest and value, and was 
illustrated with some curiosities, including volcanic rocks and dust, maps, and a large 
collection of very fine lantern views. 

A number of questions having been asked, and replied to fully by Dr. Moobb, a 
-very hearty vote of thanks wss passed for the admirable and instructive address. 
Dr. MooBi responded; and thanks to the Chairman closed a most interesting 

The 152nd Meeting of the Society, held in the Memorial Hall, Wednesday, March 
4th, 1891, at 7-30 p.m. The Rev. L. C. CAa^BTELLi, M.A., Ph.D., in the chair. 

Mr. Fbbdbbio H. Balfoub, of China, addressed the meeting on " Chinese Secret 
Societies.*' (See page 40.) 

Mr. R J. Kbrr proposed the hearty thanks of the meeting for the able and 
interesting address on a subject little known to many persons, but of great practical 
interest to all those who have any personal dealings with the Chinese. 

Mr. P. Maolban seconded the motion, giving some personal reminisoences of his 
own whilst in China in connection with the subject of the address. 

The motion was supported and carried unanimously. 

A number ef questions having been asked, Mr. Balfour replied and responded 
to the vote of thanks. Thanks to the Chairman dosed a very valuable meeting. 

The 153rd Meeting of the Society, held in the Memorial Hall, Friday, March 
13th, 1891, at 7-30 p.m. Colonel Mbllor in the chair, in lieu of Sir E. W. Watkin, 
Bart, M.P., who had been detained in London on imperative business. 

Profeasor W. Botd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., addressed the meeting on "The 
Channel Tunnel." The address was illustrated by a large number of maps and 
sketches, and small maps were distributed to the members present. 

A number of questions were asked and replied to, and a very hearty vote of 
thanks was moved by Mr. Councillor Bosdik T. Lbboh, seconded by Mr. J. B. Shaw, 
and supported by Mr. E. W. Mbllob, for the admirable address, to which the Pro- 
fessor responded. Thanks to the Chairman closed the meeting at a late hour. 

The 154th Meeting of the Society, held in the Memorial Hall, Friday, March 
20th, 1891, at 7-30 p.m. Mr. Mabk Smutup, F.G.S., in the chair. 

Major R F. Ballantinb addressed the members on '* The West Indies : the 
History, Geography, Natural Resources, Trade, and the Value of the Islands to Grsat 

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80 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

BritAiXL" The address was illustrated by a large number of lantern yiews, and by a 
lai^ map prepared by the Victorians. 

Votes of thanks to Major BalUntine for his most interesting address and to the 
Chairman closed the meeting. 

The 155th Meeting of the Society, held in the Library, on Tuesday, March 24th, 
1891, at 7-80 p.m. Mr. William Ubb in the chair. 

The SscRBTABT read portions of letters of a most distressing nature received 
from correspondents on the Congo. 

Mr. R. C. PHILLIF8 spoke on the subject. 

Mr. F. G. BuBTOK addressed the members on *' Mexico," illustrating the address 
with a number of photographs collected during his recent journey. 

A considerable discussion ensued, and Mr. Bttbton replied to some questions. 

Thanks to Mr. Burton for his brilliant paper and to the Chairman brought the 
meeting to a close. 

Two YeaiB Amtmg the Savages of New Guinea, with Introductory Notes 

on North Queensland. By W. D. Pitcaim, F.R.G.a, &c 286pp. Map and Vocabu- 
lary of the South-East Coast Natiyes of New Guinea. London : Ward and Downey. 
1891. — Mr. Pitcaim has spent about eleven years in North Queensland and New 
Guinea. He appears to have been engaged in trade, and to have had intimate 
relations with the natives. His estimate of some of the natives is a low one, particu- 
larly of the Norbh Queensland natives. Whether it is well to write of them as 
" snakes in the grass," which " should be trodden under foot,*' is questionable. The 
language of the book is quite free, and sometimes strong. No doubt Ifr. Pitcaim 
writes feelingly. His description of the life of the Woodlarks and the reception he 
had with his companions is interesting. The incidents of voyaging in a small craft 
are exciting, and the light thrown on native customs, the scenery, on the relations of 
the natives with the planters and traders, and the concluding chapter on the Geology 
and Natural History of New Guinea, with the Vocabulary, are valuable. Mr. Pitcaim 
gives a description of the Morgan Mine, in Queensland, of the value, as he estimates it, 
of £10,000,000 sterling, and of the riches of the country in tin, which is enough, one 
would think, to send us all off to try to get some of this abounding wealth of the country. 
His ideas on labour are such as, no doubt, are largely held by planters, and we seem to 
be interviewing an old idea, when, after a description on sugar-growing and its diffi- 
culties from the heat of the climate and scarcity of labour in Queensland, he sayn : 
" Taking these facts into consideration. I consider the policy of the Government in 
prohibiting black labour to be suicidal and foolish.'* U. sugar-g^wing is all that 
humanity is intended for it may be true. The book is very interesting. Mr. Pitcaim 
has given us his unvarnished view, with the result of his experience of these interset- 
ing parts of the world. And whilst we should not probably agree with a good many 
of his opinions, the book is one which will be greatly enjoyed by those who read it, 
and the facts stated cannot help being very valuable as coming from a competent 
observer, who has written down his observations and opinions. The map adds value 
to the volume. 

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BANQUETS, BALLS, and BAZAARS, fitted UD with Stalls 
and exquisitely Decorated. 



Erected, Decorated, lllumineled, and Laid with Poiithed Parquet Floors. 




Tents for Wedding Breakfasts, Picnic Parties, and Floral 
Exhibitions, Awnings, &c. 




3 & 5, ST. JOHN STREET, 

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Manchester Geographical 


1891. /§^JL PI ^^^^^ 

Nos. 4-6. ^^^J "^^N^- 


The Ohaanel TunneL By Professor Boyd Dawkins, F.B.S., M.A., &c 81 

Armenia. By Professor MinasseTcheraz, of King's College, London. (WkhMa^) 84 

British Trade in Oentral Asia. By Professor Arminius Vambery, of Budapest. 87 

Yomba. By Mr. Alvan MiUson, MA., F.B.G.S 92 

The Oommereial Products of Central Africa. By Mr. J. Howard Reed. ( WHK Afap) 105 

(Geography in Newspapers and Periodicals. (With lUugtratiom) 124 

Mexico. By Mr. F. G. Burton 127 

The Children's Home on the Moors at Edg worth. (Wuh iiimtratumnj 137 

Qeographical Notes— 

The Height of Mount Ararat 86 

the Siberian Rvotn T ... 89 

Book Notices 86, 123 

Proceedings of the Society 148 


Itautd Fdruary^ 1892 J\ [all bights bbsbrvkd 

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The Right Hon. the EARL OF DERBY, 

KG , &c. &c. 
The Right Hon. Lord EGERTON OF 

The Right Hon Lord WINMARLEIGH. 
The Honourable Lord FREDERIC S. 

The Right Rkv. the Lord BISHOP OP 

The Right Kbv. the Lord BISHOP OF 

The Worshipful the MAYOR OF 

The Worshippol the MAYOR OF 

The principal OF OWENS COL- 
The Right Hon. Sir JAMES FER- 

GUSSON, Bart., CLE., M.P. 

The Right Hon. A. J. BALFOUR, M.P. 
Sir W. H. HOULDSWORTH, Bart, M.P. 

Sir J. C. LEE, Kt., J.P. 
•Mr. B. AUMITAQE, J.P., Chomlea. 
Professor W. BOYD DAWKINS, M.A., 

Mr. H. H. HO WORTH, M.P. 
Mr. HENRY LEE, J.P. i 

Mr. H. J. ROBY, M.A., M.P. 
Councillor HENRY SAMSON, J.P. 
Mr. C. E. SCHWANN, M.P. 
Rev. S. a. STEINTHAL, Chairman op 

THE Council. 


Mr. Alderman C. MAKINSON, J.P. Mr. J. JARDINE, J.P. 


Treasurer. • 

Mr. T. R. WILKINSON, Manchester and Salford Bank, Mosley Street^ Yice-Oonaul for the 

Ottoman Empire. 


Honorary Secretary. 

F. ZIMMBRN, Hardman Street. 



Rev. L. C. OASARTELLI, MJk., PH.D., 

St. Bedels. 
Professor T. H. CORE, M.A., Owens 

Misa DAY, Girls' High School. 
Chevalier ROBERT FROEHLICH, Vice- 

CoNsuL for Italy. 
Mr. job IRLAM. 
Mr. J. E. KING, MJL 

Mr. SYDNEY KEYMER, Vicb-Chairmak 

OP the Council. 
Mr. J. H. NODAL. 
Mr. JAMES PARLANE, J.P., Consul 

FOR Paraguay. 
Mr. fritz REISa 

Conbul for France. • 

Mr. mark stirrup, F.G.S., Hon. Sec. 

Manchestkr Geological Societt 


ELI SOWERBUTTS, F.R.G.S., 44, Brown Street, Manchester. 

*«* The writers of papers are alone responsible for the opinions expressed by their 

BookB, Maps. &c., for Notice or Review, may be sent to the 
Becretary, 44 Brown Street, Manchester. 

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By ProfesBor BOYD DAWKINS, F.RS., M.A., &c. 

[Addreased to the Memben, in the Memorial Hallj Friday, March 18, 1891, at 


ON the Channel Tunnel question a great deal may be said 
from almost every point of view. When you consider the 
bearing of the question on geography, it seems by no means 
undesirable that it should be treated of before this Society. 


You know very well that commerce and the knowledge of 
geography went hand in hand, and this question is not 
merely a commercial or military question, but is essentially 
a geographical questioa The lecturer proceeded to describe 
the development of the '* silver streak." In geological history 
the period was not remote when England was absolutely a 
part of the Continent. It was only in the Pleistocene age 
that the North Sea and the Atlantic met at the Straits of 
Dover. The insularity of Britain had, of course, had a very 
great effect on the national character, and as it seems not 
altogether a good effect. One way in which our insularity had 
worKed upon us had been our isolation from contact with the 
Continent. This had made us particularly British, and more 
Vol. VIL— Nos. 4-6— April to June, 1891. 

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82 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

or less Philistine, in our views ; we were shut off from other 
men, and were more or less in the position of Pharisees, looking 
on ourselves as better than other men. At the same time, it was 
an undoubted fact that the insularity of this country had been 
a great bulwark, and had relieved us from being obliged to 
maintain a large standing army, as on the Continent. In his 
opinion, our insularity was a serious barrier to trade. As time 
went on, and the necessities of rapid inteicommimication grew 
more and more — with the development of steam and of tele- 
phonic and electric communications — the insularity of this 
country would be felt in greater measure. From that point of 
view it was of the utmost possible importance that we should 
bring ourselves into contact with the Continent as quickly as 
possible. Then came the question — ^How can it be done ? In 
nis opinion, it could be done without affecting anything that is 
good in our insular position one whit. It is really absurd to be 
told by this writer and that distinguished general that if there 
were a tunnel the country might be exposed to all the horrors 
of a standing army like that of France or (Jermany. It is 
ridiculous to imagine that a hole a few feet in diameter is to be 
compared with such a frontier as that which exists between 
France and Germany. Consider what is now taking place in 
France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. Pains are being taken 
to pierce the barriers which separate these nations from each 
other, yet, as far as he knew, there is not a word heard on any 
side of danger to the countries concerned. It was an eminent 
German general who declared that the idea of an invasion 
through a tunnel was absolutely absurd. Professor Dawkins 
referred to some Channel Tunnel schemes which were promoted 
before the present one. The first scheme was started in the 
days when Napoleon was First Consul, and in 1864 and 1868 
the idea was revived. There had also been proposals to place a 
tube across the Channel and to build a bridge across, though to 
some people that seemed hopeless from a navigation pomt of 
view. The lecturer next showed that the formation of the rocks 
was very favourable to the construction of the tunnel. Both on 
the part of French and English engineers a great deal of trouble 
had been taken in examining the strata, and there was no pos- 
sible doubt that the grey, impervious rock was splendidly suited 
to the purpose. The Englisn Government had not always been 
against the scheme. A convention was written out, and the 
French Government signed it ; the English Government agreed, 
but did not sign. Referring again to the strata, the lecturer 
said the inclination of the rocks was exceedingly gentle. It was 
something like 1 in 72 on the English side, while on the French 
side it was in some places as high as 1 in 42. This fact was 
greatly in favour of the engineera The slope of the rock was 
exceedingly small, and the material was most excellent for the 

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The Channel Turnid. 83 

purpose. The argument that Providence ordained this country 
to be an island, and that it should not be connected with the 
Continent by a tunnel, altogether fell to the ground, because, as 
they would see, Providence had arranged the rocks in such a 
way as to make them most admirably adapted for the construc- 
tion of a tunnel. Dealing next with the engineering question, 
the lecturer showed that the grey chalk, through which the 
tunnel is proposed to be cut, is like a very hard cheese, per- 
fectly easy to cut, and fitted to stand well. The boring which 
had taken place showed that, notwithstanding the faults which 
imdoubtedly existed, the tunnel could be made without risk of 
water rushing in and wrecking the works. The machine that 
had been used in the boring was driven by compressed air, by 
the use of which compressed air all difficulties with regard to 
ventilation might be at once dismissed. Professor Dawkins was 
perfectly familiar ^vith the atmosphere in the tunnel, and could 
testify that it is far purer than the atmosphere of most drawing- 
rooms with which he was acquainted. Not merely the ventila- 
tion but the temperature could be efficiently regulated. 
Referring, in conclusion, to the commercial . aspect of the 
matter, the lecturer spoke of the isolated position this 
country at present occupies in relation to the trade of the 
world, and predicted that if we did not do something to 
prevent our being cut off from the main current of commerce 
on the Continent, we should beyond all doubt lose a very 
large part of our commercial supremacy. That danger could 
only be overcome by a tunnel such as was suggested in the 
scheme now before the country. It was no mere question for 
the soldier or the literary man to discuss. It was a question 
which concerned every commercial man in this country. The 
military opinion against the tunnel at the present time was not 
an undivided opinion. There were certainly as good soldiers in 
favour of the scheme as there were against it. But he thought 
it was not to soldiers that we should go to ask whether tnis 
enterprise would or would not be good for the natioa Their 
business is to defend the nation, to act the part of protectors for 
the nation. If the commercial benefits which would arise from 
the enterprise are as great as it has been demonstrated they are, 
then the enterprise ought to be carried out, provided there 
were no coimter-balancing military facts to be weighed against 
it. In his opinion, no such military facts have been afleged 
which are of the slightest value. 

Note. — The question of a south-eaatem coalfield is very important, and as 
it would appear that the borings have discovered valuable and workable seams, 
the value of the work done in connection with this question cannot be over- 
estimated. (See address on the subject to the Royal Institution of Great Britain, 
delivered June 6, 1890, Professor Boyd Dawkins in the chair.) 

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84 The Journal of the Momchester Geographical Society. 
ARMENIA.— (See Map.) 

By PBOFB880B MIKA.SSE TOUtRAZ, of King^s College, London. 

[AddresBed to the Members, in the Memorial Hall, Wedneiday, May 6th, 1891» 

at 7-80 p.m.] 

THE historical limits of Armenia are very elastic. Its sove- 
reigns, when they were not urged on by the thirst for 
conquest, remained generally satisfied with ruling the fifteen 
provinces of Greater Armenia ; but some beUicose Kings, among 
whom a few even took the ambitious title of kiTig ojf kings, 
widened these boundaries in all directions. Moses of Khoren, 
the Herodotus of Armenia, says, without circumlocution : " The 
brave have no other limits than their weapons, which acquire 
as much as they cut off." Thus, then, in its periods of splen- 
dour, Armenia has generally been bounded by the Caucasus 
mountains, the Black Sea, the Caspian, the plains of Mesopo- 
tamia, and the banks of the Euphrates. From this vast 
volcanic plateau, the height of whicn varies between 2,700 and 
11,000 feet, rise numerous watercourses, the most celebrated of 
which are the Euphrates, Tigris, Djorokh (Phasis or Phison), and 
the Araxes (Gehon?). These rivers, according to the Bible, 
came out of the terrestrial Paradise, a statement which gave 
rise to the tradition which places the cradle of the human race 
in Armenia. The mountam system of the country, enriched by 
the mighty offshoots from the Caucasus and Taurus, gives it an 
imposing aspect, and the Koords owe their wild customs to the 
inaccessible height of the Gortook chain, where their tents have 
been pitched from the remotest antiquity. What, however, 
constitutes the glory of this island of mountains, as Bitter caUed 
Armenia, is the majestic Ararat, which rises to a height of 
17,212 feet, 1,431 feet higher than the most elevated mountain 
in Europe, Mont Blanc, and is, according to Olearius, used by 
the sailors of the Caspian Sea as a sort of polar star. Professor 
James Bryce, who ascended Mount Ararat m 1876, gives, in. his 
''Transcaucasia and Ararat," a fine description of this classic 
mountain, where Eastern tradition and the Bible make Noah's 
ark rest I visited Russian Armenia in 1888, and the monks of 
the celebrated monastery of Etchmiadzin, near Mount Ararat, 
showed me a fragment of the ark. I am not prepared to gua- 
rantee its genuinenesa All I can say is that this piece of wreck 
appeared to be of very old and very solid wood, more solid, 
perhaps, than the legend connected with it. Armenia is, more- 
over, embellished by a number of lakes, among which the most 

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Armenia. 85 

noticeable are Lake Sevan, with an islet containing^ three 
monasteries in Armenian style ; Lake Unmiiyah, in Persian 
Armenia ; and especiaUy Lake Van, which receives the waters 
of some forty streams, and nourishes an immense mmiber oi 
herrings, a true manna for the people of the shore. Wit^ 
regard to climate and produce, Armema is a kind of microcosm. 
Generally speaking, the northern portion recalls the arctic zone, 
the central portion assumes the aspect of the temperate zone, 
and the part which borders on Mesopotamia is as warm as a 
country situated in the torrid zone. Its produce is also similar. 
The valleys are extremely fertile, and present a very rich flora, 
all kinds of grains and cereals, rice, cotton, hemp, flax, gall-nuts, 
madder, tobacco, and delicious fruit, including the apricot, the 
primus Armenidca of the Romans. On the hills grow magni- 
ficent grapes, from which is obtained an excellent wine, the 
direct descendant of that wine which affected the head of our 
good Patriarch Noah. The mountains are not much wooded, 
but covered with luxuriant pastures, suitable for the breeding 
of cattle and the rearing of norses. The prophet Ezekiel tells 
us that the Syrians received their horses fiom Armenia, in the 
same way as the Hebrews for a long time obtained their mules 
from that country. Xenophon relates that this country sup- 
plied a contingent of 4,000 horse to the King of Assyria at the 
time of his war with the sovereign of the Modes. According to 
Appian, when Mithridates went to take refuge with Tigranes 
the Qreat, King of Armenia, the latter at once levied 50,000 
horse as well as 200,000 foot soldiers, and afterwards 85,000 
horse with 70,000 foot. Hammer quotes the fact that Hethoum, 
King of Armenian Cilicia, provided a contingent of 12,000 horse 
with 40,000 foot to his Tatar ally, Hulagu, at the time of the 
latter's expedition against Persia. These few figures bear testi- 
mony to a great abundance of horses in ancient and mediaeval 
times, a source of wealth which a wise administration could 
restore to the coimtries whose natives formerly taught the 
Romans some novel ideas in the art of breeding horses. What 
is especially abundant in Armenia is bread and meat. The com 
is of a superior quality, and it was from Armenia that the 
Romans received their provisions of salt meat. '' At the present 
day still," writes M. de Tchihatchef in his " Bosphorus and Con- 
stantinople," ^' the salt meat of Ka'isaria and Angora is celebrated 
in the peninsula under the name of pasterma. It chiefly con- 
sists of mutton, which is of a splendid quality, and probably 
superior to all the salt beef produced by Europe and the United 
States of America." Van nas its deUcate white honey, and 
Moush its sweet manna, which the peasant womengather from 
the leaves of the trees. The ancient province of Vasbouragan 
is still rich in ermine, an alteration of Arrnenia, the name of 
the country from which the fur of this animal was originally 

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86 The Jau/mdl of the Manchestei* Geographical Society. 

obtained, and especially in the so-called Angora cats and goats. 
The cochineal is met with at the foot of Mount Ararat, and 
everywhere are mines of copper, iron, lead, silver, sulphur, 
arsenic, coal, even of gold, as rich as they are untouched, while 
the quarries are lined with marble and Jasper, and the rock-salt, 
alum, naphtha, and the famous Armenian bole are only waiting 
on the surface for anyone who will take the trouble to pick them 
up. Here, then, is a country not so very far from Cyprus, 
where some of those Englishmen ought to emigrate who place 
the immensity of the seas between them and their mother 
country. By transferring their money and energy to Armenia, 
the sons of Great Britain would only have to choose among the 
thousand-and-one branches which commend themselves to their 
activity in a country where, as yet, scarcely a single factory 
chimney smokes, nor has a single railroad been opened by the 
fatalist government of the Turks, Persians, and even Russians, 
who have partitioned this Asiatic Poland. 


Qeognphen do not always agree as to the height of mountains. The height of 
Mount Ararat is yariously given as below : — 

Keith Johnston 17,000 feet Bryce, Jas 17,000 feet 

17,210 „ „ (Parrot) ... 17,825 „ 

„ 16,969 „ „ (Federof)... 17,180 „ 

Maunder 17,750 „ „ (Chozetta) 16,906 „ 

„ 17,823 „ 


La Transcaucasie et la P^ninsule d' Apch^ron. Par Calouste 'S. Qulbenkion, 
Hachette and Co., Paris, 1891. 386 pp. Index and map. 

This is a readable account of a journey from Constantinople through Batoom, 
Koutais, Tiflis, to Baku, with several chapters on the geological formation of the Baku 
Peninsula and the history of the oil industry and its value, with suggestionB for its 
further development. There are seven tables giving the figures of the production of 
the oil and its products from 1877 to 1889. The narrative is graceful, and although we 
have often gone over the country with other travellers, a new observer of this interest- 
ing country is always welcome. The late Mr. Marvin's ideas of the magnitude and value 
to the East, particularly of this wonderful reservoir of oil, is more than justified by Mr. 
Golbenkion, and it would seem thkt this old historical seat of the fire worshippers 
had in the near future as great a part to play in the development of great industries 
in the eastern as coal has already played in the development of the western worid. 

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British Trade in Central Asia. 87 


By Pbofwob ARMINIUS VAMB^RT, of Budapest 
[Addrened to thd Membert, at the Athenseum, Friday, May 29Ui, 1891, at 7-80 p.m.] 

ASIA Las now become an open book, and we have only to 
turn its pages to get acquainted with the salient features 
of a country which was formerly a mystery. The lion's share 
in the exploration of the country belongs to the Russians, who, 
as the masters of Central Asia, have the best opportunity of 
investi^ting it in all directions. English travellers, actuated, 
if not by the desire of conquest, certainly by the necessity of 
watching the movements of their great northern rival, have 
accomplished a fair share of work along the southern frontier 
lines of Central Asia. Great changes have taken place since I - 
saw the country 28 years ago. Peace and order reign where 
fonnerly war and anarchy spread ruin and desolation. The 
inhabitants, imdisturbed in the enjoyment of the fruit of their 
labours, and in no way molested by the foreign ruler, are far 
better ofiF than they were under the rule of their native princes. 
But with all my desire to do justice to the rule of the Kussians 
in Central Asia, it is certainly the fact that their efforts are 
mainly directed towards the material benefits of the conqueror, 
and not to the education and enlightenment of the conquered. 
Out of the annual budget spent upon the administration of 
Turkestan, Ferghana, and Transcaspia, a disappointingly small 
sum figures for the expense incurrea for the instruction of the 
natives, for hygienic measures, and for means calculsited to 
scatter the thick clouds of superstition and ignorance which 
hover over the native masses of Central Asia. Kussia has never 
shown a particular anxiety to raise the cultural condition 
of her foreign subjects to a higher level than necessary. Her 
object is to make them obedient tools of her rule, to absorb 
everything in her national body, and to exploit the country in 
every possible way for her own material and economical pur- 
poses, without remunerating her taxpayers with the real boons 
and blessings of our Western civilisation. In summing up the 
reports and accounts of recent travellers in Central Asia, I find 
the economical value of Russia's acquisitions to be far greater 
than I had anticipated. The productive power of Central Asia, 
as proved by the continually increasing export of raw material, 
is really astonishing. While the export trade from the khanates 
in the decennial period 1840-50 amounted to half a million per 

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88 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

annum, and the import trade from Russia to about the same 
amount, in 1888 Bokhara alone had 12,000,000 roubles of export 
and 10,600,000 roubles of import, omitting entirely the con- 
siderable trade carried on between Khiva, Ferghana, and 
Eastern Turkestan. This unparalleled increase of commerce is 
the best evidence of the fertility of the soil of Central Asia, and 
if you inquire into the details you will be even more surprised 
by seeing how useful some of these products will prove, m the 
near future, for the development of Kussian industry, and how 
her trade will seriously threaten British commerce along the 
whole line of her process in Asia. I call attention, in the first 
place, to the growth m cotton, a material for which Russia had 
sent out of the country during the period between 1880 and 
1885 more than 500,000,000 roubles. The continually increas- 
ing product in Central Asia has enabled her to diminish that 
sum greatly and to dispense to a large extent with American, 
Indian, and other cotton ; and she nourishids the hope that she 
will be able in the near future to supply her wants entirely from 
Central Asia. In 1887 Russia imported from foreign countries 
. 1,856,000 cwt. of cotton, of the value of 96,437,000 roubles, and 
in the following year this had diminished to 1,373,000 cwt, of 
the value of 83,000,000 roubles, which was very natural, if we 
consider the gradual increase of the export of cotton from 
Turkestan into Russia. What I have said with regard to cotton 
applies also to silk, com, rice, fruits, and other producta The 
greater the increase of raw products the brisker becomes the 
Kussian import trade. It is easy to understand that the export 
from Russia would keep an equal pace with the import from 
Central Asia, and that the new conquerors of the country must 
soon get the anticipated monopoly along the whole line extend- 
ing n*om the Thian Shan range of mountains to the shores of 
the Caspian and the Black Sea. Nobody would or could grumble 
at this natural outcome of commercial ascendancy. But a point 
worth our full consideration is this, that Russian trade does not 
content itself with a monopoly on the Czar's own grounds, but 
that it stretches far into neutral territory and serioudy threatens 
the commercial interests of others, and particularly of England. 
It is not for the first time that we are apprised of this sad state 
of affaira For years and years we have seen how British trade 
has been receding before its Russian rival in North Persia, and 
(][uite recently also in Afghanistan. Sugar, chintzes, muslin, and 
iron wares are the staple articles with which Russia is beating 
England in the market. In discussing the question of commerciid 
competition between England and Russia in Central Asia we 
should not lose sight of the fact that it is not in quality of goods 
or in commercial spirit that Russia is superseding her rivals, but 
rather by facility of communication, a more favourable geo- 
graphical position, and, above all, through the greater assistance 

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BrUisk Trade in G&niTcd AHa. 89 

rendered by Government to private enterprise. The Asiatic is 
always able to distinguish and appreciate the better material 
and the superior quality of English goods as compared with 
those of Russian manuiacture ; but the Russian manufacturer 
takes greater care to satisfy the tastes and wants of the Asiatic. 
I cannot but reproach the English manufieicturer for his utter 
i^arelessness and negligence in this respect. How many firms 
in Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield, Bradford, and other 
places have hitherto sent agents to the interior of Central Asia 
to get thorough information about the favourite patterns of the 
Sarts, Ozbegs, and Turcomans ? How many English firms know 
precisely the width and breadth of the stuflfe required for the 
special cut of the native dress ? Such information is necessary 
in order to keej) up the good reputation of English articles and 
to beat their rivals. Summing up my experience, I find that 
the main cause of Russian success is to be sought in the facility 
of communication, and particularly in the opening of the Trans- 
caspian Railway. The puffing camel will soon be doomed to the 
short distances of local traffic and the agricultural service. 
Security of roads and quickness of locomotion are indispensable 
for English trade in the present circumstances ; and unaer these 
-conditions there is no other outway but the opening of railway 
communication between and to those places in rersia or Afghan- 
istan from which the English merchant would be able to provide 
the Central Asian markets with the same ease and security that 
the Russian trader now finds in the Transcaspian Railroad. I 
cannot but remark the placidity with which the English public 
views the retrogression of British trade in Central Asia, which is 
not encouraging for the future of England's imperial position in 
Asia ; for I see in the loss of each market place the crumbling 
of a stone in that great and magnificent structure which your 
ancestors have raised to the benefit of this island and to the 
glory of Western civilisation in the Old World. 


Thb following note on the Siberian Riven, by Pzinoe Erapotkin, from the Mancketter 
Ouardian, is interesting : — 

It 18 known that Siberia has a wonderful network of navigable rivers. The like 
is only found in the United States of America. Though nearly all flowing north into 
the Arctic Ocean, the great Siberian rivers have tributaries in the southern and 
peopled parts of Siberia which allow navigation over immense stretches from west to 
east. That is what has rendered the colonisation of Siberia so essy, and that is what 
permits the Gk>vemment now to establish communication over a territory which 
ooven from west to east more than 90 degrees of longitude— that is, one-fourth part 
of the earth's circumference. Until within the last few years, however, navigation 
-en Siberian rivers was in its infancy. Five and twenty yean ago there were not 

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90 The Joumai of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

fifbeen steamers plying on all the Siberian riverB, and during my stay in the country 
I had to travel along its beautiful water highways either in small boats propelled up 
and down by oars or in awkward and ugly barges floated with the current In 1865 
I myself saw no lees than 44 barges, carrying 3,500 tons of com, salt, and all kinds of 
goods — so necessary for the lower Amur — destroyed in one single night 'by one of 
those terrible typhoons which are but too common in the coast region of the North 
Pacific. However, during the last few years navigation has rapidly developed on the 
rivers of Siberia, especially in the west, and by the time the Siberian railway is ready 
it will have seriously to compete with the steamers which will be swarming on the 
rivers. The port of Tumen, situated on a tributary of the Obi, is now connected by 
rail, across the Urals, both with Perm, on the chief tributary of the Volga— the 
Kama — and with the chief ironworks of the Urals, so that steamers built in these 
ironworks have only to be transported by rail to Tumen to begin navigating over the 
immense territory watered by the Obi and its numerous navigable tributaries. 
Tumen has thus become the chief port of Western Siberia, and it is in regular steamer 
communication with Tomsk, the capital of Western Siberia, with Barnaul and Biysk, 
in the Altai region, with Omsk and Semipalatinsk, amidst the steppes of Southern 
Siberia, and with Atchinsk, on the frontier of Eastern Siberia. It appears from a 
recently published list that 64 steamers, representing an aggregate of 4,000 indicated 
horse power, are now plying in the basin of the Obi. They take 162 barges in tow, 
and transport every year from 25,000 to 35,000 tons of goods from Tumen to Tomsk. 
In case of need it would be easy to transport in one summer 75,000 tons of goods 
along this line. The newly-built steamers are of excellent workmanship. The last 
addition to the Obi fleet is a two-storeyed "American " system steamer, the Nikolai, 
of 170 horse power, lighted with electricity and supplied with every convenience and 
comfort. It was built in the Urals, and has already begun its trips between Tumen 
and Tomsk. Passengers are transported along this line in eight or nine days, and 
goods in two or three weeks, at a cost which does not exceed six roubles (128.) for the 
deck passengers, and 40 copecks (lOd.) for 361b. of goods. The freight would be 
reduced to 86 copecks (9d.) the cwt. if a considerable amount of goods had to be 
carried for a number of years. The navigation lasts'for more than six months. 

A strip of land some 200 miles wide, but intersected by many smaller rivers, 
separates the tributaries of the Obi from the Yenisei, which is almost regularly visited 
now by steamers coming from Newcastle and London. That strip of land is pierced 
by a small canal, and two small boats have|^been* taken from the Yenisei into the 
basin of the Obi ; so there is no doubt that some day soon a sluiced canal available 
for steamers will connect both rivers. The number of steamers plying this year on 
the Yenisei is not known, but a few years ago there were^only six steamers plying 
below Yeniseisk, and a couple of light steamers maintaining communication between 
Krasnoyarsk and Minusinsk, on the upper part of the Yenisei, separated from its 
lower course by rapida Nine steamers ply on the Lena and its tributaries, but twice 
or thrice as many are already wanted. But the Lena has no ironworks worth speak- 
ng of on its banks. There is plenty of iron, but no technical skill ; and no enterw 
prising Yankee has yet tried to bring it into regular communication with San Francisco 
lia the Behring Strait Unfortunately a series of rapids on the Angara, or 
Upper Tunguska — a tributary of the Yenisei-^prevent a regular navigation being 
established up that river as far as Irkutsk. But recent exploration has shown that 
the removal of these obstacles would not be at all costly, and they certainly will be 
removed as soon as necessity arises. But there would still remain a stretch of 40 
miles between Irkutsk and Lake Baikal, upon which the Angara flows as a furious 
stream after its issue from the great lake, and upon which navigation wUl noc be 

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British Trade in Central Asia, 91 ^ 

possible until vexy ezpensiye waterworks, with sluiceB, are provided. Next comes 
Lake Baikal, with its two tribatariee, the Upper Angara and the^'Selenga, whioh are 
navigable — ^the lake for 205 days every year, and its two tributaries for respectively 
212 and 190 days. Three steamers and six bargee, capable of carrying 650 passengers 
and 1,100 tons of goods, and 20 sailing boats, navigate the lake. Three steamers 
more, with eight barges (850 tons), ply up the Selenga, which was considered some 
thirty years ago as absolutely unavailable for navigation. Four steamers ply up the 
Upper Angara, a river leading to the wildest mountain tracks of Siberia, and to their 
gold mines. Lake Baikal and the Selenga bring the traveller some 200 miles further 
east along the great highway which leads to the Amur ; but now comes a stretch of 
some 200 miles more, between Verkhnendinsk (the port of the Selenga) and Tchita, 
the capital of Transbaikalia, founded in 1851 on one of the upper, partly nav^ble, 
but very shallow, tributaries of the Amur. This space can be bridged with the 
greatest facility by a railway, but it never can be intersected by a canal, owing to the 
great hdght (3,000 to 4,000 feet) of the plateau which separates the two river basins 
in Transbaikab'a. Besides, the na\igation on the stormy Lake Baikal, which requires 
sea-g^ing steamers, and on the shallow Selenga, which admits of no steamers of more 
than three feet draught, though very useful for local purposes, can never become 
available for a great transit line ; so that a railway will have to be constructed 
between L-kutsk and Tchita, or rather Sretenak, over a distance of more than 800 
xnOee. But such a line, which would have to cross the very thinly- populated province 
o£ Transbaikalia, cannot be expected to be completed soon. The high plateau of 
Central Asia continues to stand in the way, just as it has stood for centuries past in 
the way of the Russians in their slow advance towards the Pacific. 

As to the Amur and its tributaries, which remain open to navigation for from 
- 190 to 220 days every year, the means of communication are still very imperfect. 
Over this immense water-artery, 2,000 miles long, only 45 steamers (2,800 horse 
power) and 42 barges, representing an aggregate tonnage of about 10,000 tons, are 
plying very irregularly. But the banks of the Amur are being rapidly colonised, 
especially by such staunch agriculturists as the Dissenters of South Russia, who seek 
in the Far East protection from military service and religious persecution ; and the 
fleet can easily be reinforced by craft built in America, or even in Transbaikalia itself, 
-which only wants more engineering skill applied to its ironworks. Altogether Siberia 
can thus boast of having now a fleet of 134 steamers, with about 240 barges, repre- 
senting a tonnage of about 40,000 tons, plying on its rivers for from six to peven 
months every year. All this is of quite recent growth, the rapidity of which is 
astonishing even to those who closely watch the development of the resources of 

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92 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 


Bj Mb. ALVAN MILLSON, M.A., F.Ra^S., a Correspondiiig Member of the 
Manchester Gleographical Society. 

[Addreaaed to the Members, at the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, Friday, June 

5th, 1891, at 3 p.m.] 

WHEN, in the year 1869, the great African traveller, Gerhard 
Rholfs, at the close of his memorable march across the 
northern portion of the Continent, crossed the Niger and traversed 
the rich lands that lie between that river and the Guinea coast, 
he found the Mohammedan merchants of the Soudan trading 
with the people of Yoruba in European goods which had been 
transported across the great Sahara Desert and through the 
populous Houssa states to the city of Ilorin. In other words, 
not more than a quarter of a century ago it was a more paying 
speculation to carry the tarhoushes of Vienna and the silks of 
Lyons two thousand miles on the " ships of the desert," amidst 
the innumerable difficulties of such a route, than to bring them 
from the neighbouring port and waterways of the colony of 
Lagos, through less than one hundred and fifty miles of fertile 
ana well-peopled land. It was possible then to maintain the 
paradox tnat, commercially speaking, Ilorin was nearer to the 
Mediterranean than to the Bight of Senin. 

It will perhaps surprise you to learn that, although the enter- 
prise of European merchants in the Niger has rectified the evil 
m so far as Ilorin and the interior is concerned, it is still the 
case that the powerful nation of Yoruba, with its 400,000 
families of industrious cultivators of the soil, is hopelessly cut 
off in every direction from all but the most insignificant driblets 
of European trade. For during the past fifteen years its northern 
frontier has been constantly harassed by the inroads of the 
Mohammedans, who have made Ilorin their centre of operations 
towards the south, and by this renewed pressure from the north 
the inhabitants of Yoruba have not only been cut off from their 
former sources of supplies in that direction, but have also been 
forced to submit to the exactions and commercial blockade of 
their weaker kinsmen who inhabit the neighbourhood of the 
gulf lagoons. These tribes, with true African blindness to con- 
sequences, harass in every way the Yorubas in their efforts to 
drive back the Fulah conquerors — ^for upon them alone rests the 
burden of the defence of the coast to which their country forms 

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Yoruba. 98 

the only approach suitable to cavalry conquest — curtail the 
supplies of guns and powder upon which theur safety depends, 
demand exorbitant prices for such articles as they condescend 
to allow them to purchase, and to the best of their ability 
avenge themselves for former oppressions at their hands. Not 
only do they by this means endanger the safety of their own 
land, and diminish a trade which should be a source of prosperity 
to all, but they inflict a serious injury upon our trade by 
cutting us oflf from commercial intercourse with the most im- 
portant market of West Africa. 

I do not propose to pronoimce upon the legal right of these 
tribes to adopt their unusual attitude, for which they have 
doubtless a good historical defence, nor do I wish to aavocate 
the adoption of any but peaceful measures for the removal of 
this commercial blockade. It is my intention to place before 
you as clearly as possible the causes of this unfortunate condi- 
tion of affairs, and to describe the advantages which would 
accrue to all parties were the rich lands and busy markets of 
the populous mterior of Yoruba thrown open to commerce. 

When old John Hawkins, in the rei^ of good Queen Bess — 
from whose days date so many of our good and evil deeds — 
compounded with his somewhat weather-beaten conscience, and, 
fortified with much misplaced Scriptural authority, ran the first 
cargo of slaves from the West Coast of Africa to the West Indies, 
he flung asunder the doors of that vast storehouse of slave labour 
which lies between the great arch of the river Niger and the 
Guinea Coast. The ceaseless surf which foams in upon the long 
slave shore made landing difficult to all white adventurers, fever 
desolated their ranks, and buccaneers swept the seas over which 
they sailed ; but, in spite of all, the trade in human beines 
throve steadily for nearly three hundred years. The trade 
winds which blew so charmingly to the north and south of the 
equator might be called without exaggeration the "slave-trade 
wmds," for without the rapid passages which their help insured 
it would have been impossible to carry on a trade in such perish- 
able articles as human beinga 

It is not wonderful, under the circumstances, that a horror of 
the white man should have possessed the nativea To what 
terrible representatives of the white races were they introduced, 
and how monstrous was the effect of the meeting ! Parents, led 
away by lust of gain, or of drink, or of the power of arms, sold 
their cnildren, husbands their wives, and brothers their sisters. 
The temptations of the trade destroyed family affection, and 
spread civil war among the fickle Africans. Nor are they 
without excuse in the greatness of the power to which they 
yielded. Let us imagine for a moment what would be the result 
of exposing the people of England to so terrible a temptatioQ. 
Joys which seemed to them to be of heaven, and power unumited. 

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94 The Journal of the Manchester OeogrcLphical Society. 

were oflfered to, and indeed forced upon, the natives for one 
price only and one return. 

For an African the products of civilisation are more wonderful 
in their attraction than we can possibly conceive, and the desire 
to possess them is sufficiently strone to blunt all sense of right. 
In each separate tribe the fear of the treachery of those amon^ 
them who pandered to the slave trade can only be compared 
with the terror inspired by the Inquisition in Spain, while between 
the tribes arose innumerable slave wars which rapidly desolated 
their boundaries and led to complete commercial isolation. The 
attractions of this terrible traffic consolidated the more inland 
tribes, and brought them down in conquering masses towards 
the coast. By it were built up the great marauding kingdoms 
of Ashanti, Dahomey, and Yoruba, and from it rose the exclusive 
middleman system which rules the commerce of West Africa. 

In this mad struggle for wealth — if, indeed, drink and the 
means of mutual destruction can be given such a name — the 
southern tribes failed to notice the silent growth of the Moham- 
medan power in the Soudan under the influence of the fanatical 
followers of the nrophet Sanusi. Yoruba, which once extended 
to the Niger, and could boast of a hundred thousand horsemen, 
as it moved steadily towards the coast, driving the Ijebus out 
of their ancient lands, and giving them an excuse for their pre- 
sent policy of reprisal by commercial siege, was in its turn 
weakened by Mohammedan encroachments from the north, and 
but for the efforts of the powerful sub-tribe of the Ibadans it 
would have been desolated and destroyed. 

It may be said that the slave trade could not have sprung 
up had slavery not existed in the land, and that slavery among 
Africans always involves slave raids, intertribal wars, and com- 
mercial isolation. This is to some extent true, and there is no 
doubt that in this part of Africa there will always exist a ten- 
dency to slavery and slave wars, owing to the necessity for 
polygamy among a people whose children cannot in infancy be 
reared in a healthy manner on the food of the country, and 
whose mothers are consequently forced to submit to isolation 
and devote themselves to tneir infants for at least three vears 
after child-birtL In pursuance of this rigid custom, which has 
all the fixity of a religious observance, and a departure from 
which involves shame and loss of reputation, the mother is 
obliged to forsake her husband, and to return to her parents' 
house during the early years of her child's life. The result is 
to be seen m a race of remarkably healthy children, but the 
natural outcome is polygamy, and a consequent demand for 
more women than the tribe can produce. From this custom 
slavery and slave raids must have had their origin among the 
Yorubas, but there is no doubt that with the sudden openmg of 
a practically unlimited market for captives the trade and its 

Digitized by 


Taruba. 95 

horrors were increased a hundredfold There is unfortunately 
equally little doubt that the habit of war and slaye-capture still 
preyaiis, diyides the tribes by mutual fear, cuts them off from 
the coast markets, and desolates the land ; for there are now 
established throughout the interior two forms of currency, the 
one of which for retail purposes takes the form of cowries, or 
beads, or brass rods, while the other, slayes, is used for larger 
transactions at greater distances. A slaye, be it remembered, 
combines the security and portability of a bank-note with the 
carrying power of a pack-horse. With a little food and water, 
very little rest, and plenty of beating, he will transport himself 
and his master's goods for thousands of miles through the 
interior of Africa. 

In pursuit of their wars and expeditions there has grown up 
a loye of display among the chiefs and rich men of the i orubas, 
which is mainly indulged by the possession of numerous slaves 
and valuable horses from the Soudan. These horses, far superior 
in size and equality to the lowland ponies of Yoruba, are sold at 
fabulous prices, yarying from three to seven young slaves 
(£30 to £70). The result of this is that the slaye markets, 
since they have been suppressed on the Atlantic coast, have been 
transferred to Central Alrica, and a market for enslaved captives 
is to be found among the horse dealers of the Soudan, whose 
emissaries frequent the war camps of the contending tribes. 
These slave are either trained up by their purchasers to war 
against their old masters, are distributed among the chiefis of 
the interior, or sent across the desert to the harems of the north. 
To supply the home market and to satisfy this demand absorbs a 
large number of captives. Each year Dahomey marches out 
against some weaker neighbour, while the Ibadan Yorubas carry 
on intermittent slaye wars in spite of the necessity for concen- 
trating their forces on their northern frontier, and even the 
^oune men of the less powerful Egbas, Ijebus, and Ijeshas indulge 
m a little slave catching on the public roada 

AH this is yery bad for commerce, and the result is that the 
trade routes to the interior are, with few exceptions, closed to 
traffic, and that it is more difficult for a Lagos trader to penetrate 
beyond the coast line than for a Mohammedan of Tripoli to 
traverse the Desert of Sahara. 

The general insecurity of property on the borders of these 
tribes may readily be imagined. Their cities are surrounded 
by walls and ditches, a large proportion of their young men 
follow the business of war, and all able-bodied men are liable to 
be called out to protect their homesteada In spite, however, 
of these drawbacks, Yorubaland is well and widely cultivated, 
thickly inhabited, and full of local commercial activity. Its 
adyantages may best be realised by comparison with one of its 

Digitized by 


96 The Jowiraal of the Momchester Geographical Society, 

Leaving Lagos in a launch or stern- wheeler, some four hours' 
steaming to the eastward along the inland waters brings one to 
Ode Ketu, the main landing-place for the interior. From 
Ode Ketu, sixty-two miles of the northerly trail, or about fifty 
miles as the crow flies, lie through a forest land, of which the 
northern half is a " no man's land " dividing the kingdoms of 
Ijebu and Yoruba. In a clearing of this forest lies Ijebu Ode, 
the capital of the first-mentioned tribe, a town 16| miles by 
trail or about 10 miles in a straight line from the lagoon side. 
The size and importance of this place, as well as its distance 
from the coast, have in the past been much miscalculated. The 
usual estimate of its population is given as 40,000, but it is now 
supposed to be not more than 13,000, of whom nearly all the 
able-bodied men are scattered on trading expeditions through 
the interior; for the Ijebus have carried the "hinterland" 
doctrine to its logical conclusion, have established an absolute 
monopoly of northern trade, and have, in short, constituted 
themselves middlemen for the interior. No Yoruba is allowed 
to pass through their country to the coast for trading purposes, 
on pain of the loss of all his goods ; and no trader from Lagos or 
elsewhere to the south is permitted to penetrate into their terri- 
tory. They have, indeed, a somewhat Doastfiil but, let us hope, 
metaphorical proverb, " The stranger who enters Ijebu in tne 
morning is sacrificed in the evening." Besides the capital there 
are no towns of importance in the Ijebu territory on this road, 
except the toll-town of Oru, some tnirty-two miles by trail from 
the lagoon. 

At this town, the most northerly in the Ijebu country, I had 
an opportunity of studying the Afncan toll-gatherer in all the 
glory of his abusive insolence. On the pretence that one of my 
men who was walking in front of me haa desecrated the sanctity 
of the toll-gate by allowing one of the irrepressible bantams, 
which he was carrying in a basket on his head, to commit the 
offence of crowing, the gentleman in charge rushed out and 
laid hold of the carrier, declaring that he had forfeited his 
liberty. We were, of course, greatly amused, and passed on 
without replying to his impertinence. As this happened in 
spite of the fact that we were a powerful party travelling imder 
the direct protection of the king of the country, I was able to 
form an estimate of the liberties which these men must allow 
themselves to take with poor and defenceless travellers. 

For over thirty miles beyond Oru the road winds on through 
a deserted forest land, well watered by perennial streams, and 
covered with a soil of unusual fertility. This strip of " no man's 
land" stretches between the boimdaries of Ijebu and Yoruba 
for over a hundred miles in length and thirty miles in width, 
and is a fair example of the way in which the marches of all 
these native states are deserted. 

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Yoruba. 97 

At Odo Ona Kehere, 62 miles by trail from the lagoon si^e, 
a small stream is passed on the edge of the forest, and on its 
further bank stands a village which marks the entrance into 
Yoruba. At once the trees give way to well-kept farms, the 
country from horizon to horizon is cleared of all but the dark 
lines of greenery which indicate the channel of some watercourse 
across the landscape, and the oil palms, dotted over the land in 
numbers of from 12 to 30 to the acre, serve to show where in 
olden days the thick woodland has been destroyed by the axe 
and fire of the farmer. Among the palm trees, as far as the eye 
can see for the hot haze which twists and distorts all distant 
objects, are well-cleaned patches of cassava, maize, yams, sweet 
potatoes, ground nuts, benni seed, beans, tobacco, gourds, egusi, 
millet, and cotton. Of these the yams are trained on tripods 
made of rods some 12ft. high, the maize is planted between the 
yam hills, and cotton and beans grow among the maize. It must, 
mdeed, be a fertile land to produce such a rapid rotation of 
crops; for after three or four years of such exhausting work 
the soil is rarely allowed to rest for more than two or three 
years, during wnich short fallow time a tall and reedy grass, 
from 6ft. to 12ft. high, is allowed to cover the surface. And yet, 
in spite of this exhaustive culture, to assist which no manure 
or plough is used, the crops show no signs of falling-off in size 
or quality. For generations, and perhaps for centuries, the 
same soil has supported its owners. So remarkable is the 
rapidity with whicn it recovers, that it may interest you to hear 
the following explanation, which I quote from notes made on 
the occasion of my visit to the country last year : — 

"Were one to visit Yoruba during the early part of the 
rainy season only it would appear impossible to account for 
these facts . . . while under our feet, unnoticed, was going on 
the ceaseless labour of the real fertilisers of the land. In the 
dry season the mystery is at once solved, and in the simplest 
and most unexpected manner. The whole surface of the ground 
among the grass is seen to be covered by serried ranks of cylin- 
drical worm casta These worm casts vary in height from a 
quarter of an inch to three inches, and exist in astonishing 
numbers. It is in many places impossible to press your finger 
upon the ground without touching one. For scores of square 
nules they crowd the land, closely packed, um-ight, and burnt 
by the sun into rigid rolls of hardened clay. There they stand 
until the rains break them down Into a fine powder, rich in 
plant food, and lending itself easily to the hoe of the fsirmer. 
Having carefully removed the worm casts of the season from 
two separate square feet of land at a considerable distance from 
one another, and chosen at random, I find the result to weigh 
not less than lOflb. in a thoroughly dry state. This gives a 
mean of over 51b. per square foot Accepting this as the amount 


Digitized by 


98 The JoumcU of tlie Manchester Geographiml Society. 

of earth brought to the surface every year by these worms, we 
get somewhat startling results. I may say, speaking from the 
result of numerous experiments, that 51b. is a very moderate 
yearly estimate of the work done by these busy labourers on 
each square foot of soil. Even at this moderate estimate, how- 
ever, of the annual result of their work, we have a total of not 
less than 62,233 tons of subsoil brought to the surface on each 
square mile of cultivable land in the Yoruba country every 
year. This work goes on unceasingly, year after year, and to 
the untiring labours of its earth-worms this part of West Africa 
owes the livelihood of its people. Where the worms do not 
work, the Yoruba knows it is useless to make his farm. The 
earth-worm which produces such surprising results has been 
identified as a new species of Siphonogaster, a genus hitherto 
known only in the Nile Valley.*' 

The following food prices prevailing throughout Yoruba will 
serve to show how industrious are its people and how fertile its 
soilj They are also a proof, by their extreme lowness, of the 
complete isolation of the farmers from the expensive and often 
ill-fumished markets of the^ coast. Maize, in the grain, was 
selling in the public market-place at 6d. for a hundredweight, 
large yams at 3d. a dozen, each of which weighed from five to 
nine pounds, sweet potatoes at IJd. a hundreaweight, beans at 
Is. 6d. a hundredweight, and eggs at from |d. to 2d. a dozen, 
while the more expensive luxuries of beef and mutton were sold 
for less than Id. a pound, goats for 2a 6d. each, sheep for 7s. to 
8s., fowls for 3s. a score, and the small cattle of the country for 
from 30s. to £2 10a each. 

On one occasion, after an unusually profuse supply of food 
for our mid-day breakfast, I severely reprimanded my cook for 
wasting, in so lavish a manner, our small supply of money. A 
piece of mutton, weighing at least four pounds, and no less than 
five huge dishes of yams, bean bread, agidi (corn-flour starch), 
and akara (a savoury mixture of beans, salt, red pepper, and 
other spices, fried in palm oil), seemed to me to be an extravagant 
meal for two people ; and when, after my interpreter and I had 
satisfied our hunger, I saw that my cook and servant had invited 
three of thefr comrades to assist them in finishing the feast, I 
was naturally a little put out The cook himself was somewhat 
conscience-stricken, and began to count up all that he had spent. 
After a long process, involving reference to a series of mysterious 
notches on a piece of wood known as a " tally-stick,' he was 
forced to confess that he had made away with four hundred and 
fifty cowries, the equivalent of which, on the spot, in English 
silver would reach the exorbitant sum of fourpence halfpenny I 
This did not strike me as an excessive charge for a breakfast 
for seven hungry men. Upon inquiry I learnt that for forty 
cowries ( = ^ of a halfpenny) my men were in the habit of secu- 

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Yoruba, 99 

ring a good meal. It has to be remembered that the appetite 
of an African carrier, walking under a sixty pound load fifteen 
or twenty miles a day, is not lightly to be reckoned with. I need 
not tell you that after this extraordinary experience I took steps 
to learn the exact price of all articles of food and commerce m 
the country. 

When it is considered that the population of Yoruba is 
variously estimated at from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000, and that it 
is marked upon the map as one of the areas of dense population, 
it is easy to imagine how great must be the industry of its 
people, and how fertile the land under cultivation. 

About three miles to the north of the edge of the forest land, 
from the ridge of a rising in the undulating plain, the first view 
is had of the great city of Ibadan. Nothing is to my mind more 
surprising than one's first impression of this " London of Negro- 
land," with its sea of brown roofs stretching on either hand over 
the rolling country from the two great hills on the west to the 
lower and more fertile plains on the east, six miles at least from 
end to end, and more than three in width. Surrounded by its 
farming villages, 163 in number, Ibadan is estimated to have a 
population of between 200,000 and 250,000, while within the 
walls of the city itself at least 120,000 people are gathered. Its 
houses, built four-square, with all the openings towards a large 
inner ** compound," and a high and blank house-wall of hardened 
<ilay abutting on the road, cover an area of nearly sixteen square 
miles, while the ditch and adobe wall which surround it are 
said to be more than eighteen miles in circumference. In 
the winding streets, which intersect its fortress-like houses in 
every direction, are countless market-booths, perhaps the most 
remarkable institution of Yoruba, where the passer-by can pur- 
chase, for very low rates, the produce of the forests, fields, and 
looms of the land. 

In the same way, by the side of the country roads, are built 
at irregular intervals, varying from one to six miles, long low 
sheds near some well, or pool, or running stream, where the 
farm women sit under the shade of a wild fig tree {Ficus vogelii) 
and sell food to travellers. I have, indeed, seen on several 
occasions by the roadside a mat with a heap of small bundles of 
food at one end, the price of which is well known, while at the 
other end a broken calabash stood ready for the receipt of the 
current price in cowries. The owner of the mat was doubtless 
far away at home minding her household matters, while her 
automatic retailing machine did honest business for her on the 
road. It is strange that a people, who are apparently as much 
given to common theft as others, should show such a delicate 
sense of honour in their adoption and maintenance of this strange 
means of sale and purchase. Such mats are no doubt under 
the protection of some especially vindictive fetich, the outward 

Digitized by 


100 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

and visible sign of which consists generally of a bit of clefk stick 
with a ribbon of palm leaf passed through the crack. 

In addition to the large city of Ibadan there are many other 
considerable towns, at distances of a day's journey from one 
another, throughout Yoruba. Such are Oyo (Awyaw), the^ 
capital (40,000 to 60,000), Ogbomoshaw (60,000), Ejibo (22,000), 
Ed^ (30,000 to 40,000), Oshogbo (35,000 to 40,000), Iwo (60,000), 
Ilobu (20,000 to 40,000), Ikirun (30,000 to 40,000), Iseyin 
(40,000), and Ishaga (70,000). Each of these towns is surrounded 
by tributary villages, scattered in every direction through the 
farms, and each chief in the cities owns certain of these villages, 
over which he exercises feudal rights. 

The trails throughout the country are kept in good repair 
by the farmers and villagers, and stated days are set apart for 
repairing the fortifications and doing other public work which 
is necessary for purposes of protection. There is no doubt that 
the exactions of the chiefs and their warlike followers are a 
serious oppression to the poor farmers, but they have as their 
excuse the necessity for devoting all their time to preparation 
for their frontier wars. Fear of outside enemies and of the 
overwhelming power of Ibadan, which is the military as well as 
the commercial centre of the country, prevents any of these 
cities from throwing off their allegiance to the Alafin of Oyo, 
who is the rightful king of Yoruba ; and with the exception of 
a few jealousies and quarrels the internal peace of the country 
may be said to be fairly well maintained. 

More directly interesting to manufacturers and merchants 
at home are the prospects of commercial development which 
Yoruba holds out. For the natives are not only industrious 
agriculturists for the purpose of supplying their daily wants 
in food, but they are also a people whose standard of comfort 
leads them to spend much labour in raising and preparing 
luxuries which could be more cheaply supplied to them fix)m 

Backed by the authority of th^ leading men in the country 
I was able, by personal inspection, to satisfy myself as to the 
stock of cloth owned by the ijeople and the quantity annually 
consumed. I foimd that, taking an average of rich and poor, 
an annual consumption of cotton, silk, grass and mixture cloths 
exists, amounting to no less than thirty yards for each male 
adult, forty-five yards for each female adult, and six yards for 
each child. For it has to be remembered that the Yorubas are 
a fully-clad race, who, for fashion's sake, are ashamed to appear 
in public unless gracefully draped with two or three ample 
cloths ; and that even the little children in the streets, though 
often throwing it aside or trailing it after them in the mud, are 
the proud possessors of a strip of cloth suflScient to cover their 
little bodies from head to foot. Of the native cloths, or, at least,. 

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Toruba. 101 

of some of them, I am able, through the kindness of Sir Alfred 
Moloney, whose interest in the colony of Lagos is so well and 
widely known, to show you a good vanety, supplemented by my 
own collection. The price of such goods, expressed in English 
money, varies from threepence to half-a-crown a yard. They are 
made of home-grown^ materials, dyed with native dyes, and 
woven on narrow looms or frames out of yam spun by hand. 

When I tell you that from careful calculations it appears 
that no less than 31,000,000 yards of cloth are annually con- 
sumed in Yoruba, of which 30,000,000 are of home manufacture, 
it will be easy to realise the extent to which the people are 
engaged in the work of making their own garments. I have esti- 
mated that not less than 25 per cent of the people are occupied in 
growing or collecting the materials, in preparing dyes and dying 

Jam, and in spinning and weaving cloth for the native market, 
t is for this that one sees the landscape flecked with white 
fields of cotton while the Yoruba silk, or Sonyun, is gathered in 
the forests, and the grass fibres are collected and prepared. The 
richer cloths alone, such as silks, velvets, velveteens, sateens, 
and damasks, are purchased from the Ijebu middlemen, who 
dispose of them in small quantities and at exorbitant rates, 
amounting often to nearly 200 per cent of profit. 

Estimating the annual consumption of home-made cloth in 
Yoruba at 30,000,000 yards, and reckoning the price at not more 
than 3d. a yard, we have the somewhat startling figure of 
£375,000 as the value of the yearly output of the native looms. 
A true average of prices would be nearer 6d. a yard than 3d., 
but I purposely adopt the lowest estimate in order to be able to 
form a ready comparison with the average valine of English 
goods at the port of entry. Assuming that European merchants 
would not be able to supplant more than half of this amount, we 
have a new market for cotton goods amounting to at least 
£187,500. To this we must add an equal or greater consumption 
of tobacco, spirits, hardware, arms, &c., which should, according 
to the relative proportion of such articles in the port of Lagos, 
merease the total addition to the imports of the colony by not 
less than from £400,000 to £500,000. 

It may be asked what the Yorubas have to give in return 
for this large amoimt of European goods, and how they will be 
able to transport their bulky produce to the coast ? To both of 
these questions I have satistactory answers. I have already 
referrea to the fact that the average number of palm oil palms 
in the richer lands varies — and my estimate is the result of 
careful counting — ^from twelve to thirty to the acre. The fruit 
of these trees is in the main allowed to lie and rot upon the 
ground, but enough is gathered to supply the local wants at a 
very cheap rate. At Ibadan, which is not more than five days* 
journey by road from the coast, I purchased palm oil at 2s. 6d. 

Digitized by 


102 The Journal of the Marichester Geographical Society. 

for an eleven-gallon measure, or for £3 158. a ton, as compared 
with from £17 10s. to £23 a ton in Lagos. Palm kernels were 
sold to me for Is. 6d. a measure as against 5s. in Lagos ; or in 
other words, a ton of kernels was worth £3 at Ibadan, where, I 
am bound to say, there is little or no demand, and a consequently 
short and dear supply, as compared with £10 a ton in Lagos. 
These prices were "white man's prices," and there is no doubt 
that the enterprising native can, by dint of bargaining, procure 
them at a lower rate. Estimating the number of square miles 
upon which the oil palm grows at 4,000, and acceptmg the low 
estimate of five to the acre, we have, in round numbers, 13,000,000 
as the number of trees available for cropping. I have calculated 
that the area at present supplying the Lagos market with palm 
produce does not exceed 3,600 square miles, and that the 
number of palm trees upon this area does not exceed 11,500,000. 
My estimates are, of course, very rouffh, and are formed for 
purposes of comparison, but they may be accepted as moderate 
and in the main reliable. The trees from which Lagos draws 
its supplies suffice for a yeairly output of over 3,000,000 gallons, 
of the export value of over £213,000, and of palm Kernels 
amounting to more than 34,000 tons, of the value of about 
£260,000, or in other words, their produce is valued at Lagos 
at not less than £473,000. I purposely quote some of the lowest 
values of recent years. One is therefore not exaggerating when 
one counts upon a supply from the Yoruba palm fields of not 
less than £400,000 worth of palm produce every year. I have 
calculated that the Yoruba farmer who had the enterprise to 
carry a pot of oil, or a load of kernels to the coast would realise 
the handsome competence of from 5d. to 7d. a day, as compared 
with his present earnings of less than 2d. It is unreasonable to 
suppose that such a dream of wealth would fail to tempt so 
eager a trader as he is by nature to forsake his weary loom and 
his infinitesimal earnings, and to embark upon the waters of 
commercial speculation, which prove so attractive to even the 
sterner spirits of commercial England. For it is not alone u^n 
the produce of his palm fields that he reliea His cotton, which 
is at this moment, even at the present low rates, commanding a 
price e(jual to Indian cotton, is ready to his hand in immense 
quantities, and with care and the mtroduction of better seed 
would rapidly obtain a permanent place in the European marketa 
It is, indeed, hoped that recent experiments which have been 
carried out by the Botanic Station at Lagos will shortly place 
the natives in possession of a superior fibre, and one more suited 
to his soil than the cotton at present available in Yoruba. And 
not only would the trade in cotton be an important feature in 
our commercial relationship with the country, but shea butter, 
groimd nuts, benni seed, native indigo, camwood, indiarubber, 
gums, fibres, and ivory, would be transported to the coast for 

Digitized by 


Yoruba. 103 

local sale or shipment. The trade in foodstuff alone would be 
a source of wealth to the interior and an advantage to the coast 
towns, for in Lagos maize is often sold at 10s. a hundredweight 
in times of scarcity, and other ;iecessaries of life fetch equally 
high prices. 

when I mention that from May, 1888, when the Botanic 
Station of Lagos made its first beginning, imtil the end of last 
year, no fewer than 80,000 young plants of economic value had 
been distributed among the natives, of which more than 60,000 
had been purchased, and that, in addition to these seedlings, 
large Quantities of seed of cotton and other valuable plants had 
been distributed or sold, it will be sufficiently clear that there 
is no lack of anxiety among the Yorubas to improve their crops 
and to adopt new economic cultures. It is quite to be hoped 
for that within a few years Yoruba cotton, which last year 
fetched over 6d. per lb., and is now quoted at 4Jd. to 4fja., as 
compared with Indian at 4Jd. to 4fd., Egyptian at 6\d, to 6Jd., 
and Louisiana at 4|d. to 5d., should, by the introduction of finer 
qualities and a better system of cleaning and packing, become a 
regular and welcome feature in the English market. As an 
example of what can be done by energetic exploiting of the 
resources of the country, I may mention the recent introduction 
to the English market, by Sir Alfred Moloney and the autho- 
rities of the Royal Gardens at Kew, of the African piassava, a 
product of the commonest tree of the coast-line, which can be 
supplied in unlimited quantities, and is at present commanding 
no less a price than £70 a ton. The development of the india- 
rubber trade on the Gold Coast is to be credited to the same 
origin, as is also the trade in ogea gum from Lagos, which is 
now sold at £34 a ton. 

I have shown enough to prove that in Yoruba we have an 
immediate market for half a million a year of European goods, 
and that in return for these goods the people have the necessary 
amoxmt of produce and the will to put at least an equal value 
of trade into our hands. By opening up the rivers which are 
of navigable depth from the coast to the heart of the country, 
there is no doubt that this trade could be at least doubled. 
These natural waterways are unfortunately as completely choked 
by vegetation as the overland trade routes are blocked by a 
rank growth of middlemen. The advantages to the colony of 
Lagos of an additional million of trade would be consideraole, 
but to the industrious and struggling Yorubas an opening for 
their energies in the direction of commerce would be invalu- 
able. I may say that the Government has for some time been 
actively engaged in negotiating the opening of the trade routes 
to the interior by land and water without infringing upon the 
liberties of the tribes, who are much better left to manage their 
own affairs, and without using unwise or arbitrary measures. 

Digitized by 


104 The Journal of the Manchester GeographicdL Society^ 

Could the Ijebus and other tribes be persuaded " for a con- 
sideration " to relinquish their commercial blockade, which may 
or may not be quite within their legal rights, there is no doubt 
that they would be the first to profit by the access of prosperity 
which would follow. The Yorubas would profit in no less a 
degree; their warlike young men would mid in trading an 
adventurous life well suited to their training, which at present 
unfits them for more peaceful employment; a less limited 
supply of arms would restore the bal^tnce of power in the 
interior and insure the safety of the coast ; whue the terrors 
of the slave-trade would give way to a large extent to the more 
profitable occupation of commercial enterprise. For the African 
IS by nature as much addicted to bargaining, bartering, and 
tradmg in all its aspects as a Spaniard or a Cmnaman is given 
up to gambling, and it is not to be doubted for a moment that 
they would eagerly grasp at so favourable an opportunity of 
indulging their most enthralling passion. 


(In Illustration of Gtoography in Newspapan, ix. See page 124.) 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


10 ■ 







Mr. J. Howard Reed. 

Railway t open i -. --«. 
„ building - « 

4;: _L 




Digitized by 


The Conimercial Products of Centred Africa. 106 

The Theodore Chegory Prize Eaay, 



WITH EUROPE.— (iS« Map.) 

By Mr. J. HOWARD REED, Manchedter. 

Part L 

In describing the " Commercial Products of Central Africa " in this essay, 
it will, perhaps, be more satisfactory to split up the country under con- 
sideration, roughly, into districts — without necessarily observing exact 
political divisions — and deal with the products of each district in turn. 
This arrangement, although it may involve more or less repetition, will 
have the advantage of rendering the essay more useful for purposes of 
reference. Following, therefore, this plan, and commencing at the north, 
we come first to 


These districts, which formed part of the Egyptian Sud&n, appear to 
be almost identical in point of natural productions. Although so far 
removed from the coast on all sides, there is a considerable trade carried 
on principally, or almost entirely, by means of the cumbersome and 
primitive camel caravan. A large portion of the country is merely 
sandy desert, and in its present condition produces little or nothing. In 
various parts of the Sahara artificial oases have been formed, by means 
of artesian wells sunk through the sand. Possibly the same plan 
might be successfully adopted, where necessary, in this portion of the 
Sud&n. Cardinal Lavigerie says : " There is plenty of water in the 
Sahara. The wells have been left to choke up, and the oases to fall 
out of cultivation, but . . . there is water everywhere. Once bring it 
to the surface, and life will reappear where we have known nothing but 
sterility.*'* Numerous natural oases at present exist ; in their 
neighbourhood the soil is very fertile, and Indian com, rice, 
barley, millet, wheat, sesame and other grain is successfully produced. 
The high-lands and mountain sides of Darfur are said to be well 
cultivated, and here, in addition to the cereals before named, cotton 
thrives, and is largely grown. The gum-arabic of commerce is exported, 
as well as honey, dates, and other fruits. 

Camels do not seem to thrive as well here as further to the north, 
but a species of humped oxen is largely used in their stead. Horses, 
goats, and sheep appear to thrive welL The elephant is found on the 

* Intenrlew with CardlniJ Lavigerie, Anti-Slavery ReporUr^ May and June, 1891, page 100. 

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106 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

southern borders, and ivory, consequently, forms a large item in the 
trade of the district Antelopes of various kinds, and ostriches, are found 
in great numbers. The country is well suited for ostrich farming, and^ 
although this industry is not at present carried on, a considerable trade 
is done in ostrich feathers. 

Among the minerals gold-dust is found, but only in small 
quantities. There are copper mines in Darfiir, but, so far as is at 
present known, they are not of great importance. 

There is a good market here for various kinds of English and 
American goods, and especially for Manchester cloth. The natives, 
however, already manufacture a considerable quantity of cotton goods 
themselves, and, as the native-made cloth is of a very strong and 
durable character, it is necessary that the Manchester cloth sent to the 
district, to be acceptable and able to compete with that of native 
manufacture, should be of strong and good quality. 


To the east of Eordofan, on the eastern side of the Nile, are situated 
Easala and Senaar, both of which formed portions of the Egyptian Suddn, 
and through which flow the great Abyssinian tributaries of the Nile, 
viz., the River Atbara and the Blue Nile. A great portion of these districts 
is of a fertile and productive character. Sir Samuel Baker states * that 
cotton of a very superior quality is indigenous to the soil, and he re- 
minds us that the cotton now cultivated in Egypt was introduced from 
the Sudan during the present century. If means of " barrage " were 
adopted to store up water in the Atbara River, which runs dry during 
the dry season in Abyssinia, Sir Samuel says that no less than 30 
million acres of land might be brought under cultivation for growing 
cotton, producing sufficient to supply Lancashire with the quality most 
in demand. He further points out that the harvest season is so certain 
that '* neither rain nor dew disturbs the dryness of the atmosphere, and 
the freshly-gathered cotton requures no covering." This fact would, of 
course, assist cheap production. 

Most cereals, tobacco, and many fruits, such as oranges, lemons, 
limes, pomegranates, peaches, and grapes, flourish in this neighbour- 
hood. Salt is largely produced on the Red Sea coast; and, like 
KordofiEtn, this country exports ivory, gold-dust, and ostrich feathers. 


To the south is Abyssinia, which, owing to its variety of eleva- 
tion, varying from 3,000 to 14,000 feet above the sea, has a climate 
ranging from that of tropical India to that of mild Europe. The 
products of this country are as various as those of the countries whose 
climates are represented. In the valleys and low-lying country, 
where the climate is tropical, cotton, coflee, sugar-cane, tobacco, iadigo, 
gums, maize, millet, rice, and flax thrive well ; with tropical fruits such 
as bananas, dates, pomegranates, lemons, and limes. At higher eleva- 
tions are to be found European cereals and fruits of all kinds — wheat, 
barley, and other grain, with oranges, grapes, peaches, &c. 

* Letter to the Time*, See weekly edition, June 4th, 1890. Page 8. 

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The Commercial ProdvAsts of Central Africa. 107 

Abyssinia also aflfords luxuriant pasturage for cattle, sheep, goats, 
horses, and asses, and is highly suited for oattle rearing. Large quantities 
of honey are produced, and among the exports are to be found ivory, gold, 
musk, gums, various drugs, hides, ko. This country has been described 
as one huge garden, and if properly developed might supply the markets 
of the world with ooflfee and cotton. The people have commercial 
instincts, and seem anxious to trade. Communications, however, are 
bad, or almost entirely absent, and the country is much disturbed by 
inter-tribal wars. 


This part of Africa is very little known at present. It is a very difficult 
country for the European to penetrate, owing to the extortionate de- 
mands for tribute or black-mail which are made by the chiefs of the 
numerous small tribes or clans into which the population is split up, each 
one of whom demands his full "pound of flesh," so that the traveller's 
stock of trade goods is soon exhausted. The people are, moreover, of a 
treacherous character, and several travellers have paid dearly, by losing 
their lives, for their temerity in proceeding any distance into the 

So far as is known, a considerable portion of the country is of 
fertile character, and produces coffee in considerable quantities, as well 
as a sufficient amount of grain to supply the inhabitants with abundant 
food. Salt is obtained from salt lakes in the interior, and bricks or 
cakes of this are largely used as the currency of the country, and find 
their way into Abyssinia for the same purpose. Aromatic gums, 
frankincense, and myrrh are exported. Ostriches abound in the country, 
and their feathers form a considerable item of trade. It is probable 
that ostrich farming would be successful if adopted 


The territory recently taken in hand by the Imperial British East 
Africa Company, which covers a very wide area (nome 750,000 square 
miles), embraces within its bounds many productive districts, which are 
probably destined to play a very important part in the future commercial 
development of Central Africa. The coast line of the Company's sphere 
of influence extends from the mouth of the Umbo River on the south 
to the Jub River on the north — an unbroken sea-line of some 400 miles. 
The interior territory, over which the Company now holds sway, extends 
to the Congo State on the west and to the borders of Abyssinia 
and the Egyptian Sud&n on the north. It includes within itself 
the whole of Equatoria,* the rich district of the Semliki Valley, 
situated between the Albert and Albert Edward Nyanzas, the countries 
of Ankori, Uganda, Usoga, Gala-land, Masai-land, and other smaller 

The products of this great territory are many and varied, and the 
possibilities of future trade almost immeasurable. Gold has been 
observed by the late Mr. Mackay in the neighbourhood of Lake 

* A leng^y traxiBlated quotation from a valuable report on the products of Eouatoria, sent 
by Emin Paoha to thn BtploratorCt is to be found in Major Gasati's work. " Ten Tears in 
'Equatoria," VoL I., pages 258 to 270. It deals yery fuUy with the excellence and quantity of the 
TulouB animal and vegetable products of the province.— J. H. R. 

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108 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

Victoria; Emin Pasha has reported the same thing at the Albert 
Nyanza ; and Captain Lugard reports to the Company that during his 
recent work on the Sabaki River he discovered what he "believes to be 
gold-bearing quartz. Copper has, also, recently been found by that 
gentleman in the same neighbourhood.* Iron is abundant throughout 
the whole country, and is almost everywhere worked by the natives. 
In some districts the ores are especially rich. Speaking of Uganda, 
Mackay says : '' Every stone is iron." Plumbago has been discovered 
between the coast and Lake Victoria. Uganda has large deposits of 
kaolin (a rich porcelain clay), which Mackay saysf "will prove of 
great value when the country becomes open to trade." Nitrate of soda 
is found in Masai-land, and may prove of commercial importance. 

The present most valuable item of trade is, doubtless, ivory. Large 
quantities of a superior quality, worth 10s. or more per lb. in Liverpool, 
are obtained at a cost of about one shUling per lb. j: in Masai-land, in 
Usoga, and the districts to the north, as weU as from Uganda and 

The cattle districts are of course rich in hides, horns, bones, and 
other animal products. The first-named is likely to prove a very 
valuable article of trade. The natives at the present time set no value 
upon the hides, and will sell them for next to nothing. Mr. H. H. 
Johnston has stated that this trade alone would go a long way to pay for 
railway construction.§ The great cattle districts are: The Gala 
•country, which is stated to possess enormous herds which outnumber the 
inhabitants about seven or eight to one ; Masai-land, where ten shillings- 
worth of trade goods will purchase an ox|| j the districts bordering Uie 
banks of the Upper Nile ; the plateau lands to the west of the Albert 
Lake, Uganda &c These countries — more especially Masai-land and the 
Gala country, which are nearer the sea, and can therefore be more 
easily opened to European trade — are eminently suited for stock 
breeding, and may in the future rival even Australia and America. 
Masai-land is noted for an abundance of splendid sheep of the &t-tailed 
variety, goats, useful asses, and fowls noted for their abundant produc- 
tion of eggs. In Masai-land the tsetse-fly is imknown. Among many 
other more or less valuable animal products may be named ostrich 
feathers, hippopotamus hides and ivory, wild beast skins, giraffe bones, 
crocodile leather, rhinoceros horns, monkey skins, honey, beeswax, and 
living wild animals and birds. 

Turning to the vegetable kingdom, we find the products of this 
district both rich and various. Coffee, cotton, and tobacco are 
indigenous over a great part of the Company's territory, and could be 
cultivated to almost any extent Indiarubber is found in the forests 
and jungles between the Victoria Nyanza and the coast, and specimens 
of this, which the Company have had sent to England, have " been 
most favourably reported upon." Steps are now being taken to collect 
this, and the Company believe it " cannot fail to form an important 

* See Imperial British East Africa Company's Report, July 17th, 1890. 

t See •♦ Mackay of Uganda," p. 107. 

t See paper on " The Commercial Prospects of Tropical Africa," by Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., 
in the Journal of the Manchester OeographicoU Society, toL 1. 


II See paper on " British Interests in Eastern Equatorial Africa," by Mr. H. H. Johnston, O.B., 
dn the JaurtuU of the Maneheater Oeographical Society ^ voL L 

Digitized by 


The C<ynimercial Products of Central Africa. 10^ 

industry in the immediate future."* Valuable timber trees exist in 
Masai-land, and in the neighbourhood of the rivers could doubtless be . 
cheaply conveyed to the sea ; in any case they will be of great value in 
the country itself, as commerce advances and civilisation extends. 
Orchillarweedy from which valuable dyes and litmus are made, is 
abundant. Sugar cane is plentiful, but probably this could not be 
cultivated to compete with the West Indies, it would, however, supply 
local demands. Bananas, sweet potatoes, Indian com, and millet are 
indigenous throughout nearly the whole territory. Rice, arrowroot, 
and various kinds of peas and beans are found in several districts. On 
the high-lands European fruits and vegetables will thrive well. Mr. H. 
H. Johnston, when living on Mount Kilimanjaro, planted potatoes, 
onions, mustard, cress, radishes, turnips^ carrots, peas, beans, spinach, 
borage, sage, tomatoes, cucumbers, and melons, all of which, he says, 
flourished '< amazingly." He also planted wheat, coffee, limes, oranges, 
and cocoa-nutaf 

Mr. Stanley speaks in glowing terms of the wonderful productive- 
ness of the Semliki Valley and the countries on the west of Lake 
Victoria. Mackay says of Uganda : " The country is really a rich one 
and might produce anything. .... I should fancy this would be 
excellent land for growing tea and quinine, and many other valuable 
articles.":]: Messrs. H. H. Johnston and Joseph Thomson speak in 
equally high terms of Masai-land. Later travellers confirm their reports, 
and speak similarly of other districts to the north, notably the district of 


In the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia — the two former of 
which are now under British protection — the staple productions are 
various spices, such as cinnamon, nutmegs, mace, pepper, and cloves^ 
tbe latter of which are exported in enormous quantities. Abundance of 
all kinds of tropical fruits, cocoa-nuts and dates, besides rice, millet,, 
beans, sugar-cane, melons, pumpkins, &a, are also largely produced. 

The exports include, besides those mentioned above, ivory, hides, 
^m-copal, monkey-skins, timber, dyowoods, indiarubber, &c., most of 
livhich, of course, find their way into the Zanzibar market from the main 


.The district on the East Coast over which the Germans hold sway 
is, to a considerable extent, similar to that portion of Africa included in 
the British sphere, and previously described. 

In the northern districts cattle are plentiful, and the German traders 
will doubtless be able to develop a considerable trade in such animal pro- 
ducts, as hides, horns, bones, &c. In portions of the central districts of 
XJgogo and Unyanyembe domestic animals -^-oxen, horses, sheep, &c. — 
cannot thrive owing to the presence of the tsetse-fly. This scourge does 
not affect wild animals, with which certain parts of the country abound 

* Imperial British Eaut Africa Company's report, July 17, 1890. 

t See paper on " British Interests in Eastern lEquatorlal Africa," in the Jovkmal cf the 

Ifanehuter 0»ffraphical Society, toI. L 
X See "Mackay of Uganda,*' 

page 108. 

Digitized by 


110 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

Between the lakes, Victoria, Tanganyika, and Nyasa, grow large 
quantities of both wheat and rice. Mr. Stanley says that in Unyanyembe 
50,000 bushels of the former or 100,000 bushels of the latter can be 
bought at any time.* More than 30 years ago Captain Speke wrote : 
<^Kice ... I consider capable of being produced in great 
quantities and of very superior quality."! No doubt vast quantities of 
these two, and several other, grains could be grown with little difficulty. 
Stanley tells us that the same country will grow coflfee equally well, 
and Speke says this is also the case with sugar-cane and tobacco. Cotton 
grows wild in the neighbourhood of the Victoria Lake, and both Speke 
and Mackay refer to this fact Speaking of Kagehyi, at the south end of 
Lake Victoria, Mackay says :$ " Cotton .... grows here plenti- 
fully in the wild state, while even a little is cultivated by the natives to 
make strings for their beads." 

The districts near the coast produce spices similar to those of 
Zanzibar, and pepper, nutmegs, mace, cloves, &a, can be grown 
in unlimited quantities. Tea has been experimentally cultivated, 
apparently with much success. Cofifee, cocoa, sugar-cane, tobacco, 
all kinds of European and native fruits and vegetables, and sesame, a 
seed from which a useful lamp oil is expressed, are also largely produced. 
A large trade is already done in gum-copal, which is either picked off 
the trunks of the gum-trees as it exudes, or is dug out of the earth at the 
foot of the trees. Iron is more or less abundant throughout the countiy, 
salt is found in places, and nitrate of soda has been observed in some 
districts. The bulk of the German territory is undoubtedly rich, and 
offers a highly satisfactory field for development. 


That portion of the east coast, belonging to the Portuguese, and 
known as Mozambique, as well as the '' Hinterland " of the same, right 
away to the Nyasa Lake, is to a large extent similar in its productions 
to the territory in the German sphere of influence further to the north. 
Although this district has been occupied by the Portuguese for centuries, 
they have hitherto done little to develop iL 

A considerable quantity of ivory here finds its way to the coast, but 
it is mostly conveyed from the far interior, few elephants being now 
found between the coast and Lake Nyasa. The district abounds in 
animal life, and gives prospect of considerable trade in skins, hides, 
horns, bones, and similar animal products. Among the wild animals 
found are the lion, leopard, hyena, two-homed rhinoceros, gnu, 
antelope, buffalo, zebra, and quagga. The porcupine and many other 
small animals are abundant The principal domestic animals are goats, 
which are found everywhere in the district, and oxen, which, although 
not kept generally by the natives, are plentiful in many places. 

The most common mineral is iron, which is abundantly found, and is 
everywhere worked by the native smiths. Coal has been reported to exist 
in the neighbourhood of the Eovuma River, but it is still questionable 
whether it is of much value. Gold has been found in small quantities in 

* Mr. H. M. Stanle/s speech in Dundee, June 14, 1890. 

t BlxKkwood'i MngcuiM, 1859. 

J See •♦ Mackay of Uganda," page 71. 

Digitized by 


The Cammercidl Products of Central Africa, 111 

some of the rivers. Sach stones and crystals as garnets (as yet of small 
value), almandine, tourmaline, and beryl, have been discovered,* and this 
may be evidence of rich deposits of precious stones which will in the 
future be unearthed. A clay suitable for pottery is also found. 

The country abounds in rich districts, where the soil is fertile to a 
degree. Various spices, similar to those of Zanzibar, flourish. Fruits, 
such as the lime, lemon, guava, &c, are found. Sorghum, maize, 
rice, sesame, cassava, beans, yams, dec, grow in abundance. Cotton 
is indigenous, while the tobacco plant^ sugar-cane, and cashew-tree 
all flourish. A considerable trade has already been done in india- 
rubber, orchilla-weed, and calumba-root, and the exportation of all these 
commodities is capable of great expansion. Gum-copal also forms one of 
the principal exports. Many parts of the country are well suited for the 
residence of Europeans. 


These districts occupy one of the most floiuishing portions of Central 
Africa. In the neighbourhood of Lake Nyasa th^ African Lakes Company, 
which has for some years carried on a work both philanthropic and com- 
mercial, has abundantly proved what can be done in the heart of the 
" Dark Continent " by European enterprise and spirit. 

Gold has been found in small quantities in the rivers in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Nyasa, t and is known to exist in the district of 
Katanga. When we remember that there is a rich gold-bearing district 
on the south side of the Zambezi, it suggests that, probably, such may 
also prove to be the case in the countries to the north of the river when 
they become better known, especially when we remember, too, that 
promising quartz-reefis are in the neighbourhood. Copper is known to exist 
in large quantities in Katanga, and has been rudely worked there by the 
natives for ages. .The trade in this metal is sure to become a valuable 
one in the future. The natives have already done a large trade in copper, 
which, in the shape of bars and ingots, is constantly passing as currency 
among the peoples of that part of Africa. Iron is found more or less 
throughout the country. A large part of this portion of Africa is rich 
in animal products, it being one of the best hunting grounds of the 
continent. Ivory is plentiful, large numbers of elephants ranging the 
district. Vast herds of buflkloes, various kinds of antelope, zebras, 
gnus, giraffes, rhinoceros, &c., are found. The rivers are inhabited by 
hippopotami and crocodiles. Herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are 
kept by the peoples on the high-lands near Lake Nyasa and the Shir6 
River. Goats are plentiful everywhera The hides, skins, bones, horns, 
&C., of these animals, with honey and beeswax, promise a rich export 
trade for the future. The African Lakes Company have introduced the 
Angora goat, and, by its means, hope to establish a trade in mohair, j: 
The vegetable products are varied and numerous. Cotton is indigenous, 
and is manufactured in a rude manner by the natives. Indiarubber is 
plentiful, and a considerable trade in this, as well as iu various oil seeds, 

* Sm paper by Rer. Ghauncy Maples (Archdeacon MaplesX in the Journal qf tht Manehater 
OtOffraphiaU Soeitly, toL 1. 

t See ** Notes on the Nyasa Bsgion," by Consul O'Neill, in the Journal qf the Manchater 
Otofraphiml Society, toL It. 


Digitized by 


112 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

is already carried on on the Lower Zambezi and Sbir6 River. Sugar^ 
coffee, wheat, potatoes, and other European vegetables are grown by the 
Company in Nyasaland, who are also experimenting, with considerable 
promise of success, with tea, a special variety of cotton, and some 
medicinal plants.* The general native grains, vegetables, and fruits of 
Central Africa are found in abundance throughout the district, and 
most European fruits would, doubtless, thrive well The country through 
which the Upper Shir6 River passes is, according to Consul H. H. 
Johnston, "magnificently fertile."! 


The Portuguese possession of Angola, which extends from the 
Congo on the north to the Kunene River on the south, with the " back 
country,'' is a valuable and productive portion of Central Africa, and has a 
fairly healthy and agreeable climate. There is prospect of gold being founu 
in parts of the coimtry, as quartz-reefs are known to exist. Coal and 
copper have been reported, and these may in the future prove of com- 
mercial value. Iron is also found. The usual animal products consist 
of ivory, hides, horns, bones, honey, wax, &c. 

The great riches of the Angola territory, however, consist in an 
abundance of indiarubber, coffee, vegetable-oil, palm-kernels, sugar, 
orchilla-weed, cotton, baobab-fibre, and tobacco. The soil is abundantly 
productive, and produces, largely, various cereals andf fruits, such as com, 
maize, manioc, millet, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, yams, bananas, oranges, 
limes, lemons, pine-apples, &o. The exports for 1887 from this colony 
are stated by Mr. Joseph Rippon j: to have been of the value of no less 
than £250,000. A railway already exists, or is at any rate in a forward 
state, reaching from Loanda, on the coast, to about 200 miles eastward 
into the interior, as far as Ambaoa. This railway taps the rubber 
district and the coffee plantations, and has already largely reduced the 
cost of carriage to the coast. 


The vast territory over which the King of the Belgians now holds 
sway, known as the Congo State, has an area of nearly nine 
hunchred thousand (900,000) square mUes. It extends &om the western 
coast of Lake Tanganyika to the mouth of the Congo on the Atlantic 
coast ; and from about the fourth parallel of north latitude to the sources 
of the Congo in the neighbourhood of lakes Bangweolo and Moero; or in 
other words to about the twelfth parallel, south latitude, thus embracing 
nearly the whole of the vast Congo basin, and more or less extending 
north and south through 16 degrees of latitude, and east and west 
through no less than lb degrees of longitude. 

This vast coimtry is inhabited by an estimated population, according 
to Mr. Stanley, of some forty millions§ of people of varying race and 

*8oe "Notes on the Nyaaa Region,'* by Consul O'Neill, in the Journal <tf the ManekeaUr 
Geographical Society. voL !▼. 

t See paper read before the Royal Oeographioal Society, Nov. 11th, 1890. 

t See paper on "The Portuguese Poaaesaioni of the South-west Coast of Africa, and par- 
ticularly oiAngoU," in the Journal of iki Manchester OeographiaU Society^ voL t. 

i Mr. Raveustein believes these figures to be much too high, and considers fourteen t«HH*yt*^ 
to be nearer the mark.— J. H. R. 

Digitized by 


The ConiTnercial Products of Central Africa, 113 

type. Among them may be found the pare negro of the West Coast, 
the high-type pastoral Wahuma of the high-lands, the Manyuema 
cannibal of the Upper Ck>ngo, and the Akka dwarf of the Aruwimi forest. 

As various as the types of people are the climatic conditions of 
different parts of the enormous territory. Here, low- lying lands, watered 
by incessant rains, overgrown with rank vegetation, and reeking with 
indidious malaria; there, healthy and bracing high-lands, where the 
ground oft-times sparkles with hoar-frost in the early morning, in spite of 
its tropical situation, which may be, perhaps, on the very equator itself. 
Thousands of square miles of rolling and park-like grass-land, fertile to 
a degree, and where man and beast alike find plenty ; thousands of 
square miles, again, of dark and gloomy forest, containing millions of 
enormous forest-giants, and countless myriads of smaller trees, the whole 
bound together and interlaced above, by such a perfect network of climb- 
ing plants and creepers, that the light of the sun can find no entrance, 
and choked below by a dense, impassable, and almost solid undergrowth. 
The enormous stretch of territory is traversed by the great Congo River 
and its many tributaries, which, collectively, afford between seven and 
eight thousand miles of navigable water. 

The products of the Congo State are both varied and rich. 
Gold, copper, lead, plumbago, and iron are each known to exist, but, so 
fitf, none but the la^t-named have been found in any great quantity. 
It is probable, however, that rich deposits of the mbre valuable metads 
may be found as the country becomes better known. Copper is already 
smelted by the natives in some places, and that portion of the State 
territory near the Katanga country will most likely be foimd to yield 
rich deposits of the SAme metal. Katanga itself is about to be annexed 
to the Congo State,* and Captain Stairs, of Emin Pasha renown, has 
now this work in hand. 

The animal products are both rich and many. Ivory, as elsewhere in 
tropical Africa, forms the principal article of commerce, but an extensive 
trade is also already done, and is capable of great extension, in various 
other animal commodities. Wild animals roam, more or less, over the 
whole of the territory, the principal among them being elephants, lions, 
baffidoes, zebras, giraffes, and antelopes of many kinds. The rivers 
abound in crocodiles and hippopotami, while vast numbers of plumage 
birds of all kinds exist. As suggested by Mr. H. H. Johnston, with re- 
ference to the east-coast, a large trade might be done in living wild 
animals and birds. Among the domestic animals are found sheep, goats, 
pigs, and fowls, and these, together with the wild animals above 
mentioned, contribute an extensive supply, which can be increased in- 
definitely, of hides, furs, ^orns, teeth, bones, feathers, tSrc, to which 
may be added porcupine quills, tortoiseshell, honey, and beeswax. 

The greatest present riches of the State, however, doubtless consists 
in the unlimited supply of its vegetable commodities. In the great 
Aruwimi and Congo forests, innumerable timber trees of various and 
valuable kinds exist, and no doubt vast numbers of these can be success- 
fully and cheaply rafted to the coast. Among them are to be found 
mahogany, lignum-vitse, ebony, teak, redwood, kc, Indiarubber, palm- 

■ Stnoe this eamf was written Katanga haa been annexed, and Belgian stations hare been 
tsNbHthed In the coontry.-J. H. R. 


Digitized by 


114 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

kernels, palm-oil, various gums, orchilla-weed, copra, camwood, rattan- 
canes, palm-fibre, ground-nuts, kola-nuts, myn*h, fimikincense, benniseed, 
gum-copal, red-powder, bark and fibre of the baobab-tree, &c., are obtain- 
able, in most cases, in unlimited quantities. More or less throughout the 
State the soil is highly productive, and will produce, to an indefinite 
extent, rice, sugar, cotton, tobacco, hemp, yams, sweet potatoes, maize, 
cassava, millet, sesame, wheat, and coffee. A large export trade is already 
done in many of these products. Tropical fruits, such as bananas, plan- 
tains, pine-apples, grapes, oranges, limes, pumpkins, melons, tomatoes, 
<bc., thrive well, and most of them can be produced to an incalculable 


The exportable products of these two districts are very similar to 
those of the C!ongo State. Ivory is exported from both districts, 
that from the Cameroons being plentiful, and that from the neighbour^ 
hood of the Gabon River of especially fine quality. The usual animal 
products, viz., hides, furs, horns, teeth, various skins, <S^, are also forth- 
coming. The vegetable products consist of palm-kernels, palm-oil, india- 
rubber, cocoa-nuts, dye-wood, ebony, ground-nuts, yams, sweet potatoes, 
manioc, maize, millet, cocoa, coffee, pepper, capsicum, sugar, tobacco, d^, 
with such fruits as bananas, pine-apples, papaws, oranges, limes, and 
many others. 


The whole of these districts are rich and productive. Gold-dust is 
exported in considerable quantities from the Gold Coast and Ashantee ; 
while silver, tin, copper, and manganese are also found, and find their 
way to the coast trader. Ivory, hides, horns, wax, ko,, form a valuable 
portion of the exporta The staple trade, however, for the whole district^ 
is palm-oiL £normous quantities of this commodity are collected all 
through the country, and brought to the coast ^for shipment to Europe. 
Cotton grows well in the district — it is, in fact, indigenous — and is 
largely cultivated by the people of Yoruba. It is not at present 
exported very extensively, but is largely used for native manufacture. 
Experiments are being made in growing cotton of a superior kind, firom 
special seed imported from £gypt and elsewhere,^ and this appears to 
give marked promise of success. 

The people of the Toruba district are well clothed in cotton goods, 
almost entirely of native manufacture. There is, therefore, a good field 
here for Manchester merchants and manufiicturers. To be success^ 
however, they must import an article which will not only be cheaper 
than that of native miake, but be also of more suitable and durable 
character. If an import trade of this kind can be established, a large 
number of the natives, who are now cotton weavers, would be set free to 
become cotton growers, and thus help to supply the British market with 
the raw material.f 

* net address delivered before the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, by Mr. Alvan MillMiBt 
M. A, Anistant Colonial Secretary for the Colony of Lagoe, on February 5uk, 1891, reported In the 
Manehetttr Guardian of the following day. 

i See pftper on "Cotton Interests, Foreign and Native, in Yoruba, and generally in WM 
Africa," by His Excellency Governor Moloney, C.M.O., of Logoe, In the JoumiU qftht Manchetier 
040ffraj^hi€Ql Socittyt vol. v. 

Digitized by 


The Commercial Prodv/ste of CerUiul Africa. 115 

In this rich and fertile district the usual Tegetable products .and 
fruits of Central Africa are grown in abundance. They consist princi- 
pally of palm-kerneiSy indiarubber, copra, dyewood, barwood, African 
rosewood, various timbers, fibres, anotta, gums, maize, yams, ground- 
nuts, sugar, indigo, spices, pepper, benniseed, cocoaruuts, kolo-nuts, 
cocoa, coffee, tobacco, lemons, pine-apples, melons, limes, and guavas. 


In this small Free State the exports are many and various. Here 
f^rt imftl life is abundant, and the usual animal productions are con- 
sequently forthcoming. Elephants, leopards, hippopotami, crocodiles, 
porcupines, wild hogs, several kinds of deer, and apes, besides other less 
important wild animals, are found. While among the domestic animals 
may be mentioned bullocks, sheep (covered with hair), goats, swine, 
geese, turkeys, ducks, chickens, <&c. It has been stated that, perhaps, in 
no part of the world can chickens be raised more cheaply, nor in greater 
numbers, than in Liberia.'^ 

The vegetable products, also, are as numerous and varied as can be 
found in any part of Africa. Valuable timber trees, such as rosewood, 
mulberry, mahogany, oak, safiron, hickory, poplar, <bc., are found, besides 
an abundance of such commodities as camwood, indigo, palm-oil, gum, 
frankincense, indiarubber, cotton, sugar, cocoa, ground-nuts, ginger, 
pepper, and other spices. Coffee, stated to be equal to that of Mocha or 
Java, is cultivated, arrowroot is abundant, and many kinds of medicinal 
plants abound. All kinds of grains, roots, and other cereals thrive well, 
while rice is largely cultivated and requires very little attention. Sweet- 
potatoes, cassava, yams, tania, beans, peas, cabbages, tomatoes, cucumbers, 
water-melons, pumpkins, musk-melons, beets, radicles, carrots, and other 
▼egetables can be grown in abundance. All kinds of tropical and sub- 
tropical fruits grow in plenty, and many of them are indigenous. Among 
them may be found the orange, lemon, lime, pine-apple, guava, mango, 
plantain, cocoa-nut, tamarind, pomegranate, cherry, peach, rose-apple, 
and banana. 


From Sierra Leone and the Gambia district the animal exports 
consist, principally, of ivory, skins, hides, beeswax, honey, and ostrich 
feathers. While the vegetable products exported are, principally, palm- 
oil, palm-kernels, indiarubber, cotton, fibre, gum- copal, kolo-nuts, cocoa- 
nuts, ground-nuts, oil-seeds, benniseed, camwood, maize, sesame, wheat, 
rice, millet, &c Most of the fruits and vegetables cultivated in 
Liberia woi^d, no doubt, also thrive welL Gold, silver, and mercury are 
each found in small quantities, and iron is fiEtirly abundant 


In the Central Sud&n, and the neighbourhood of Lake Tsad, the 
products consist of much the same as those of the districts last referred to. 

The inhabitants of this part of Africa have reached a considerably 
advanced state of civilisation. The people are industrious, trade keenly 

* Bee paper on " Liberia," by the Hon. E. 13. Gudgeon, K.a A.R., K.C.S.O., Consul General for 
Liberia, in we J^ayMl of tht MancJiuter Gtograpkical Socitty, voL iv. 

Digitized by 


116 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

among themselves, and are, moreover, good craftsmen, and follow 
various trades. 

Domestic animals, such as horses, asses, cattle, goats, and sheep 
are common among the people, while elephants, Uons, hippopotami, 
rhinoceros, and other wild animals are found in certain districts. 

The soil is productive and rich, and the natural vegetation is similar 
to that just descril^ as common to Liberia and the Gambia district. 
All kinds of grain, besides ground-nuts, figs, pomegranates, citrons, and 
other fruits, are cultivated. This partially-civilised district, which is 
densely populated, is not yet properly in touch with European markets, 
but when trade routes to the country are opened a rich commercial 
field will be tapped. 

Pabt IL 

From the forgoing it will be seen that the " Commercial Produotfr 
of Central Africa " are nothing less than prodigious. It is difficult, how- 
ever, to say which is ''the best method of developing a trade in them 
with Europe." There seems to be no one method by which this can be 
accomplished. The question may be looked at from the point of view of 
the individual trader, from that of a large trading-house, and again 
from that of a great chartered company. I propose, therefore, to oon> 
sider briefly, and in a general manner, the possibilities of trade ; the 
main points on which the future development of Central African com- 
merce depends ; and to offer some general observations and suggestions. 


Nearly the whole of the districts just referred to are, more or less, 
thickly populated. The total population of Africa has been estimated,^ 
by eminent authorities, as probably about two hundred millions- 
(200,000,000), and, doubtless, considerably more than half of these 
people are to be found in Central Africa, between the Sahara and 
the Zambezi. 

The population is, of course, almost wholly found along the banks 
of the great rivers and their tributaries, and in the neighbourhood of 
the great inland lakes. Taking the above figure as a basis, the Congo 
valley is probably peopled by some forty millions, the Niger valley by at 
least twenty millions, the basin of Lake Tsad and its affluents by fifteen^ 
millions, the Upper Nile and the great lakes by thirty-five millions, the 
northern Zambezi valley by from five to six millions, and we may allow 
another ten or twelve millions for the banks of the smaller rivers and 


Almost the whole of these peoples are keen traders, and will take 
an unlimited quantity of European manufactures in exchange for the 
natural productions of their country, if only they can be brought within 
their reach. 'I he demand for European trade-goods will, of course, become 
an ever-increasing one. As the natives become more and more acquainted 

* There is much difference of opinion on ihia point. Some statisticians have considered tke 
population of Africa to be as hi((h as three, and even four, hundred millions. Mr. Stanley pats it 
at 176 millions ; Profestor Hermann Wugner and Dr. Supan believe it to be slightly below IM 
millions ; while Mr. Ravenstein says, "even 127 millions is a high flguie."— J. H. R. 

Digitized by 


The Commercial Products of Central Africa. 117 

with dTilisatioii, their requirements will necessarily increase in the same 
ratio; besides which the increase of population among the African tribes 
will be greater, for slavery and inter-tribal wars will become less as the 
iDfliienoe of the European protecting states grows stronger. The African 
is able to adapt himself to the habits and manners of European civilisa- 
tion; and, therefore, will, like the Hindu, thriye and increase as it 
advances, rather than die out before it, as does the North American 
Indian and the Australian native. 


The goods which these millions of Africans will readily accept from 
OS in exchange for their products, and as payment for their labour, 
consist of the following : Cotton goods of various kinds — these form the 
principal article of exchange among the natives throughout the whole of 
Central AfricsL Beads, and brass and iron wire are in large demand in 
most districts in the interior, in the neighbourhood of the great lakes, 
and on the Upper Congo ; and in some remote districts cowrie-shells are 
readily accepted. Salt, in the form of small cakes, passes as money 
among the people of Abyssinia, Eordofan, Darfur, on the Upper Niger, 
and in the neighbourhood of Lake Tsad; and is, indeed, a favourite 
article of exchange throughout almost the whole of Central Africa. 
Among the other purchasing commodities may be mentioned cloth and 
woollen goods of various kinds, hosiery, hardware, earthenware, cutlery, 
tobacco, smallwares, and sundry articles of all sorts. 

Of course a large demand exists among the African natives for guns 
and gunpowder, with which to defend themselves from the attacks of 
their enemies, or to make war upon their, perhaps, unoffending neigh- 
bours. The African is also fond of strong drink, and being an habitual 
tippler, and oft-times a confirmed drunkard, he is always ready to 
purchase European spirits, which are so much stronger than the various 
intoxicants of native manufacture. The importation, however, of all 
three of these articles will, in the future, be regulated and checked to a 
Tery large extent, and, in some places, prevented altogether, by the 
▼arious European states who now hold sway over the "Dark Continent," 
in accordance with the decisions of the recent Brussels Conference. This 
prohibition will, ef course, not be very satisfactory from the point of 
view of the mere sordid trader, but it will be an undoubted advantage, 
in the long run, to the native, although he, perhaps, knows it not 


Having seen what can be produced in Central Africa, and what the 
native is willing to take in exchange for the riches of his land, the 
following questions naturally arise : How are these commodities to be 
got to the coast? And how are the trade goods of the white man to reach 
the market of the African ? On the solution of these problems hangs the 
whole future development of the products of the '' Dark Continent " ! 


Up to the present time the only way of getting products to the 
coast, and manufactures into the interior, has been by the slow, laborious. 

Digitized by 


118 The Jov/mal of the Manchester Oeographical Society, 

and expensive method of carriage on the shoulders and heads of slaves or 
hired porters, who all the time they are on the long journeys are 
'* eating their heads ofif/' and so reducing the value of the very small 
loads they are able to carry. Almost the only article that has, hitherto, 
been worth the cost of such expensive carriage has been ivory. Rapid 
oommunication and cheap carriage is, therefore, what is really wanted for 


There are three piincipal methods of overcoming this difficulty, 
each one of which is now being 'adopted by the great chartered companies, 
and European states, who have undertaken the work of opening up the 
country, and developing the trade, of Africa. These are the establish- 
ment of river and lake navigation, the building of railways, and the 
making of wagon roads. 


All the great African rivers, and many of the smaller ones, are 
more or less capable of being navigated by light-draught steamers. The 
Nile, from the Mediterranean to the Albert Lake, is navigable throughout 
its length, except for the falls near Dufile, in £quatoria. Of course, 
there are many other cataracts or rapids, but, with the exception named, 
they are all passable at certain seasons.* The tributaries of the Nile, 
viz., the Atbara, Blue Nile, Bahr-el-Ghazal, Sobat, Asua, with the 
Somerset Nile, connecting lakes Albert and Victoria, and the Semhki 
River, between the Albert and the Albert Edward, are all more or less 

Taking the East Coast, we find the Jub River navigable for four 
hundred miles, the Tana for three hundred,! the Sabaki for one hundred 
and fifty, and the Rovuma for two hundred ; while the Zambezi is inter- 
mittently navigable for several hundred miles. The mouth of the last- 
named river is much barred by sand-banks, which render navigation at 
the entrance difficult, but not impossible ; this difficulty once passed, the 
river is easily navigated to the first cataracts at Eebrabasa, about three 
hundred miles distant. Passing this place the river is again open at 
intervals till the mighty Victoria Falls are reached, and beyond this point 
the main river and its numerous tributaries between them affi>rd at least 
a thousand miles of inland waterway. The Shire River connects the 
Zambezi to Lake Nyasa, but the Murchison cataracts prevent unbroken 
navigation between them. There are also several smaller rivers on the 
East Coast which are more or less open for steamers. 

On the West Coast we have the mighty Congo, the second largest river 
in the world, which, with its tributaries, affords no less than from seven 
to eight thousand miles of navigable water. Nearly the whole of this 
vast waterway is, however, cut off from the coast by the Livingstone 
Falls, which extend for some two hundred and fifty mUes below Stanley 
Pool, leaving only about one hundred miles of actual navigable river 
open to the ocean. The Congo Railway, which is now in course of con- 
struction in the neighbourhood of the Livingstone Falls, and which \b 

* See Keith Johnaon's ** Africa," page 244. 

t Since this essay was written it Is reported by the Ti.nes that the BritlBh East Africa 
Company's steamer Kenia has successful! v navigated the Tana River to Basa, situated three 
hundred miles from the coast, which place it reached on June 17th last— J. H. R. 

Digitized by 


The Comtnerdal Products of Central Africa. 119 

expected to be complete about 1894, will pyercome this obstacle, .and 
open up the greater part of the river and its affluents to rapid inter- 
oommunication and cheap transit The tributary streams, many of 
which are themselves extensive rivers, will then give an entrance into 
the very heart of the Congo State territory on both the north and south 
banks of the great river, and thus bring the interior tribes into durect 
touch with the markets of Europe. 

The Niger is more or less navigable from the Gulf of Guinea to 
Timbuktu. The river is broken by cataracts and rapids near Busa, to 
which place, situated some five or six hundred miles from its mouth, it 
is now open to steam navigation. A railway here, of a hundred and 
fifty miles in length, would open up another stretch of navigable water, 
At least one thousand miles long. The Benue river, which is a tributary 
of the Niger, also affords several hundred miles of navigable water. 

The Grambia, the Senegal, the Ogowe, and other smaller rivers also, 
between them, afford several hundred miles of navigation on the West 

The waters of the great lakes will enable steamers plying on their 
bosoms to serve the native markets, and collect the produce of the 
millions of people living on their shores. 


On the Upper Congo there are already over thirty steamers engaged 
in trade, many steam vessels are plying on the Niger, the East Africa 
Company have a steamer on the Tana Kiver, the Zambezi and Shir6 are 
already ploughed by steamboats, the Senegal is navigated by steamers 
up to Kayes, where the railway begins, while the Ewanza (Angola) is said 
to have been the first river of Equatorial Africa on which steam naviga- 
tion was established. Steamers are also to be found on lakes Nyasa, 
Tanganyika, and Victoria. The Upper Nile and the Albert Lake have 
been navigated by steamers for some years, but these vessels have now 
all fallen into the hands of the Mahdists. 


On many of the smaller rivers and the tributaries of the great lakes, 
which do not permit of steam navigation, a useful transport trade could 
be done by means of small boats or native canoes. The natives would, 
probably, not be slow to take advantage of such means of putting them- 
selves in touch with the traders who might be established at accessible 


The large inland lakes, and the upper navigable waters of the 
great rivers, will require to be put in connection with the coast, or the 
lower navigable reaches of the rivers, by means of railways, as is now 
being done on the Congo. The British East Africa Company are 
projecting, and, indeed, have commenced to build, a railway which is to 
connect the Victoria Nyanza with the port of Mombasa. A railway has 
been proposed, by both Sir Samuel Baker and the late General Gordon, 
which, starting at Suakin, on the Red Sea coast, should cross the desert 
to the Nile, in the neighbourhood of Berber. This, if ever constructed, 

Digitized by 


120 The Journal of the Mwnchester Oeographicdl Society. 

as it probably will be ia the not very distant future, will tap thousands 
of square miles of the valuable and productive country of the Upper 
Nile valley, and render of practical service no less than two thousand 
miles of navigable river. A railway, three hundred miles in length, 
would connect the navigable waters of the Niger with Lake Tsad, and 
thus bring the populous shores of this great lake, which has an area 
of ten thousand square miles, with those of its tributary the Shari, 
navigable for five hundred miles, within reach of the European markets. 


In the future it will probably be found necessary to connect the 
great lakes by means of railways, but for a considerable time to come 
cart roads, such as the Stephenson Road, which already connects 
Nyasa with Tanganyika, will probably be found sufficient Bullock 
or carriage roads past the cataracts in the rivers, such as Stanley Falls 
and others on the Upper Congo, the Murchison Falls on the Shir^ and 
the Kebrabasa Kapids on the Zambezi, &c., will be found necessary for 
trade purposes, and each of these may at no very distant time grow 
into railways. 


In many parts of Central Africa, where the tsetse-fly is absent^ 
transport, by means of bullocks, asses, mules, or elephants, might be 
successfully established. The African elephant has so far, it is stated, 
not been successfully tamed, but this difficulty may in the future be 
overcome ; at any rate, the Indian elephant might be imported for the 
purpose. An elephant will carry a load of no less than eighteen hundred 
pounds, so that it is worth some pains to render of service suoh a 
valuable means of transport. 


One of the greatest drawbacks to trade with the interior tribes of 
Africa in the past has been the presence of the native middleman. This 
mdividual is naturally very jealous of the trader getting at the interior 
peoples first hand. The result of the middleman system in the past has 
been to prevent trade on any large scale being done with the inland tribes. 
The white traders' goods have only been allowed to gradually filter through 
to the more distant peoples, whose ability to purchase at all has been 
limited, owing to the high prices current, due to the heavy demands of 
the extortionate middleman, who has fattened upon the large com- 
missions he has reaped by acting as the only intermediary or channel 
through which the goods of the original seller have reached the hands of 
the final buyer. 


In order, therefore, to establish and successfully develop a remunera- 
tive trade with the natives of the interior, it is necessary that the trading 
houses should send agents to, or that individual traders should personally 
visit, the inland districts, and do business direct with the natives. The 
difficulty and drawback, due to the middleman, will, probably, disappear 

Digitized by 


The Commercial Products of Central Africa. 121 

when the trader can, himself, do business first hand with the interior 
tribes. The Enropean on the spot can, of course, also foster the demand 
for trade goods, and his presence will do much to eleyate the conditign of 
the natiyes, and thus increase the present demands and create new ones. 


To supplement the European trader or agent, it is possible that in 
the fnture the Arab may be found useful The overruling authority of. 
the European states will prevent his indulging in slave-raiding and slave- 
buying. The Arab has proved himself to be a successful direct trader 
with the natives in the past, and when he finds that it is no longer 
possible for him to carry on the slave trafl&c, and that it, moreover, pays 
bim to engage in legitimate trade, it is probable that he will become 
useful in the development of African commerce. 


On the East Coast, in the neighbourhood of Zanzibar and Mombasa, 
a lai^e ^ortioh of the coast trade is in the hands of Hindu merchants. 
These traders are now settling in the territory of the East Afrioa 
Company, and no doubt, as the country is opened up and oommuni- 
<:ation8 are established, they will settle further and further inland. 


There is, however, a very wide field for Europeans themselves to 
successfully engage in trading operations in the interior of the continent. 
Many of the districts, especiedly the high-lands, are healthy and are well 
suited for the residence of white-people. 


One of the great drawbai)ks to the development of trade will 
probably be the hostile tariflfs already established or about to be estab- 
lished, in their African possessions, by some of the European powers. 
This will, doubtless, in the future lead to what has been well called a 
'' war of tariffs," and will cause a considerable check to traders other 
than those of the nation which administers the district. It is outside 
the province of this essay to enlarge upon this point. It may, how- 
ever, be pointed out that in those enormous portions of the continent 
now under British rule there is a very wide field for the trader, where 
his operations will not be hampered by vexatious and prohibitive 


Notwithstanding the great number of natural animal and vegetable 
products of Central A&ica, and the vast extent of many of them, the 
future development of this part of the continent will probably be due 
more to the fostering of imported industries and the cultivation of 
introduced products. Many of the districts promise well for such indus- 
tries as horse and cattle breeding and sheep farming. Ostrich farms would, 
•doubtless, be successful in some places, and fowl and poultry ranches 

Digitized by 


122 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

would, probably, succeed well In some of the cattle districts a large trade 
might be established in the preparation of tinned and potted meats. 
Enormous quantities of cereals, such as wheat, barley, rice, maize, and 
oth^r grains, might be cultivated, and would, doubtless, well repay the 


There seems to be a good opening for a lai^ge fruit cultiyation and 
trade in many districts. All kinds of rich fruits could be grown in 
great abundance all the year round, and sent to the European markets. 
An extensive business could, doubtless, be established in tinned fruits. 
If properly worked, this trade might in the future very well be expected 
to compete with that of America. In the United States a large import 
duty is paid on the tinplate out of which the cans for the fruit are 
made. This, of course, tends to largely increase the selling price of the 
goods. A very large trade might also be done in tinned tomatoes. They 
^rive well almost throughout Central Africa, and might be grown in 
prodigious numbers. Bananas could, probably, be treated in the same 
manner as is now done with other fruits, but this is a question for 
experts to decide. Incredible quantities of this fruit can be easily grown 
in Africa. The only question seems to be : Can they be succemfully 
preserved in tins ? 

The cultivation of wine fruits, and the manufacture of wines, might 
probably be adopted with success. If any, or all, of the above suggested 
trades could be successfully established, there is little reason why the 
list of kindred industries might not be very largely increased. 


The success of such proposed imported industries would depend, of 
course, upon a plentiful supply of cheap and intelligent labour. Chinese 
might, perhaps, be imported with success in some districts in furtherance 
of such schemes, but the great hope is in the African himself. There 
seems to he every promise that native labour will gradually become of 
great value. The African is both intelligent and tractable, and expe- 
rience has in the past proved that, given the necessity to work, he is 
able, willing, and satisfactory. It is needless to enlarge upon this 
point here] it is sufficient for the purpose to remember that Mr. Stanley 
and other African experts are convinced that the African natives, if 
properly led and directed by Europeans, are capable of doing wonders. 

The question of the repatriation of certain districts of Africa, by 
civilised negroes from the United States, which is so strongly advocated 
in many quarters, might become an important factor in the development 
of Centrsd Africa, but its discussion scarcely seems to come within the 
scope of this essay. 

prOspbots for the futurb. 

The gteat African continent, with its immense animal, vegetable, 
i^d mineral treasures, its rich and fertile soil, and its teeming millions 
of intelligent people, has been tardily taken in hand by the nations of 
Europe. But, now that the enterprising peoples of the earth have at last 
seriously turned their attention to its development, the future of Africty 

Digitized by 


The Commercial Pradtbcts of Central Africa. 123 

from a commercial point of view, is decidedly promising, and its general 
advancement is assured. 

In the United States of America at the present time millions of tons 
of coal and iron are being worked annually, while each day witnesses the 
production of hundreds of millions ef cubic feet of natural gas, and each 
year millions of barrels of petroleum. We have as yet little knowledge 
of the existence of a similar mineral wealth in Africa, but considering 
that the enormous riches of America which are to-day being worked in 
such prodigious quantities were both unknown and unthought of, com- 
paratively speaking, only a few years ago, we are led to ask : What may 
not the future open to us in " the last of the continents " 1 Why may 
not Africa in time to come prove to be as rich in minerals as the 
" New World " ? And why may not the great overlapping waterways, 
the Nile, the Congo, and the Zambezi, like the twenty thousand miles of 
navigable water of the Mississippi and Ohio, play a great part in the 
coDection and distribution of vast natural wealth 1 

It must not, however, be expected that Central Africa can be 
opened up, its people civilised, and its commerce developed quickly and 
by sudden bounds. The work of development will doubtless be slow, 
but it will, nevertheless, be both constant and sure. 


Heinemaon't Sdeniific Hand-book. Geodesy by Professor J. Howard Gk>re, 
Columbian University. 

It is to be anticipated, in treating the early history of this, in common with 
the other sdenoes, that reoeiyed notions and familiar phraseology should to a con- 
aderable' degree assert themselves, and that the work before us does not form an 
exception to the rule is therefore not surprising. We think, moreover, that justioe 
has barely been done by the writer to the opinions, as they have come down to us, of those 
early phiksophers who first conceived and promulgated the idea of the globular form 
of the earth. The book's special feature is the account given of the more prominent 
surveys which have been made for the purposes of cartography and geodesy, and in 
delineating the methods employed to secure accuracy of measurement. The details 
furnished by the author will be found of considerable interest. 


Digitized by 


124 The JoMivfiol of the Mandtester Geographical Society. 


(See lOvMtrtUums, pages 91, 104, If^, ^SS, dtc. i 

[Read to the Memberu, in the Library, Wedneedftj, Febniary 25th, 1891.] 

(A eoneidercMe number of English and Foreign newspapers and journals were exhibited 
in illustrcUion of the paper.) 

The subject of Geography, as it appears in the daUy paper of to-day, is an inter^ting 
one. Forty years ago the bi-weekly paper, comprising a summary of news, records 
of travel, notices of new books with delightfully long extracts, a novel page, and a 
comer for poetry, new or selected, was a far different, but to middle-aged people per- 
haps more valuable, production than the terrible daily paper of to-day. There were 
few, if any, illustrations in those papers of the old time. 

A very bold venture was that of the Ditpateh^ which issued a very good Atlas 
some years ago, sheet by sheet, weekly to its readers. It seemed as though the Atlas 
would never be complete. We did not take it to the end, and I do not know if it 
ever was completed. May I say the paper of to-day is more exhausting ? A bi-weekly 
paper gave time for reading and assimilating the contents. A daily paper, with its 
rush and hurry, seems to overwhelm one. It does seem a pity that so large a quantity 
of good geographic work should be so quickly and thoroughly buried as it is in the 
daily newspapers. And if one tries to give some of the articles and scraps of infor- 
mation a brief immortality by cutting out the slips, the task is quite hopeless, for 
they accumulate so rapidly that some day the *' rubbish," as the housewife calls it, is 
reluctantly allowed to be carted away. 

And leaving all other points, and confining ourselves to the one of Geography, 
what a very wonderful thing is the present day's press from that point of view. The 
paper is opened, and the intelligence of events of importance from evety part of the 
world, which took place the day before, is all before us. It is almost impossible to 
read the short paragraphs of the te legraphic reports without a ready reference to the 
Atlas. But, besides the telegraphic reports, we have the more leisurely letters from 
correspondents abroad, and reports of speeches and lectures relating to travel and 
labour in foreign climes. We are in Oowper's case, when he sings — 

" He travela and expatiates as the bee. 

He Bucka intelligence in every dime, 
And spreads the honey of his deep research, 
At his return, a rich repast for me. 
He travels, and I too." 

Some of the daily and quite a number of the weekly papers are now using illua- 
trations and maps. We have had nothing to approach the Temps in the illustrationB 
to the story of the journey of Prince Henri of Orleans, or of the splendid Map of 
Central Asia issued by the same journal. The maps in the newspapers, so far as we 
have seen, are very poor. The rapidity of production prevents anything more than 
the merest outlines or diagrams being made. These are, however, sometimes of great 
value, particularly when the place or country dealt with is one but little known. 

Digitized by 


Tlie Jouimal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 




Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Geography in Newspapers and Periodicals. 125 

The NeweatiU Weekly Chronicle has lately been printing blocks, illustratiye of 
North of England scenery, of great beauty. The drawings are very clear, and the 
general effect is very soft and sweet. No other newspaper has approached these 
printB ; and the birds drawn by Duncan, which have for a long time been produced, 
are very remarkable. They make one think another Bewick has come, and they 
must make a naturalist's heart rejoice from the deamess and beauty of their production. 

The letters in our Manchester papers on foreign countries are at times of a high 
elaas — the letters in the Maf^chester Ouardian on Nyasaland, the letters from Mr. 
Freeman on the Balkan Lands, from Mr. Evans on the Eastern Peoples, and on Greece, 
are very valuable contributions to our knowledge, and the local illustrated papers of 
Mr. Rimmer are interesting and usef uL In the Courier letters of great ability from Mr. 
Curzon on Central Asia and Persia. In the Maneheeter Examiner a series of very 
interesting and graceful letters from Mrs. Bright on Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. 
The illustrated articles on local geography in the Weekly Times are very well done, 
and meet interesting; and the City News is a perfect mine of geographical knowledge, 
boUi locally and generally. Some capital papers have been illustrated in the 
Sunday Chronicle ; and, in fact, there is hardly a paper of any kind issued which does 
not contain information on geographical subjects more or less valuable. 

The papers from outside places, from abroad {Le Temps, &c) and from America 
(the New York Sun^ &c), show that other cities and peoples are quite alive to the 
interest of the subject, and are following it up very keenly. 

In the magazines, I should put the Century, 8cribner\», and Harper's at the head. 
Month by month articles appear in these journals beautifully illustrated and well 
written, not only on American districts but on European. A fine series has come to 
me in one of these journals on English Cathedrals and Cathedral Cities, another on 
London, and in two of these journals Southern California, Western America, Florida, 
and Canada have appeared. Africa, India, and China have been written of, and a 
splendid series of papers on Physical Geography have appeared by Professor Shaler. 
Statistics, historical disquisitions, and geographical descriptions abound. 

The English journals plod on their way. Occasionally a few brilliant articles, 
like those by Mrs. Craik on Donegal, appear. But the English idea is solidity and 
slowneae, and the interest in the subject suffers. 

We do not Wish in these remarks to depreciate the work being done in English 
magasinee. Some of it is very excellent The Magazine of Art, Good Words, and 
a large number of other journals are giving attention to the subject. It is one which 
will repay attention, which is always new, arrests the attention of the reader, and 
good maps and fine illustrations are never thrown away. 

In this short communication to the Society nothing more can be done than to 
indicate the interest and value of the subject Members can follow it out in 
their own way, and may preserve from oblivion many a paper they will find valuable 
for reference in time to come. 

The weekly illustrated papers are now full of beautiful work, and we are greatly 
indebted to them for a fuller knowledge of distant places and peoples. 

; Some examples of illustrations are given by the permission of the publishers of 
the papers, and we are much indebted to those who have permitted our members 
to Bee these examples of newspaper illustration. 

Digitized by 



126 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 



(Mxtu^piUi of modem New$^aper lUuttration,) 

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Mexico. 127 


By Mb. F. G. BURTON. 

[Addrened to the Memben in the Library, Tuesday, Masch 24th, 1891. 
Mr. Wm. U&b in the chair.]- 

Whim I was first invited to read a paper on Mexico before your learned society, I 
felt considerable doubt about my ability to tell you anything of the country 1 have 
visited which you would deem worthy of hearing, for degrees of latitude and 
longitude, heights of mountains, and dimensions of lakes and rivers, as indeed most 
other forms of figures, are to me unknown quantities ; but I was assured that you do 
not merely interest yourselves in physical geography, but that you extend your 
researches into the allied regions of the habits and history of the inhabitants, and how 
the present conditions of the country are affected thereby, and as I have used what 
little opportunity I had for comparing the present condition of the Valley of Mexico 
with the description so graphically, albeit poetically, given by Prescott, I thought I 
might perhaps in some way interest you, and that you would pardon my inability to 
convey instruction, 

I left England on the 29th of June, 1889, in the b.s. Servia, and need hardly tell 
you that a voyage across the Atlantic at that time of the year, in a Cunard steamer, 
is one of the most delightful of life's incidents, and a journey by the Southern Pacific 
Bailway in a Pullman car is almost equally pleasurable, although it is rather warmer 
than on the sea^ I entered Mexico by the Central Railway, and the northern part of 
the country which we traversed is to a large extent quite barren. An extent of 
volcanic region appears wearisome and disappointing to the traveller, and even the 
more cultivated regions afford but little signs of the luxuriant vegetation which we 
are led to expect in so tropical a climate. This is chiefly owing to the want of 
imgation, for wherever irrigation has been judiciously and sufficiently supplied, the 
luxuriance of the crops amply testifies to the natural fertility of the soil. Thus, Indian 
com, which in the United States attains its full and towering height, generally 
appears in Mexico to be dwarfed and stunted, not only in height^ but also in the size 
of the grain ; but where the fields are irrigated, the crops of maize attain to as great 
luxuriance both in height and size and weight of grain as in Louinana. The reckless 
denudation of forests by the early conquerors, to render the valley and other portions 
of the country more like their own beloved Spain, has probably also interfered with 
the rainfaU and storage of water, and rendered barren once fertile land. A seven 
days' railway journey brought me to the city of Mexico, where we arrived early in 
the morning, and before it had become uncomfortably hot A railway station in any 
part of the world is not a classical building ; a railway station in America is generally 
more inartistic, more slovenly, than in England. The station, or rather stations, of 
Mexico are no exception to this rule, and do not exhibit the involved tracery and spiral 
columns of the Gothic architecture, or the majestic simplicity of the Ionic style, but 
are simply roofis of glass supported by pillars and girders of iron ; bat no sooner is 
the traveller outside the station than he finds himself in a country totally different 
from anything which his English experience would lead him to expect Magnificent 

Digitized by 


128 The Journal of the McmchesUr Geographical So(dety. 

and broi^ streets, planted with treee along the aide patha, are thronged with gailj. 
dressed, merry-looking, chattering people, whose dusky skins and dark hair proclaim 
them "Sons of the Son." Gaily-caparisoned horses, bestrode by still more gaily- 
dressed oayaliers, handsome carriages occupied by still more handsome sig&oras and 
* sehoritas, tramcars drawn by sturdy mules, baskets of oranges, bananas, and pine-applee 
on the heads of hurrying cargadors, pass by in be?rilderlng confusion, giring the impres- 
sion of wealth and splendour and sybarite ease alongside of hardy and toilsome labour. 
The architecture of the city is equaliy striking. The larger houses have massire 
walls with but few windows looking out on to the street, and thoee carefully barred 
with iron rails to gt^ard the treasure within ; doorways lofty, but protected with doors 
massive as those of a mediseiyal fo rtr e ss . The outside appearance tells but little of 
the picturesque pstio, radiant with geraniums and roses and other gorgeous flowers, 
which in this semi-tropical climate seem to spring to the light they love so well ; of 
the half-barbaric beauty of the verandahs, curtained with tapestry, and the lounging 
sefLor and lus indolent family thereon, who, shutting out the world, have within 
their own domains, here in the very heart of the city, with all its plots 
and scandals and conspiracies without, a very Eklen of their own, fresh and fair 
as a sequestered Devon valley or a comer of sunny Kent. Public buildings 
(sometimes ornamented with trellised windows, but very frequently de- 
pending for light and air on their inner court) rear themselves here and there 
among the mansions of the better class ; and pulquerias and tiendas, some worthy of 
a place in a London West-end street, others little larger than Indian huts. Churches 
and convents and monasteries, now too frequently diverted from their original pur- 
pose, are met with at every turn ; and all these buildings are so cleanly washed in 
white or pale yellow, or blue or drab, that the sun's rays seem rather to gain in efful- 
gence from their contact with this earth than to lose their primal brilliancy as they 
do in the fogs of murky Manchester. The air is balmy and exhilarating, making one 
feel as though existence were worth having, not for the pleasures it brings, but for 
the very sake of existence itself. But the air, like everything else in the country, is 
false and treacherous, and bears with it the germs of typhus and diphtheria, and has no 
recuperative power to give health and strength to the invalid. 

The Valley of Mexico is fairly populated now, and exhibits a good example of 
industry and agricultural labour. But the Valley of Mexico is the centre towards 
which all that is best in the country gravitates, and it must not, by any means, be 
taken as a fair criterion of the condition of outlying provinces. The residence therein 
of the wealthy, and the comparative density of the population, give it great advantages 
over other districts. For the great difficulty which has to be contended with, in develop- 
ing the resources of the country of Mexico, is not so much the want of communicationa — 
although the roads are bad, and English investors are bebg urged, from time to time, 
to entrust their savings to Mexican railway contractors — but it lies rather in the want 
of a sufficient population to cultivate the soil, and to make use of its natural resources. 
Thus, lands which are admirably adapted for the growth of coffee, tobacco, cocoa, and 
all the tropical and semi-tropical products, for which there is an increased and increas- 
ing demand, are, for want of adequate labour, left as pasture lands, or allowed to 
degenerate into scrub. The population (even allowing that the estimates made by 
the contemporaries of Cort^ are exaggerated) must, at one time, have been 
immense, compared with the present, judging only from the remains we find about 
the country of former extensive and apparently populous cities ; but the cruelties 
of the Spaniards and the scourge of smallpox have terribly reduced it. Emigra- 
tion, on a large scale, cannot be hoped for or expected, for the wages paid to 
labourers are low, and the cost of living, as European woriurs live, is high. The 

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Mexico. 129. 

uhxaate of the plateaux, with its warm days and cool eyenings, with its slight 
variation between winter and summer, does not, to the Azbec, necessitate such a 
variety of, or expenditure on, clothing as is required here ; nor do the natives 
require such commodious houses or furniture as European labourers look for. A small 
hut (just large enough to stand in), with a mud floor, a few mats, and a cooking pot 
or two, will satisfy the ordinary peon ; whilst a buckskin suit on his wedding-day will 
serve him both for riding and sleeping in far on towards the end of his career. But 
conditions like this would hardly suit labourers from Europe, and the prospects of 
gain are insufficient to tempt any race, as a working race, to the soil — unless perchance 
it may be the Heathen Chinee. Yet Mexico was thoroughly appreciated by the 
Spaniards as an outlet for adventurous spirits from home, and as a feeder of their 
trade. The buildings they erected bear upon them the impress of this idea, for they 
are massive enough to stand for ages, and yet withal built in the half Moorish 
character, covered with the delicate tracery their artistic feelings made them love s& 
weU. The monk followed the soldier, and erected houses more gorgeous still, while 
near at hand were convents and monasteries for the lodging dt the attendants. 
Revolutions and changes wrought by war, have turned the monasteries and convents 
into public libraries or tram-car stables, or warehouses and tiendas, or other similar 
purposes ; whilst the churches are either closed or permitted to remain open so shorn 
of their splendid ritual as hardly to be recognised as churches by a Catholic from 
Rome. The altars, the pictures, and the massive pillars still remain. The belfries 
are still hung with the sweetest-toned bells the world has ever heard. But neither 
on Sunday nor Saints' Day must the bells peal forth nor religious processions enter 
the streets ! Nay, even a dying penitent cannot have the host carried to his bedside 
except it be hidden away in the recesses of the priest's pocket. But it is not only 
the outward observance of religion which has been degraded and forbidden, but those 
inner feelings and impulses which religion inculcates have also degenerated in the 
Spanish-Mexican race. Of truthfulness there is none. The only inducement a 
Mexican ever feels to respect his promise or shape his words to facts is benefit to him- 
self, and if convenience or profit lead him to say what is not true, to break his pledge^ 
or defraud his neighbour, his conscience does not trouble him in the least. In public 
and in private affairs this is equally seen. Judges receive bribes, merchants intrigue, 
and bribe, and scheme to get on juntas, that once there they may levy blackmail on 
aU who unsuccessfully oppose their tricks and schemes, or in other ways come under 
their influence. Ministers high in office take enormous bribes for granting cencessiona 
they know can only benefit their coimtry, and share these bribes with men who have 
been elected to protect the rights of their constituencies. Nay, even he who must* 
not be censured in byeways of Mexico without bated breath, whose stem hand has 
ruled the country in peace for the past six years, even Jie is not deemed unapproach- 
a^ ':^ with sufficient dollars, although they perchance must reach him through a some- 
whut circuitous channeL Merchants and their servants give and receive bribes. They 
give to the purchaser's employ^ that their wares may not be pronounced unworkable, 
and receive from all sorts and conditions who wend their way to Mexico to sell 
American or German goods, and they do this so knowingly, so unblushingly, as to 
make one wonder at their good faith, if such a righteous term may be used 
in connection with that which is so wholly unrighteous. 

The import trade of the country is very largely in the hands of the Americans, 
French, and Germans, the Americans being served by their better geographical 
position, and the control of the railways being either in the hands of Americans or 
Americanised Englishmen. The Germans and French have increased their hold on 
Mexico of late years by the establishment of branch or retail houses in the cities of 

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The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

Paebla, and Vera Cruz, which are largely coDiroUed or financed from the 
countries, but still more by the facility with which they adapt themselves to 
iners and customs of the people. For much as a Spaniard loves a bribe, he 
re loves that courtesy, that deferential treatment, which places him in his own 
i good terms with himself ; and the straightforward bluntnees of an English- 
en when offering him a good and tempting bargain, is more obnoxious than 
dndled by a fellow lAtin, who will modulate his tones and pat him on the 
r half-an-hour. It is this brusqueness of manner, earnestness of purpose, 
Domy of time which stand in the way of the English, and partly also of the 
I, retaining the trade of the country, and English merchants must leam that 
are to extend their connections with the Spanish* American countries (for the 
applies equally to all), they must establish branch houses, and place in cfaaige 
i managers who, whilst honest as our traders ever have been, will content 
ves listening for days to the idle chatter of a possible customer, and spend 
Q rolling cigarettes with the possible purchaser of a drillmg machine. For 
(to-morrow) is not merely a term, it is a power in those countries where every 
9very decision, is deferred to the last possible moment, and to do business with 
ace successfully we must both recognise the power and adapt our measures 
ixistence. No doubt if we could deplete the country of Spaniards and hslf- 
md in their place implant, in the temperate portions, sturdy colonies of Soots, 
loe did in Ulster, not only would its productiveness be greatly increased, but 

I of wages and standard of living would also be raised, and it would become 
Qore advantageous a field for emigrants than Canada, or some of the United 

But the depletion cannot be hoped for, and the Government cannot either he 
d — at least in this present day^-or rendered so stable as to insure safety for 
investment, and so a race of sturdy yeomen, half-squatter, half-venturer at 
mmencement, rising gradually into wealthy though hard-working farmers, 
reasonably be expected. We must deal with the country as it is, and adapt 
IS to the ways of its inhabitants, if we are to do business with them, since 

II not adapt themselves to ours. 

i canals which intersected the streets of Mexico no 1 onger exist ; the lake 
»nce surrounded the city has receded miles away. We still walk along the 
y by which Cortds retreated to Tacuba, but it is now a wide street, with firm 
1 around it We still have marked on a wall the words ^ Salto de Alvarado " 
io's leap), but not even a ditch remains for the ghost of that valiant cavalier 
dear. Bat the level of the city is so near the level of the i-eceded lake that 
den tropical shower renders a deluge from the storm water both possible and 
9. Only three years ago the houses in the Calld Humboldt, in which street 
Pacheco, the Minister of Public Works, resides, were flooded to the depth of 
feet, and ladies returning from the theatres had to be conveyed to their 
tnts on the backs of cargadors. Centrifugal pumps, manufactured, I believe, 
rs. Owynne, of London, have since been laid down, and at the commencement 
»wer are set to work to pump the water from the street sewers into the main 
id these have had some beneficial effect, although the rainfall during the pait 
las been too light to afford an adequate test of their efficacy. A much more 
IS scheme is at present in progress, and two eminent firms of English con- 
are engaged in deepening a canal and boring a tunnel for the conjoint purposes 
ing the city and removing the overflow water of the lakes from out the 
but it would be premature to hope too much benefit from these works, as the 
ave been taken and the plans compiled by Spanish engineers, and the 
by of errors therein is not a remote one. The cost of these works will he 

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Mexico. 131 

defrayed out of the city reyenae, and the oneroua duties impoBed on every article 
which enters the gates, from bales of Manchester goods to native woven hats, and 
native raised eggs and poultry, certainly demand that the city fathers should do 
something for the benefit of the people they tax so heavily. 

Hie finest square in Mexico is the Zocullo, at one end of which stands the 
cathedra], on the very spot, it is said, where the temple of the Aztec war god once 
stood, and along the whole of one side is the National Palace ; the centre is occupied 
with flower beds and fountains and a band stand, whereon the several military bands 
play on Sundays and feast days, for the Mexican Gk>vemment is sufficiently socialistic 
to provide music as well as schools for its people. To a student of socialistic problems 
this provision of amusement (for it extends even to fireworks and the illumination of 
the Zocullo on high holidays) would afford interest, and he would leam how this 
governmental solicitude for the happiness of the people tends to crush out all private 
efforts in such direction. The theatres can only retain their popularity by the pro- 
vision of unlimited ballets and doubtful French plays, and the only really profitable 
places of amusement are the bull-rings and gambling saloons, since with these the 
State and State taxes do not at present compete. Opening from the square are some 
of the finest streets, leading in the direction of the Alamada, whilst beyond the 
Alamada is, probably, one of the finest drives in the world, the new paseo — the mad 
women's drive, as it was somewhat irreverently "(named — Pleading to the exquiaite 
palace of Chapultepec, through the g^ardens and woodi of which the unfortunate 
Montezuma once happily wandered ere Spanish bandits sought his shores. From 
this paseo may be seen the beautiful snow-capped mountains of Popocatepetl and 
Ixtaodhuatl, whilst all around stand thoae nearer hills which circle the valley. The 
apparent distance of these hills \b most deceptive, more particularly in the bright 
mornings of the rainy season, for though some miles away, they appear to be closing 
up the endi of the streets. The woods of Chapultepec are most lovely, the huge 
cedar trees standing wide apart from each other, but forming a complete canopy 
with their boughs, whilst the Spanish moss which hangs from them glistens like a 
network of silver. In these shady recesses may be met alike rich and poor^ for there 
is no restriction placed on their decant use, and many a family group may be 
obeerved, sometimes under the very tree where Montezuma once sat, eating 
their frugal repast of tortillas and pulque. From the springs within these 
grounds the southern portion of the city is supplied with excellent water, 
at present conveyed thereto by an open aqueduct, but it is intended to replace 
this with cast-iron pipes. Unfortimately out of the 998 pipes ordered from England 
for this purpose over 600 were cracked in transit, the result of bad packing 
or rather want of packing, and until these are replaced the work cannot proceed 
Half-way between the city and Chapultepec is the arsenal, and the piles of cannon 
balls and rows of cannon look formidable enough ; probably they answer their intended 
purpose, for though old-fashioned and harmless against an invader, they overawe the 
natives, and influence the elections, and this, as we well know, is one of the chief ends 
of modem government. 

Passing from Mexico to Puebla by the Vera Cruz Railway, we traverse the finest 
pulque district in the country. Apam pulque is noted far and wide^ and the fields of 
the large Mexican aloes, from which it is extracted, look extremely picturesque with 
their straight lines and enormous green plants. Puebla is on a branch line, and the 
journey to it in any but the rainy season is torture, from the clouds of dust raised by 
the passing ti|dns. The town is situated on a slope^ and is washed by every shower, 
BO that its drainage arrangements are better than the majority of Mexican cities, 
whilst in point of architecture it compares favourably with any of them. Puebla Los 

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132 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

ADgeles has always been favoured with priests, Whatever it may have been with angels, 
and the priests induced their adherents to crowd it with churches and monasteries, 
and support them with ample and well-favoured lands. The lands have been 
taken away under the laws of reform, but the churches have escaped desecration and 
are still devoted to their ancient purpose of matins, mass, and vespers. The cathedral 
is even more imposing than that of Mexico, its elevation more commanding, and its high 
altar of Puebla onyx more graceful and artistic than the usual gilded shrine. Its nave 
also is better filled, and with' a more devout class of worshippers than in the capital, 
and the priestly offices are discharged with at least a trifle more of intensity than 
elsewhere. But the Indians of Puebla are much like the Indians of the Valley, rather 
too fond of lying, rather too fond of thieving, and much too fond of knifing each other 
when the pulque skin has been drained, whilst the Creoles here, as everywhere else^, 
are most charming in manner, most false in word and conduct, and most covetous of 
other people's goods and chattels. The people work, the churches open, the bands 
play, just the same in the City of the Angels as in any other Sodom, but the people 
have somehow or other obtained the odour of sanctity, and neither the working, the 
church-going, the playing, nor other of the Sodomite pastimes, serve to dispossess 
them of it. A railway — the Mexican Southern — ^is at present being constructed from 
Puebla to Tehuacan, and thence to Oaxaca, passing through the fertile lands assigned 
to Cort^ as his share of plunder, and thence, if capital can be raised, to Tehuantepec, 
on the Pacific coast The opening of this line will plfKse a rich and productive tract 
of country in ready communication with the rest of the Republic, and enable themilW 
owners and landowners to obtain their materials from Vera Cruz, and send their 
produce there, by a much readier route than the mountain tracks across which it has 
hitherto been conveyed on donkey's backs, though whether the first two sections will 
ever pay the shareholders any dividends, and whether the third section, from Oaxaoa 
to Tehuantepec, will ever pay working expenses, is extremely problematieaL 

Returning from Puebla to the Vera Cruz main line, we at length reach Espe- 
ranza, in time for a fairly-cooked and diversified dinner. We find an extra engine 
attached to the train, and additional brakesmen put on each end of the oarriages to 
work the brakes. Our engineers (engine-drivers, as we should less euphoniously term 
them in England) and conductors are changed for more experienced and reliable men, 
and every wheel and shackle in the train is carefully examined and tested by the 
time-honoured and infallible scrutiny of a blow with a hammer. And we soon found 
all this care and precaution was desirable, for we were scarcely clear of the station before 
the warning whistie of the engine and the working of the brakesmen at the brakes 
told us we had entered on the incline. To describe the ride of the next three hours 
is impossible; The line winds along the face of the mountain, along the very verge of 
precipices hundreds of feet deep, turning by sharp curves backward and forward in 
the direction it has lately been traversing ; the train rushes painfully along ; th& 
engines (which are of the Fairlie type) groaning as with the responsibility of such a 
load behind them, the brakes hissing and shrieking as they are screwed tightiy down, 
and the passengers anxiously scanning the remote valley beneath, which seems almost 
lost to view in the distance. The administration of the line is most admirable, and 
allowing for the difficulties incident to the working of such a heavy gradient, the manage- 
ment is by far the best of any line in Mexico — indeed of any line I traversed from New 
York to Vera Cruz — and reflects the greatest credit on Mr. Foote, the general manager, 
and his staff. But the natural difficulties involved in the route taken, skilfully though 
they have been dealt with so far as engineering difficulties are concemtd, are a serious 
disadvantage in the coming competition with which it is threatened, and holders of 
Mexican Railway shares may well quake for thoughts of coming dividends. Before 

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Mexico. 133 

flnany monthB are past) unless the usual dilatory character of Spanish work retards it, 
ihe Inter-Ooeanic Railway will open through to Vera Cruz, and afford a direct route 
to Puebla, and thence on to MezicO| with very much easier gradients than those on 
the Mexican Railway. The effect will be not merely to divide the traffic, but probably 
also to reduce rates. But another and greater danger threatens not only the 
Mexican Railway but the Inter-Oceanic also. The Junta of Tamplco have for 
some time been .endeavouring to remove tke bar at that harbour by the same 
method of lagoons which Captain Eads so successfully applied to the Mississippi 
at New Orleans, and have succeeded already in deepening the water over the 
bar. Should they eventually succeed, and success is deemed most probable by 
experienced engineers, in so increasing the depth of water over the bar as to 
admit ships of the class now belonging to the West Indian and Pacific Company's 
fleets a ftAal blow will be dealt to the trade of Vera Cruz, for the latter is 
a most unsafe roadstead during a '^ Norther," and has neither good anchorage, 
docks, nor wharves to recommend it, whilst Tampico harbour is land-locked, and for 
many miles of river has deep water close to the banks, so that wharves may readily be 
erected whereon the vessels could discharge their cargoes direct. The distance by rail 
from Tampico to the great emporium of Cuidad Mexico, is greater than from Vera 
Oruz, but this will be fully atoned for by the easier gradients, and the greater dis* 
charging facilities, whilst heavy machinery for the mining districts can be left at the 
several points en rouUf without incurring the delay which at present takes place, 
generally a week, sometimes a fortnight or more, in transferring from 'the Vera Cruz 
to the National line at Mexico. The Customs' officials at Vera Cruz, the police authori* 
ties — ^nay, even the consuls — have, to some extent, accustomed themselves to delays at 
that port — to delays and troubles with incoming ships, to blocked wharves, and irregu- 
lar railway services— and learned to look upon these as incident to, and inseparable 
from, traffic pas9ing*through there. At Tampico, as yet, the Custom House -is in 
miniature, and the Jef e Politico a squire of low degree ; and the increased importance of 
the place in the future, and the proverbial efficacy of the new brooms who will be 
appointed, may infuse into it, for a time at leaat, something of that life which is 
wanting in its older rival The squire of old, who had yet his knightly spurs to win, 
was generally foremost in the fray, and the spirit which animated him is yet an active 
factor of human nature. 

I mast hastily revert to the trade of Mexico, for I fear I have already tried your 
patience with my discursive paper. The country is seemingly peaceable at present, 
and the Government of General Diaz is a strong one. The troops are kept well in 
hand, and changed from command to commandjat intervals, so as to prevent their 
beooming the tools of provincial generals, as in former times ; whilst the large reserve 
always stationed round the metropolis suffices to crush any incipient rebellion. But 
beneath all this seeming peace lurk seeds of trouble, trouble which firmness and 
wisdom may possibly avert, but which untoward circumstances may mature. The 
taxation of the country is ruinously heavy. Licences are required for every 
description of trading, from the princely transactions of a bullion merchant to the 
retail sales of a petty tienda ; stamp duties are imposed on all sorts of documents, 
on invoices, on receipts, on contracts, and traders' books ; and in addition to these 
imposts of the central and provincial governments, every city, town, and little 
village imposes its own pcuticular tolls on all goods coming into or passing through ita 
bounds. As an instance, I may mention that an American gentleman died a few miles 
outside Mexico, and before we could bring his body into' the city for burial we had to 
pay a toll of 50 dollars (nearly £10). All this makes living very expensive, and 
prevents that distribution and movement of wealth so needful for the progressive 

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134 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

development of a country. Again, the goyernment, the legislature, the law eoortSy 
and all classea of offioials are thoroughly corrupt, and leek each their own indiTidaal 
adyancement rather than their country's benefit. Brigandage on any large scale has 
been suppressed, but outbreaks at remote mines which inyolve destruction of plant 
and machinery are by no means unknown, and European officials dare not venture 
amongst the native miners without an armoury of revolvers round their waists. For 
investment purposes, therefore, Mexican securities are somewhat less desirable than 
English Consols or Colonial loans, and I think this ought carefully to be remembered 
when new ones are placed on the market ; for a large crop are ready now for the 
promoter's hand whenever favourable opportunity o£fers. Coffee and tobacco 
plantations at Topic, cigar manufactories at Vera Cruz, silver mines at San Luis, 
Potosi, and Pachuca, are all ready to promise to any likely purchaser dividends of ten, 
fifteen, or twenty per cent, which promise nuCy or may not be redeemed, probably not 
The owners of the properties are by no means foolish men, who do not know the 
value of that they are parting with, and the ways of company -mongers are obBcure, 
and between the two the public are likely to lose money. But there is profit to be 
made out of Mexican trade, and a tolerably secure profit so long as the transactions 
are confined to legitimate trading, and do not trench on the region of financing loans 
and mortgages. The chief machinery and hardware house in the Republic is 
undoubtedly that of Roberto Baker and Co., a Qerman firm, who have always on* 
hand an ample stock, and an ample staff, well versed in the manners of the country. 
Their supplies are chiefly from Qermany, some few classes of goods being obtained 
from the States, and although many of their customers prefer English goods, yet 
they succeed in retaining, and year by year increasing, a turnover which no English 
house there can approach. One London firm was, a few years ago, doing 
a good business in general machinery, but this has fallen away considerably 
the last two years, and chiefly through the principals being too busily 
engaged with larger contracts to attend to their general customers. They cannot 
now afford the time they formerly gave to back patting and hand shaking, and so the 
offended seflors wend their way to more pleasing offices. On the other hand, a gentle- 
man who was formerly connected with them, who studies Mexican manners and 
peculiarities, and carefuly avoids any hastiness of manner or urgency in bargaining, 
has within the last two years built up a prosperous business. He deals almost 
exclusively in Messrs. Howard and Bullough*s ootton machinery — ^indeed, I think that 
the firm must in the first instance have financed the venture, and I have no doubt 
they are by this well satisfied with the result. It is on such lines as these the English 
houses may do business, not by hasty travellers rushing from point to point of the 
country expecting to find purchasers in as great haste as themselves ; and the business 
is worth doing even at the heavy cost of branch houses, for the profits are vexy larga 
On the machinery from 25 to 83 per cent is added by the Mexican houses to the 
invoice cost, insurance, and freight to destination, and very readily obtained, so that 
on a turnover of $100,000 a year there is a margin of profit after payment of all 
expenses, and a good firm ought to do considerably more business than this. Of the 
profits on cotton and woollen goods, I cannot speak quite so accurately, but when I 
tell you that I paid $8 (about 288.) for an ordinary felt hat, and $6 (21s.) for a half- 
guinea silk hat, and that a suit of light tweed clothes costs $35 (about £6 28. 6d.), 
and worsted morning suits about $50, you will admit that there are dollars to be 
made out of such a trade. Prohibitive tarifis do not keep out American, French, or 
German goods ; Customs restrictions, Customs fines, and onerous police regulations do 
not deter the merchants of those countries from forcing their way into so desirable a 
market. They know that the finer woollen and cotton goods cannot be manufactured 

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Mexico, 135 

in the country, must be purchaaed from without^ and they know that Creoles loye 
soft raimenty and Creole dames fine feathers, and will have them at any cost. The 
trade of England was built up by merchant yenturen who incurred peril and hardship 
in eyery part of the globe to win the commercial battle. We content ourselves with 
sitting in our offices, and surrounding ourselves with scientific devices of telephones 
and cables, but the outside world which feeds us, which we once won for our trade^ 
sees less than formerly of us, and so, in spite of our circulars, and cablegrams, and 
other devices for keeping our seats at home, they are passing us by to deal with other 
people whom they meet face to face, and whom they are learning to respect and trust 
as they once trusted us. Our West Indian trade has passed largely into the hands 
of the Yankees. Is our Spanish- American trade to follow ? If not, English traden and 
English manufacturers must once more venture into the outer world and live there, 
and if in doing so they visit Mexico, I can predict for them not merely a most enjoyable 
sojourn in an enjoyable and romantic land, but an order-book which will prove pro- 
fitable to them even in these unprofitable days, but which they cannot obtain by the 
agency of migratory travellers, or hasty display of photographs and samples, nor by 
any other of our present high-pressure measures, so repulsive to the worshippers of 
the Alpha and Omega of the Mexican vocabulary. 

2. When my paper was so far written, a notice of Mexican trade advices appeared 
in the Manchester Ouardian of March 7th, as follows : — 

"The latest mail advices from Mexico bring news down to Februaxy 14. Busi- 
ness generally was said to be better than in January, but the market was still not 
active. Money was abundant, and merchants were not borrowing. A oonferenoe of 
economists convened by the Government had met and were discussing plans for 
unifying the State systems of taxation. The Mexican Financier says that many of 
the States maintain methods of taxation which make the new facilities for rapid 
transport by railways in every direction useless. As regards the market for textiles, 
the manufactarers of printed cotton goods are reported to have already contracted 
with the retailers for the consumption of the whole of this year's production. This 
was regarded as signifying a maintenance of prices unless the new Customs tariff 
should introduce some modifications in the duties upon foreign goods, which, however, 
was not anticipated. The manufacturers of cashmeres had not arrived at any similar 
arrangements with the retailers. The EeonomUta Mexicarho refers to important 
transactions concluded by well-known commercial houses in Mexico city. One house, 
it was reported, had under consideration the investment of half a million dollan in 
new machinery and appliances. The same journal adds : ' There is no doubt that the 
textile industry in Mexico is gradually acquiring a prominent position among the 
industries of the country, and the time is arriving when it may truly be worthy of the 
protection which has been so largely afforded it for many yean past by the Customs 
tariff of the Republic'" 

The investment of half-a-million dollars referred to by the Eeonomiiia Mexicano 
iM probably the outcome of negotiations which have been proceediog for the past two 
years, but which, up to last September, the efforts of import merchants and bankera 
had been unable to bring to any definite termination. The rumour of large expendi- 
ture on new textile machinery has been many times circulated by the Mexican papers, 
but the intending subscribers had, up to last autumn, refrained from actually under- 
writing the amount, although every inducement had been offered them by machinery 
manufacturers. Should it, however, now be actually true, and the capital actually 
subscribed, it will be very advantageous for English trade, as the orders will, most 
probably, be placed with one or other of the large Lancashire machinists. Nor need 
we fear the competition in textiles, at all events for some years to come, since the 

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136 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

importiDg of mftchineiy ia an easy matter in comparison to the training 
of workmen. Neither in design, nor workmanship, nor dyeing has native labour 
hitherto been able to suocessfully compete with our country, nor is it likely to do so 
unless our own advance in skill is far slower in the future than in the past. 
We stand far and away bejond the Mexicans in the finer goods, the only goods which, 
under their present prohibitive tariff, they chiefly import ; and I cannot imagine that 
the capital, the intelligence, the inventiveness, which has gained us this pre-eminence 
in their market, will fail to secure its continuance ; and every advance in native 
industry, every increase in the wage-earning power of the population, will tend 
to promote demand for greater comforts than they at present possess, and as 
many of these cannot be supplied from their own resources, to increase the 
stream of imports. Under the settled government of the last few years trade 
has increased rapidly, not only internally but externally. Under the induce- 
ments offered to foreign capitalists, mining enterprises have extended, and mines 
which were once unprofitable have, with improved communication and modem 
machinery, become lucrative ; and the agriculture of the country has certainly been 
progressive, although the requirements of irrigation are yet far from being adequately 
met. If such improvements in the condition of the country continue — if revolutions 
on the one hand, and an excessive influx of foreign capital on the other, do not create 
panic — ^the legitimate trader, who wisely as well as vigorously seeks this market, 
will for many yeai-s yet to come reap very good results for his labours ; but if he be 
wise he will steadily adhere to legitimate trading, and eschew the temptation of hu^er 
profits offered him ia land schemes, mortgages, mining ventures, and all those other 
■abominations by which the unwary are gulled under the generic name of investments. 
f1 And if only I may induce some oC our Manchester merchants, or some of our manu- 

j' facturers, to more deeply consider the conditions of the Mexican and other markets, 

j< and the means by which our hold on them can be retained — if I induce them to 

-consider that prejudices must be respected, and slothful habits reckoned upon, and 
that circulars, and advertisements, and even cablegrams and briakful travellers, are 
impotent before the great goddess Mafiana — I shall have served some good purpose by 
my paper, and deservedly earned gratitude of which I shall never hear. 


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The Children's Home on the Moors at Edgworth. 137 


[As Address by Mr. A. W. MAGER to the Members on their Visit, Saturday, June 

13th, 1891.] 

Mr. Maokb said : Nineteen years ago this little colony began its work here. When 
the first party of rough lads took possession of the old Wheatsheaf Inn, and peered 
through its small broken windows upon a scene of desolation, wild and weird, there 
were no trees then, no habitations, no children, and almost the only birds were grouse^ 
snipe, and plover. 

Christianity is always the pioneer of civilisation. The pillar, dug from our 
-quarry, on the hill-top, inscribed " Soli Deo Qloria," was set up by the late Dr. 
Punahon in 1873. It "commemorates the dedication of this estate to the nurture 
and training of orphan and destitute children." The distinguished orator began his 
speech upon that memorable occasion by an allusion to the desolation around him. 
He said we were commencing our Christian enterprise away from the busy haunts of 
men, and, it seemed to him, beyond the pale of ciyilisation. But now, the 
fruitful fields, the productive gardens, the comely dwellings for the young, the school- 
house for their education, the hospital for the sick and weakly, the useful farm and 
industrial buildings, the whole of this material development represents civilisation 
that is merciful, expedient, and remunerative. And it represents, besides, a moral 
TSTolution ; the purification of life ; the ennobling of character ; the practical incul- 
cation and exemplification of Christian principle and purpose. The changed landscape 
hu an unknown beauty, and an enhanced value of hundreds and perhaps thmisands 
starling ; but who can assess the value of the changed lives of those rescued and 
reclaimed youths who, with pick, crowbar, shovel, spade, plough and harrow, have 
transformed the barren moorland into a thriving colony, with the important adjuncts 
and appliancee for its educational and Christian work. 

When children are received here we generally place them in the hospital and pre- 
pare them for the cold of these uplands, and then as they are physically fit wedraft them 
into the homes. The result is that we have very little sickness. I am glad to say 
the hospital is to-day not occupied by any patients. 

The work of the schools is done, of course, in classes and sections. An 
■«iflmentary education, according to the Qovemment Code, is given in the well- 
tppointed schoolhouse yonder. Indoors we have our Sloyd class. The 
Swedish Sloyd system is adapted to train both eyes and hands in the 
use of tools of various kinds, and to impart intelligence and some degree 
^ technical knowledge. In other words, its object is to utilise the educative force 
which lies in rightly-directed labour of any kind, as a means of developing in the 
pupils physical and mental powers which will be a sure and evident gain to them in 
ifter life. Woodwork with joinen' tools, plus a simple knife for beginners, is, per- 
haps, best fitted for boys. The making of cardboard boxes and various other useful 
articles of the same material, by Sloyd methods, is more interesting and suitable as 
an occupation for girls. The chief principles of Sloyd are right methods, attention to 
-detuls, satisfactory results ; and these principles may well be applied to all kinds of 
work, whether of the family, the factory, or the farm. It is a kind of advanced 
londergarten, to develop manual skill ; to accustom the eye to nice adjustments of 
Bise and shape ; to cultivate in its pupils the faculty of order and sequence ; to induce 

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138 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

the love of work, the habit of painBtaking in regard to details, and *' that keen sense 
which is lore of perfectness." The system is interesting to the young. It gives them 
pleasure in work intelligently performed with its superlative results. It would imparb 
the artist's aim and spirit to mere artisans, and even to those engaged in the trivial 
round and common task. Old Antonio StradivarTs high-toned vindication of hia 
motives and methods suggests the kind of teaching which should inspire eveiy true 
craftsman : — 

" My work is mine ; 

And heresy or not, if my hand slacked 

I should rob God-Hdnce He is fullest good— 

Le4ving a blank instead of Violins. 

I say, not Ood Himself can make man'slbes t 

Without best men to help Him. I am one best 

Here in Cremona, using sunlight well 

To fashion finest maple till it serves 

More cunningly than throats for harmony. 

'Tis rare delight ; I would not change my skill 

To be the Emperor with bungling hands, 

And lose my Work, which comes as natural 

As self at waking? 

With this lofty ideal of work let us now visit the Sloyd dassy and 
watch for a short time the youthful students engaged in producing a perfect 
article, aocording to pattern, out of a few inches of rough birch or deal. 
The room — the original schoolroom of the Institution — is well lighted 
with six large windows, giving a grand outlook over many miles of hill and 
dale. It is arranged with benches from end to end, and furnished with complete sets 
of joiners' tools— ^effective but not costly. A Swedish lathe and grindstone also form 
part of the equipment of this training school. There are two pupils — boys or 
girls — at each bench. The exercises are systematically grsduated, the course in- 
cluding the making of twenty-five articles in the numerical order stated upon the 
card hung conspicuously in the room. Models are also exhibited and examined. 
Diagrams, showing the shape, size, and section of each model, are given to the pupil. 
The object is further explained and set out in chalk upon a blackboard by the able 
teacher — Mr. Frederick Wilkinson, of Bolton. He also shows how to handle and 
apply the tools — and how not to use them — in the shaping of each article. Marka 
are bestowed for excellence ; careless work is cast away, and a fresh start upon a 
second, third, or fourth piece of rough wood is one of the penalties of inattention. 
See how intent the workers are. How interested they become in the small piece of 
wood each is so carefully reducing to the required size and shape. How often aquare 
and measure are applied to test the work as it goes on. There are several failurea in 
the room, more in the earHer and simpler exercises. The knife was too sharp and 
slipped (the tools are so often at fault), or the wood had a knot~or*twist in ita grain 
which prevented its successful shaping. The condemned article is put aside amongst 
other failures, and another piece of wood is given upon which the prentice hand may 
once more painfully endeavour to realise an ideal perfection in the production of a 
flower stick, an envelope opener, a pen rest, or a parcel holder. *' Almost valnelesa 
articles these," some one may say ; " they may be made much quicker, if not better^ 
by machinery, and bought at a shop for a few pence per dozen. The game is hardfy 
worth the candle." '* Perhaps not," we should reply, " if the material reaulta on^ 
are considered. The boy's or girl's copy book, filled with badly-formed letters and 
imperfect writing, is, after all the pains bestowed iupon it, but so much waste paper. 
The careful copyist, however, is acquiring skill by the exercise, and is being qualified 
thereby for the duties of life. So with this Sloyd system ; its material results are of 
small utility ; but its principles and methods are indispensable in all true work, and 
its educatioQal advantages in the moral, mental, and manual development of its pupib 

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The Children's Home on the Moors at Edgworth, 139^ 

an valoable bejond appraisement. AnythiDg that goes to form character, to 
make the youths of our land capable and conscientious craftnnen, is inestimable 
in its far-reaching benefits to the subjects of such training and to the nation fov 
ill time. 

IrouBTBiAL Trainiro is given to girls and boys in the fine range of work- 
■hops and model diary, built by public subscription in 1889, as a memorial 
of the late Mr. James Barlow, J.P., the generous donor of the estate. 
Ibe indiistrial departments are intended to give technical training; 
to impart intelligence; and to promote manual skilL The majority of 
our children vet endowed with no more than the one talent — the hand- 

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140 The Journal of the Marichester Geographical Society, 

It 18 inoumbent upon us, therefore, to see that this talent is so improved 
as to fit the children for the duties of life, and to make them self-reliant and 
as capable as possible. They must '*work with their hands the thing which 
is good,'* to proyide for themselves and others in the future. Domestic service 
requires an amount of manual skill as well as knowledge of household methods 
4md management. Domestic economy is taught in our Board Schools ; it is practiaed 
in our Homes. The duties of the ** family system " intelligently performed fit our 
girls for their future calling, and give them the means and opportunity of learning to 
-cook, bake, scrub, wash, sew, wait at table, &c. Art, knowledge, sldll, are needful 
factors even in the discharge of these domestic tasks. To peel a potato 
properly and without waste is an accomplishment that few girls naturally excel in. 
The '* Sloyd " methods and principles before referred to may well be applied to such 
-common matters of the household. Our object in the Home is not unly to make the 


t>est of the potato, but the best of its peeler, so that she may become skflfal and 
thrifty in that and in the hundred things of which that simple operation is but 
an exampla 

But not all the girls of the Home are fitted for domestic service ; or in some eases 
there is an aptitude or need for other kinds of employment. Hence we have 
industries, trades, and handicrafts, as departments of our training work, for fitting 
girls and boys for the future before them. 

In the EzuTTiKQ Ikddstbt girls have been taught to make hosieiy and 
garments ; and now certain of them, having left the Home, are able by thia 
handicraft to support in comfort and respectability themselves, their widow> 
mother and her younger children. It is a handicraft beneficial to the girls employed 
in it, and remunerative to the Institution. Indeed, the test and proof of its efifidencj 
■as a means of training for the future is that it is made remunerative. Poor 

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TJie Children's Honie on the Moors at Edgworth. 141 

work would never pay the producer, nor qualify the worken. The artioles made 
in our Knitting Shop are not inferior. Customers near and far approve them, 
reoonmiend them, come to us again and again for hosiery of all kinds ; pretty 
costumes for little children ; neat jerseys and jackets for girls and boys of laiger 
growth ; and for warm elastic woollen undeigarments, to ward off rheumatism from 
those yet more advanced in life. All such articles of clothing are made and finished 
by our girls and their instructors in the commodious knitting-room — one of 
the Barlow Memorial Industrial Block — at Edgworth. 

I now go to OuB MODKL Daibt AiTD ITS MsTHODS. Technical knowledge and 
skill of a different order are required in the Dairying operations of our important 
Farm Branch with its 100 acres of reclaimed moorland ; by boys' labour — delving, 
draining, liming — this sterile soil has been made into verdant meadows and produc- 
tive gardens. Yes ; and the hard work has been fruitful in other than material and 
pecuniary results. Character has been reclaimed as well as fields. Men — ^honest 


industrious, and resourceful — besides meadows, have been made by the same course 
of beneficent toil. The boys milk the cows, tend the cattle^ and horses, and do the 
daily routine work of the farm. 

The produce of thirty to forty head of cattle^in milk and cream has to be dealt 
with in this admirable Model Dairy and Creamery. The importance of right methods, 
of proper appliances, and satisfactory results in dairy JworkMs now recognised by the 
Agricultural Department of the Government. Upwards^of .fifteen millions sterling per 
anniun are being paid for dairy produce to foreigners. State-aided Dairy Institutes,, 
and travelling Dairy Schools with certified teachers,^are now^established and set going 
by the Board of Agriculture and by County Councils in different parts of the country, 
for teaching timers' wives and daughters, and dairymaids and dairymen, the most 
perfect methods of butter-making, &c. Old methods are condemned as insanitary 
and unscientific; and the tons of British butter sent into^^the markets, of poor 
"teiture" and worse taste, testify to the need of reform in^this important national 

Let us conduct our readers to the Dairy. It is approached from the Knitting 

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142 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

Exhibit by a corridor. To the left is the Conservatory, where flowers and feniB are 
•cultivated for sale to visitors. A glass partition on the right reveals the Daiiy and 
its burnished appliances for cream separation, &c. The floral display on the o^er 
side of the corridor adds to the attractiveness of the Dairy, but care has been taken 
in the arrangement of doors, &c, to allow of no perfume from the plants entering the 
chambers devoted to such delicate commodities as milk, cream, and butter. The 
floors, though well washed after churning, &a, are kept dry ; for it ii proved that 
germs and microbes multiply in a damp atmosphere. Every crevice and comer 
is kept scrupulously clean; channels for waste water are carried outside the 
•building to the drains, with which there is no connection. Ventilation is well pro- 
vided for. The walls are of white enamelled bricks ; windows are double to modify 
temperature in summer and winter; and hot water pipes, regulated with several 
^valves, are provided for the same purpose. Thermometers hang conspicuously 
around. There are two chief requisites of good butter-making, viz. : (1) absolate 
cleanliness; (2) attention to temperature. 


Cbbam Separation. — The cream is extracted from the milk immediately it is 
taken from the cows ; there is therefore no exposure of the sweet milk in shallow 
pans to allow the cream to rise ; for at the same time germs and molecules in the 
atmosphere around (which have a remarkable affinity for milk) would fly to it and 
render it sour and impure. The Separator — called the " Victoria " — is driven by an 
Otto Gas Engine from a closed .chamber behind. Upwards of 7,000 revolutions per 
minute (double the number of revolutions of the wheels of an express train) are given 
to the steel drums into which' the milkj runs, and by this centrifugal motion the 
cream — ^thin for churning, '* double thick " for sale — is by nice adjustment thrown ofiEl 

The cream, in its course from the Separator, is at once cooled to 58°, and is then 
set aside for a few hours to " ripen '* before ^it^is churned. It must be watched ; and 
the temperature around it should also be kept at about 58°, to prevent over fermen- 
tation. The exact degree of ripeness required can be judged by an expert dairy- 
maid. Her intelligence, skill, and attention are required from beg^ning to end in 
the adjustment of the machinery ^and appliaoces, and in the treatment of milk, cream, 

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The Children's Home on the Moors at EdgwortL 143 

and batter. Role of thumb or haphazard methods would reiult ia failure and 

The chuming of the cream, by one of Bradford's noted Diaphragm Churns, requires 
no less intelligence and cftre. Absolute cleanliness, and a temperature not higher 
than 60 d^^rees, are again the essentiali 45 reyolutions per minute are giren to the 
chum, and in about 40 minutes (unless the cream is too cold or it goes to '* sleep "), 
the butter graaules are seen upon the glass disc. The operator stops the chum at 
once, draws off the butter-milk, pours in pure cold water]to harden the granules, and 
to wash out every trace of casein and butter-milk. This is the critical point in the 
making of good butter that will keep sweet, without salt, for any reasonable length 
of time ; and this washing out the butter-milk and casein whilst the butter is in the 
granular state, marks one chief difference between the old methods and the new. If 
the granules be " gathered,'* as old dairy hands term it — i.e., beaten into a nutss — no 
■ubsequedt washing or pressing can remove the element of decomposition that is in 
the butter-milk enclosed in the mass of butter ; hence it is of the utmost importance 
that the operator, by the exercise of the organs of sight and sound, ascertains the 
critical moment when to stop the chum, and to cleanse and harden, by the applica- 
tion of cold spring water, the delicate particles of butter that the chuming process 
has ** broken " from the cream. 

The operator now introduces brine into the chum (dry salt makes inferior 
batter) ; she allows it to remain 15 minutes, then takes out the granules with a well- 
scalded wooden shovel, and places them to drain before she works them. How dainty 
they look heaped up on the white table, and how appetising is the aroma arising from 
them ! All moisture must now be pressed oat with the fluted roller, carefully used, 
and the granules, unbroken, must be consolidated to a mass. 

The weighing and making-up into attractive patterns, without crashing in 
moulds, are now deftly done with fluted " Scotch hands." Throughout there is no 
touch of human hand, nor contact of any kind, to mar the delicate flavour of this 
most susceptible article. A few hours in a dark, cold, well- ventilated '^buttery" 
add to its colour, firmness, and sweet natty flavour. It is then carefully packed in 
odourless boxes, and sent off by rail, parcel post, or messengers to appreciative 
customers in various parts of the country. 

QuABBTDVo. — ^The estate of the Edgworth Home is rich in stone. Upon the steep 
hill top — • Crownthome" yonder — the rock has been revealed and riven, and with ham- 
mers, wedg^ picks and crowbars, blocks of it have been reduced to the requisite size and 
shape for all those buildings which form the extensive colony of The Children's Home 
below. These quarrying operations have afforded a fine sphere of industry for the 
elder boys of the community. Those houses, cottages, and blocks of buildings ; that 
fine dining-hall, that comely school, that extensive range of farm premises, represent 
twenty years of hard beneficial labour, by successive groups and generations of etal. 
wart youth — ^feeble and flabby, morally and physically, as they were before their 
translation from the squalid streets to these breezy moorlands. With pride that, we 
trust, may be pardoned, we venture to apply to these boys and their part in the work 
of development the well-known inscription, '* If you want a monument^ look around." 
Those ranges of buildings ; the material development and improvement on every 
hand ; the oasis of sweet meadows, with their trim stone fences, in a desert of barren 
moorland around, represent youthful labour that would have been wasted, energies 
destructive and baneful They represent also a moral transformation no less satis- 
factory than the material improvement visible upon the estate. Character, rectified 
and ennobled, is the most valuable product of so much rough work with spade and 
pick, crowbar and crane. Inherited indolence is the bane of boys of a certain type ; 

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144 The Journal of the Mandtester Geographical Society. 

the antidote b to be found and is applied at oar Crowthome quany. Stones aze 
heavy, difficult to get, hard to cut^ and harder to move. Put two or thit^ lazy lada— 
loungera by birth and habit — at the handles of a powerful crane, and attouli a two-toD 
block of stone to the end of its chain ; then set them winding the ponderous piece of 
rock from its deep bed to the bank above, and the workers will find they cannot shirk 
their task. The winding prooeas is slow and arduous ; all the better for that The 

original " curse" of labour is beneficent ; the sweat of brow earns bread ; and besides, 
in the case of the raw human material before us, it develops muscle and begets 
mettle, and efifects a moral as well as a physical transformation that is as satisfactoiy 
as it is surprising. No work like stone-getting for the cure of lasiness. 

The operations at our quarry require and impart considerable knowledge and skill 
as well as bodily strength. Of each stone brought out from its bed below, 
has to be made. "Flag-rock" must be squared, ''nicked/' cut, punched,; and 

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The Children's Home on the Moors ai Edgworth. 146 

smoothed for pftTomenta Lai^ blodks mutt be wedged i^pert to form window and 
door heads and sills. The smaller pieces are cut into wall-stones and "seta" for 
road-making, &c. There is an interesting variety in the work, beginning with the 
removal of the soil and shale ; baring the rock, forcing it from ita bed with wedges, 
powerful crowbars, and picks ; then winding the blocks to the surface to be cut and 
roughly shaped to dimensioDs, for masona and builders. Much of theae toilsome 
operationa is accomplished by the boys of the Home ; the more skilful work is, of 
course, done by experienced quarrymen, because, as the youthful workers become 
capable and strong, they go from us to earn their own living, making room for others 
who need, as they once needed, such effective industrial training. 

We aet great value tipon our quarry at Edgworth, not bnly for ita ample store of 
sandgrit atone with which to build homes for bereaved and destitute children, but 


because the work done in it ia healthful and educative, developing stamina and skill, 
beaidea love of labour ; labour whose permanent resulta may be appreciated in the 
years and even in centuries to come. 

Then there are shops at London and Edgworth for joineri and carpenters, 
painters, glaziers, smiths, and mechanics. The youths engaged in theae trades and 
occupations make, for use of the Home, tables, forms, stools, boxes, desks, &c. They 
repair, paint, and preserve the premises, plant, and furniture ; they asphalte paths 
and playgrounds, fitting themselves at the same time by all these operations, requiring 
skiU, technical knowledge, and intelligence, for the future before them. 

Lancashire is noted amongst many other good things for its dogs. At Edgworth 
our boya and girls wear dogs, not only for the sake*of economy, bat to keep their feet 
dry and warm in this changeable climate. 

The Cloggera' and Bootmakers' Shop is meet useful to our oommunity, but 

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146 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

bendes, it affordi the means of giving a remuneratiTe trade to certain crippled or 
infirm ladi who might otherwise be disqualified for the more laborioos oocupattou 
in which most of our boys have to earn their livelihood. 


The several industries, trades, and handicrafts herein described are remunerative 
and benefidaL They enable the Home to extend its good work for bereaved and 
destitute or neglected and outcast children. Besides, they are made the means of 


education and training, practical and efficient, qualifying the girls and boys engaged 
in them for good service in life, and they also enable us to enforce the Scriptural 
jnjunotioQ—** Whatsoever thy hand find^th to do, do it with thy might," 

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The Children's Home on the Moore at Edgworth 147 

At Edgworth there are the following homes :— Boys* Homes : Wheatsheaf House 
Bolton House, Moecrop House, Woodville, Jubilee House, Howarth Memoria 
House. Girls' Homes : Ministers' Children's Gift House, Sanderson-Mitchell House. 
Daviee^ Memorial Hospital, The Atkinson Hall, School- Chapel, S. Australian HouflOi 











Several of the above have been built and given as memorials and thank- 
offibringa. Christian philanthropists should know that there is room— and preeaing 
need, too— for many such wise and enduring benefactions. 

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148 The Journal of the Manchester Oeognuphical Society 


APRIL IST TO JUNE 80th, 1891. 

The 156th Meetang of the Society, held in the Memorial Hall, Thursday, April 
2nd, 1891, at 7-80 p.m. Mr. Job Iblam in the chair. 

Mr. G. E. Schwann, M.P., addreaaed the members "On Impreniona of his 
Recent Journey Through India." The address was illustrated with maps, photographs, 
and lantern views. Mr. F. Sohwabe lent some slides, and a number of Mr. Schwann's 
photographs were shown. 

Several questions were asked and replied to, and a very hearty vote of thanks, 
on the motion of the GHAiBMAif, seconded by Mr. J. Thbwlis Johnson, was given to 
Mr. Schwann for his interesting address, and to Mr. Schwabe for the loan of his slides. 

The 157th Meeting of the Society, held (in conjunction with the Manchester 
Athenaeum) in the lai^e room of the Athenseum, on Tuesday, April 7th, 1891, at 
7-80 p.nL 

Mr. HiBBiBT Wabd addressed the meeting on " Five Tears Among the Congo 
Cannibals.," illustrating his address with a fine series of lantern slides from views and 
photographs taken by himself on the river. The address was of great interest 

The 158th Meeting of the Society, held in the Arts and Crafts Exhibition, City 
Art Gallery, on Saturday, April 11th, 1891, at 2 p.m. 

In the unavoidable absence of Mr. W. Stanfield, his Assistant received the 
members and conducted them through the Exhibition, explaining its object and giving 
a variety of information as to the exhibits. The members were very much pleased 
with the Exhibition, and a hearty vote of thanks was passed to the Assistant for his 
courteous I 

The 159th meeting of the Society, held in the Library, Tuesday, April 14th, 1891* 
at 7-80 p.m. Mr. Wm. Johnson in the chair. 

The minutes of the following meetings were read and approved : Feb. 25 (150), 
27 (151), Manh 4 (152), 18 (158), 20 (154), 24 (155), April 2 (156), 7 (157), 11 (158). 

Additions to the library having been announced, the election of the following 
members was declared : — 

Obdinabt: Major Ballantine, Messrs. J. J. Qleave, J. Murray Moore, M.D., 
W. H. Pierce, and R. B. Watt. 

AssoouTis: Miss J. C. Anderson, Messrs. Richard Greenough, F. le Mare, and 
James Ward. 

The following papers were read : ' Th Journey of M Bonvabt and Prince Henry 
of Orleans AcrcBi Thibet^" by Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. (see page 68). **0n the 

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Proceedinga, 149 

Compar«iiye Value of African Lands," by Mr. A. SUtb White, F.R.aE. '* Boulder 
Outline Figures in the Dakotae," by Mr. T. H. Lewia '* Ethnology of Etrueoa, 
Sardinia, and Sidiy," by Prof. F. Borsari. <*The Ruby Mines and Oil Industry of 

Messrs. T. Gregory, F.G.A., and W. Aldred, F.C.A., were re-eleeted auditors of 
the Society. 

The meeting passed veiy cordial votes of thanks to the writers of the papersL 
The question of excursions having been discussed and considered, the Secretary 
was requested to make recommendations to the CoundL 

The 160th Meeting of the Society, held in the Memorial Hall, Wednesday, May 
6th, 1891, at 7-30 p.m. The Rev. S. A. Stbinthal in the chair. 

FrotouoT MiNASSB ToH^RAZ, Profenaor of Armenian at King's College, London, 
addressed the members on " The Armenians : their Country, Race, History, Religion, 
Language, and Literature " (see page 84). The address was illustrated with maps 
and photographs, and was listened to with great interest. 

The CHAiUfAir moved, Mr. B. J. Bkjsha seconded, and the Siobitabt supported 
a veiy hearty vote of thanks to the Professor, to which he responded. 

The 16lBt Meeting of the Society, held in the Manchester Athenasum, on Friday, 
May 29th, 1891, at 7-80 p.m. The Rev. S. A. Stihtthal in the chair. 

Professor Arminius Vamb^bt, of Budapest, addressed the members "On British 
Trade in Central Asia" (see page 87). The address was illustrated with maps. 

The Chaibman moved, and Mr. Hilton Grxavbs, J. P., seconded, a hearty vote 
of thanks to Professor Vamb6ry for his instructive address, which was carried with 
acclamation. Thanks to the Chairman closed a most interesting meeting. 

The 162nd Meeting of the Society, held at the Deaf and Dumb Institution, Old 
TrȣEbrd, on Saturday, May 80th, 1891, at 8 p.m. 

Mr. W. S. Beesant, the governor (upon whose invitation the visit was made), 
conducted the party through the building and explained the different features. The 
members were shown sloyd-work and fret-work done by the children, and the method 
of oral instruction by lip and sign teaching. In the gymnaaium a number of the boys 
and £^ls went through their exercises in a very creditable manner. 

At a meeting held under the presidency of Mr. Councillor Smallman, Mr. Riqhabd 
Wadb moved that the thanks of the Society be tendered to Mr. Bessant, his assistanis, 
and the children for the very intiresting afternoon they had enabled the members to 
spend, and expressed heartfelt sympathy with the institution in its benevolent and 
evidently successful work. Mr. Lbslib seconded the motion, which was carried. At 
the termination of the proceedings, Mr. Bessant asked the boys to give the visitors 
three cheers, and they responded with an intelligible "Hip, hip, hurrah." 

The 168rd Meeting of the Society, held at the Chamber of Commerce, on Friday, 
June 6th, 1891, at 8 p.nL Mr. F. Zdoobn in the chair. 

Mr. Alvan Mhjjbon, HA., of Lagos, addressed the members ** On Toniba Cotton 
Qfowing and the Industrial and Commercial Features of that part of the Lagoa 

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160 The Journal of the Mcmcheder Geographical Society. 

colony " (see page 92). The address was illostrated with a large map and a oolleoiion 
of native doths. Questions were asked by Col Mellor, Mr. Dentith, Mr. Blackstock, 
and others, on the subject of the address, to which Mr. Millson very fully replied. 

Mr. E. HiLM proposed, and CoL Millob seconded, a most hearty vote of thanks 
to Mr. Millson for his address, which was not only very interesting but of great com- 
mercial value. Mr. Millbon having responded, thanks to the Ohairman dosed the 

The 164th Meeting of the Society, at the Farm Back-o'th'-Moss, Unsworth, on 
Saturday, June 6th, 1891, at 2-30 p.m. 

The members were received by Mr. Daniel Fletcher and his family, who gave 
them information as to the reclamation of the moss lands, the folk-lore, geology, and 
geography of the district, and pointed out the brooks, hills, villages, and manuW 
turing centres. After tea, Mr. Bablow, of Radcliffe, in the chair, very hearty thanks 
were given to Mr. Fletcher and his family for their kindness, and for their gradous 
reception of so large a number of members of the Sodety. 

The 165th Meeting of the Sodety, held at the Stockport Technical School, on 
Wednesday, June 10th, 1891, at 7 p.m. 

The members met at the Corporation Baths, Petersgate, and were received by 
Mr. Councillor Wood and the Borough Engineer, who showed them over these most 
complete and beautiful municipal buildings. They then inspected the new Lads' 
Club and the Stockport Sunday Schools, and were received at the new Technical 
Schools by the Secretary, who described the building and the work of the schooL 

After tea a meeting was held in the Art School, presided over by His Worship 
the Mayor of Stockport, which was addressed by the Rev. S. A. Steinthal and the 
Secretary, on the object and work of the Manchester Geographical Sodety. 

Thanks to the speakers were proposed by the Bev. Canon Stmonds, seconded, 
and carried. 

Mr. Stbhithal responded, and moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Wood, the Borough 
Engineer, to the oommittee and secretary of the Technical School, and to His Worship 
the Mayor for presiding. 

Mr. Chivbbs seconded the resolution, which was carried and responded ta 

The 166th Meeting of the Sodety, held at the Children's Home, Edgworth, on 
Saturday, June 18th, 1891, at 6 p.m. 

The way from the Edgworth or Turton Station, past the Bolton reservdrs and 
through stone quarries, gradually rising up to the moorlands on which the settlement 
is found, is interesting, and is a good sample of the sombre Lancashire moorland 

Having had several journeys to parts of the country in line with Edgworth, and 
connecting with another journey to Rivington, the members were prepared to enter 
int& the pleasure of a visit to this historical district, and to admire the hUly views. 

On reaching the Homes, the members were recdved by the governor, Mr. A. W. 
Mager, who cdlected some of the children and allowed them to dug several pieces of 
music, and afterwards the members were taken through the workshops, dairy, farm- 
buildings, the hospital, baths, and other parts of this very interesting settlement. Mr. 
Mager gave a short address, giving a history of tho settlement, and he has kindly lent 

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Proceedings. 151 

the Sooietj the blookB to illustrate the account of the work of the institation so far 
aa Edgworth la conoemed. 

The other parts of the work, in London and elsewhere, were only referred to 
and not dealt with in detail. (See pp. 137.) 

After tea, Mr. J. Bablow, of Radcliffe, in the chair, samples of the dairy produce 
and the hosiery having been purchased, Tery hearty thanks were given to Mr. Mager 
and his assistants, and the pleasure of the members expressed to see the children 
free, healthy, and happy, and without any of the appearance of institutionalism about 
them, and hope was expressed that the schools might abundantly prosper. 

Mr. Maoxb responded, and thanks to the Chairman closed the meeting, the 
members having a delightful walk on their return to the Edgworth Station. 

Hie 167th Meeting of the Society, held at Rivington, on Saturday, June 20th, 
1891, at 5 p.m. Mrs. Bobuin Leech, a member of the Council, in the chair. 

The members were reoeived at Horwich by the llev. S. Thompson and his son, 
and were conducted through Mr. Chorlton's gardens and on to the waterworks of the 
Liverpool Corporation, the reservoirs and filtering beds being of great ^interest to the 
engineers in the party. Then a walk through the fields brought them to the village 
of Rivington. 

After tea the village, the quaint, old chapel, and the manse gardens were 
inspected, and the Rev. S. Thompson gave an interesting address on the district, 
geographically, industrially, and historically, and gave the following account of the 
quaint, old ivy-covered Rivington Presbyterian Chapel : — 

This is one of the most quaint and interesting chapels in the district of Bolton. 
It was built in 1708 by the Nonconformists of the township, who must have been a 
majority in the congregation of the church, seeing that they worshipped in it almost 
op to the time of the erection of a buUding for themselves. 

Rivington Chapel stands at a distance of little more than 100 yards from the 
Church, a little way back from the road leading from Horwich to Chorley, its western 
gable facing the road leading to the Pike and Bolton. It is nearly surrounded by a 
graveyard, which, in the summer season, looks like that so well pourtrayed by Gray 
in his famous " Elegy." Two doorways, reached by ascending three large semicircular 
stone steps, lead to the interior, which is furnished with the original square-shaped 
oaken pews, in various degrees of preservation. The windows are mullioned, the 
panes diamond-shaped, and altogether there is an appearance of charming simplicity 
in its construction. The pulpit stands high above the level of the floor, while under- 
neath and in front is the desk of the precentor, whose occupation has been gone for 
many years, though there are still those who remember the singing being led by him, 
accompanied by a choir of musicians with stringed instruments. To assist the con- 
gregation, cards, with the names of the tunes to be sung, were conspicuously placed 
upon each side, and in front of the pulpit — even yet a well-known custom in Presby- 
terian Scotland. There are several mural tablets, one in particular being in memory 
of the Right Honourable Hugh Lord Willoughby, of Parham, F.R.S., who died in 
1766, and whose large canopied pew is directly in front of the pulpit Close by the 
western door there is another memorial, which is very interesting. It is a stone 
about a foot square, enclosed in a wooden frame. About fifty years ago some work- 
men were pulling down a wall to be broken for mending the highway, and amongst 
the stones was one that had been placed in the wall as a memorial of an event of 
more than local interest. Unfortunately it received a blow before it was seen to have 
writing upon it, but the pieces being put together it was found to have the following 
inscription : " Te Revd. Samuele Newtone, driven from ye church on Bartholomew 
Sonday 1662.*' The characters are quite ancient and rudely cut, and it is undoubtedly 
a genuine memorial of an event in English history that produced quite another effect 
than was anticii>ated by the party in power when it ejected 2,000 clergymen from the 
Church of England. 

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162 The Jowmal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

The ReT. Samuel Newton returned to his old charge, and he died in 1682, his 
remaine, with those of his wife, being buried in the chancel of the church. 

Probably a Mr. Walker was the first minister in Rivington Chapel. From 1704 
the line of ministry is certain, though in some cases not mudi is known. 

LoTers of freedom, the Nonconformists, were loyal to the Throne, and we find 
some of the ministers of the district giving valuable assistance during the Scotch 
Rebellion of 1715. 

In "Wood's Memoirs" we read that "the Rev. John Turner, at that time 
Protestant Dissenting Minister there (Preston), was, upon the breaking out of the first 
rebellion, eminently serviceable to the cause of the reigning family. Finnly attached 
to the principles of the Revolution, and the succession of the Crown in the House of 
Hanover, he left his wife and infant child, and, with many of the younger part of his 
congregation, joined the army under General Willes, by whom they were, with great 
propriety, on account of their knowledge of the country, employed as scouts to obtain 
mformation and to observe the motions of the rebels. In one of those nocturnal 
excursions Mr. Turner had the good fortune to fall in with, and, being of strong 
athletic constitution, to take prisoner and bring back safe with him to t£e oamp a 
confidential servant of one of the principal Roman Catholic gentry, who was going 
from his master with some important intelligence to the rebels. For this service he 
had the public thanks of General WiHes." Mr. Turner settled in Rivington in 1716, 
the year after the rebellion. 

In Dr. Evans' list of Presbyterian and Independent Chapels^ Rivington Chapel is 
said to have accommodation for 329 persons. 

In the trust deed there is no specific theology inserted as requidte. *'The 
worship of Almighty God " is declared to be that for which the chapel was baUt 

The members then divided into two companies, one party being led through 
Dean Clough to Horwich, and the other ascending the Pike and having a view 
of an extensive moorland country, the wide reach of the Rivington reservoirs, and 
the country towards the sea. 

Mr. Islam moved that the thanks of the members be tendered to the Rev. S. 
Thompson and his son, to Mr. Chorlton of the waterworks, to the proprietor of Dean 
Wood for permission to go through it, and to the lord of the manor for permission to 
cross the moors. The motion being seconded and carried, thanks to Mrs. Leech dosed 
a very enjoyable excursion. 

The 168th Meeting of the Society, held in the Barton Chapel Schoolroom, on 
Saturday, June 27th, 1891, at 6 p.m. Mr. Wm. Aldrbd, F.CJL, in the chair. 

The members were received at Mode Wheel by Mr. J. J. Warbrick and one of 
his assistant engineers, and were conducted along the Ship Canal works, past the 
Mode Wheel locks, to Stickens Island. The deviations in the river, the locks and sluice- 
gates, the lifts at Barton for boats out of and into the Bridgewater and Ship Canals, 
and the new arrangements for an aqueduct and viaduct in place of Brindley's cele> 
brated water-bridge and the old roadway, were inspected with keen interest, the con- 
ductors giving explanations of the work in progress and as it would be when finished, 
and replying to numerous inquiries during the journey with much courtesy. 

Tea was had, by permission of the Itev. J. Thackeray, in the Barton SchooL 

The very hearty thanks of the members were tendered to Mr. Leader Williams, 
Mr. Warbrick and his assistant, to Mr. Thackeray and Mr. Tuthill for their kindness 
to the members on this very interesting visit to the works of the CanaL 

Mr. Donald, Mr. Stott, Mr. Field (a visitor), Mr. Holt, and Mr. Cowell spoke 
on the resolution. Thanks to the Chairman closed the meeting. 

After the meeting some of the members had the opportunity of visiting the 
gardens of Mr. R Armitage, J.P., Chomlea, and of seeing his very beauttful 

Digitized by 





BANQUETS, BALLS, and BAZAARS, fitted up with Stalls 
and exquisitely Decorated. 



Erected, Decorated, Illuminated, and Laid with Polished Parquet Floors. 




Tents for Wedding Breakfasts, Picnic Parties, and Floral 
Exhibitions, Awnings, &c. 




3 & 5, ST. JOHN STREET, 


Digitized by 







12 and 14, ST. ANN STREET, 



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MU^. COUP.. ?^L. 



Manchester Geographical 


1891. i^^/» ^^^^ 

IfosTl-d. ^ftS3^^ SEPTEMBER. 



Practical Suggestions OfE^ered to Travellers. By Mr. J. P. ThomBon, F.R S.G-.S. 

WUhMafAS 153 

Impressions of Travel in India. By Mr. 0. E. Schwann, M.P. With Maps ... 171 
The Becent Progress of Indian Agriculture. By Mr. 0. L. Tupper. iVith Maps ... 201 

New Atlases 215 

Railway Communications of ladia. By. Mr. W. C. Farnivall. With Maps 216 

Recent Trade Progress and Competition in India. By Mr. D. A. O'Gorman ... 230 

Swedish Embroideries 264 

Geographical Notes— 

Mr. John Coles an ** T/,e Art of Obierving '* 168 

The Fnurih Centenary of the Discovery of America 168 

Africa 229 

Mr, P. S. Amot's Progress in West Central Africa 229 

The Cavses of Chijiese Emigration 229 

The Hutlva Inttmational C(nu/7 ess of Americanists 263 

Mr. J. Scott KMe on " Recent Progress oj Ocographical Education in England " 263 

Lake Chala, Mount KUima-njaro 276 

Proceedings of the Society 266 


heu^ JtfiK, 1892J\ [all uqhtb bubrvbd. 

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Thb Right Hon. thb EARL OF DERBY, E.G , &o. &a 

The Right Hon. Lobd EGERTON OP TATTON. 

Thb Right Hon. Lord WINMARLEtGH. 

Thb Right Rby. thb Lobd BISHOP OP MANCHESTER. 

Tbs Honoubablb Lord FREDERIC S. 

Ths Worshipful thb MAYOR OF 


Thb principal OP OWENS COL- 


Thb Right Hon. Sir JAMES FER- 
GUSSON, Raet., CLE., M.P. 

Thb Right Hon. A. J. BALFOUR, M.P. 

Sir W. H. HOULDSWORTH, Bart. M.P. 


Sib H. a HOWORTH^M.P. 

Mr. B. AKMITAGE, J.P., ChomlML 


Pbofbssoh W. BOYD DAWKINS, M.A, 

Mb. J. THEWLIS JOHNSON, Pbssidist 


Mr. henry lee, J.P. 



Mb. H. J. ROBY, MA.. M.P. 

Councillor HENRY SAMSON, J.P. 

Mr. C. E. SCHWANN, M.P. 

Rbv. S. a. STRINTHAL, F.R.G.S., 


Sir J. C. LEE, Kt., J.P. 


Mr. Alderban C. MAKINSON, J.P. Mr. J. JARDINE, J.P. 



Mr. T. R. WILKINSON, Manchester mad Salford Bank, Mosley Straet^ Vice-Oonsiil for tb« 

Ottoman Empire. 


Honorary Secretary. 

F. ZIMMBRN, Hardman 




Rbv. L. C. CASARTELLI, M.A., Ph.D., 

St. Bbdb's. 
Profbssor T. H. CORE, M.A., Owens 

Miss day, Girls' High School. 
Chbvalibr ROBERT FROEHLICH, Vica- 

Consul for Italy. 
Mr. job IRLAM. 
Mr. J. E. KING, MA. 


Chaibman of THK Council. 
Mr. J. H. NODAL. 
Mr. JAMES PARLANE, J.P., Consul 

FOR Paraguay. 
Mr. fritz REISS. 

Consul for Franob. 
Mr. mark stirrup, F.G.S , Hon. Sbo. 

Manchbstbr GaoLOoiCAJL Socibty 


ELI SOWERBUTTS, F.R.G.S., 44, Brown Stbbvt, Mavohbbtbil 

*«* The writers of papers are alone responsible for the opinions expressed by thenu 

Books, Maps, &c., for Notice or Review, xaay be sent to the 
Secretary, 44, Brown Street, Manchester. 

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Digitized by 










frmgat^ Co 


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TRAVELLERS.— (^iSe^ Sketch Maps,) 

By Mr; X P. THOMSON, F.R.S.G.S., Hon. Secretary to the Boyal Geographical 
Society of AoBtralaaia, Queenaland. 

[Read to the Members, in the Library, Wednesday, December 9th, 1891.] 

EXPERIENCE has convinced the writer that in many instances 
the geographic results of what may very properly be termed 
costly undertakings are not, either commercially or scientifically, 
commensurate with the amount of capital and labour bestowed 
upon them. It is to the strength of this conviction that this 
theme owes its suggestion, and it is upon the results of pro- 
longed professional experience that the following observations 
are based: — 

While the existence of incongruity of results is shown by 
the conflicting current issues of explorations, it is chiefly by a 
review of the history of cartography that a proper value can be 
assigned to each series of observations. A retrospective view 
of this history points to an almost bewildering mass of 
irreconcilable data collated by explorers and voyagers from 
almost every available part of the world. These incoherences, 
which not infrequently engender painful and bitter controversies 
between individuals and parties, sometimes resulting in tedious 
and expensive litigation, exist chiefly in connection with posi- 
tions as defined by the terms latitude, longitude, arid height. 
Explorers should bear in mind that maps showing incorrect 
delmeations of natural features are as dangerous to the lands- 
man as bad chronometers are to the mariner — upon the face of 
both errors are imprinted, which are misleading. 

Expeditiousness in the field of exploration is the preponder- 
ating feature of the age in which we live ; hence it is not infre- 
•quently brought about that the far more important matter of 

Vol. VII.— Nos. 7-9— July to Sept., 1891. 

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154 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

establishing a reliable basis upon which operations are to be 
conducted and completed is altogether subordinated to the 
former. Nor does tne evil here end, for hurried marches and 
voyages de{)riye other dei)endent branches of science of valuable 
aid, by leaving in obscurity that which by human intelligence 
should be brought to light, while the country operated upon 
itself sufiers greatly by reports which subsequent experience is 
unable to verify, so that thereby, without doubt, progressive 
science and civilisation are retarded. It is a notorious met that 
discrepancies of astonishing magnitude, which would not be 
tolerated in even the most lax professional practice, occur in 
results obtained by different observers from identical localities. 
Mountains are made to project from plains where, in reality^ 
none exist ; rivers emanate from mythical sources, and meander 
through regions where both man and beast would die of thirst ; 
while lakes claim sites occupied by nothing save the arid 
slopes of mountains and the barren wastes of sand. 

Differences, of no practical importance, however, will neces- 
sarily occur for all time, such as those arising from inequality 
of instrumental values, changeableness of atmospheric condi* 
tions, and the influence of physical peculiarities, common to 
the human organisation as exhibited in difierent observers ; but 
outside a reasonable limit assigned to these causes, no greater 
scope of probable error should be admissible under any condi- 
tions whatever. 

None but approved instriunents should be used for observa- 
tions, the results of which should be computed only by standard 
mathematical formulsB. 

Stellar or solar observations should be carefully conducted 
along the line of march, preferably at places possessing natural 
prominence, and imperatively at the mouths, sources, and union 
of water-courses, likewise on mountain tops and along the culmi- 
nating parts of watersheds. These observations should be pro- 
perly recorded on approved forms, and conducted with sufficient 
precision and care to guarantee determination of actual position, 
± probable errors, not exceeding the standard limits aforesaid. 
These positions should be defined, by special marks, as fixed 
stations ; the compass needle of declination should also be deter- 
mined and the several data position elucidated, so that, if 
necessary, they could at any future time be verified. 

For tne practical realisation of this object, which would not 
fail in educational influence by elevating the study of geography, 
uniformity of operations and a higher standard of practical pro- 
ficiency should oe insisted upon. Mere theoretical knowledffe, 
unsupported by practical experience, should not be admissible,, 
and, while adequate recognition for more than an ordinary dis- 
play of energy and great physical endurance should not be with- 
neld, the greatest distinctive rewards should only be bestowed 

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Practical Suggestions Offered to TraveUere. 165 

for the most valuable results from a professional standpoint. It 
is the man through whose special scientific qualifications, 
geo^aphical science, in the abstract sense, has been most largely 
ennched, that the brotherhood should love to honour ; not the 
traveller, whose sole aim is clearly manifested by a consuming 
desire to climb the highest point or to cover the greatest distance 
within a given space of time, in either of which success may be 
the reward of fortitude, but neither of which may necessarily 
confer lasting benefits upon the race nor materially increase our 
knowledge of the actual geography of the region so operated 

Viewed as merely introductory, these foregoing remarks may 
now be followed by a few practical suggestions which the writer 
has, in ordinary professional field experience, proved to be most 
useful. These, if carefully acted upon, will not fail in producing 
satisfactory results to specially-organised expeditions for the 
explorations of isolated parts and to the ordinary traveller who 
may desire to be useful. 

Where purely mathematical subjects are dealt with, it may 
be advantageous, especially to the inexperienced, to confine 
ourselves to the simplest methods by avoiding complicated for- 
mulae, which for ordmary purposes are unnecessary. 

As the felicitous issues of an expedition in a very large 
degree depend upon the leader, too great care in the selection 
of that officer cannot be enjoined. Physical fitness should be 
certified by actual medical test, and the professional standard 
by practical demonstrations and certificates of competency of 
indisputable value. Firmness, coolness, tenacity of purpose, and 
boldness should be special characteristic investitures ; while 
essentially a thorough disciplinarian, he should also be a recog- 
nised humanitarian, a powerful organiser, and a man of unlimited 
resources. His moral qualities, especially, should be unimpeach- 
able and exemplary, so that his presence, even in the midst of 
the most enticing surroundings, should silence emotion and 
engender respect and confidence. These are the fundamental 
bases of life's greatest successes, and in the field of exploration 
especially, where uncontrolled actions and free intercourse with 
uncivilised communities are inevitable, their presence is para- 
mount. In manning expeditions for inland explorations the 
European element should be limited to a minimum, as experi- 
ence nas convinced the writer that the best results are obtain- 
able by a staflf of native workers, because — 

^a) When properly trained they are, with few exceptions, 
-willing and thoroughly susceptible to discipline. 

(b) They are easily fed, and can adapt themselves to circum- 
stances with astonishing ease. 

(c) They perform their duties cheerfully, even under the 
most unfavourable conditions, and do not conspire to supersede. 

Digitized by 


156 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

(d) Amongst other reasons, they rarely cause after trouble, 
nor do they pretend to know and to have done more than their 
leader. These remarks, be it understood, apply particularly to 
Polynesians, some of whom for several years constituted the 
writer's field staflf. 

We shall now proceed to deal with that part of our subject 
embracing instrumental equipment. 

In selecting instruments tor use in the field of exploration 
especial care should be exercised in testing both their quality 
and accuracy, while suitableness for the special purposes for 
which they are intended should also receive due consideration. 
To this end the leader s especial attention should be centred 
before setting out upon a journey, so that index errors and other 
defects inseparable from even the best class of instruments may 
be recorded, while the most favourable conditions are available. 
This point is so essential to success that it is difficult to over- 
estimate its value. 

As to the most suitable class of instruments, it is well to bear 
in mind that portableness, combined with utility, is the great 
desideratum, and nothing should induce the explorer to enter 
the field with a ponderous and clumsy instrumental equipage, 
suited more to the surveyor than to the rapid traveller. 

First, a pocket compass should be provided ; this must be 
furnished with a needle naving a pivot revolving between a pair 
of agates, so that vertical vibration may be minimised ; one arm 
of the needle should be provided with an adjusting weight to 
compensate for its dip in localities where it would be affected by 
local attraction. The use of this compass is to indicate the direc- 
tion travelled, and may be said to be the fundamental basis of the 
** dead reckoning." This instrument requires to be supplemented 
by a prismatic compass of about three inches diameter, having 
a flat needle of equal size from end to end, with a circle of very 
light aluminium divided into degrees from zero to 360, so that 
magnetical azimuths may be recorded as 290° instead of the old 
school system of N. 70° W. Instead of an ordinary card the 
lower turface of the aluminium circle should be covered with a 
thin disc of mica ; this has the advantage of minimising excessive 
vibration, both vertically and horizontally, caused by friction 
with the air-resistance in the box, an obstacle that often per- 
plexes, and which not infrequently causes errors in rapid observa- 
tions made by the ordinary card. Mica also possesses the very 
desirable advantage of not being influenced by moisture. The 
general use of this compass is for the determination of bearings 
of distant objects, especially remarkable hills, mountains, and 
other naturaif features, also for observing the sun's magnetic 
amplitudes at the time of its rising or setting to determine the 
declinations of the needle. This instrument should be provided 
with a handy stand of about four feet in height, composed of a 

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Practical Suggestions Offered to Travellers, 157 

Eiece of very light rounded wood of about 1 J inches in diameter, 
aving a flat head formed of a small thin board, about three 
inches square, and fastened in position by means of a wooden 
j>eg; the opposite end of the stand should be pointed. This 
simple arrangement, when stuck temporarily in the ground, will 
enable an observer to determine the bearings of objects with 
greater facility and accuracy than by the questionable and un- 
steady method of simply holding the compass by hand 

When the summit of a mountain or a hill is the point of 
observation the compass should only be used for observing the 
magnetic bearing of one distant and well-defined object, the 
angles subtended by that and other features being determined 
by the box-sextant. This assures greater rapidity and obviates 
liability of errors from local magnetic complications which, on 
isolated hills of igneous or granitic rock, are often considerable. 
As an instrument of very great utility the box-sextant is 
indispensable to the explorer, not only by reason of its conve- 
nient size, which for transportation entitles it to rank far before 
the nautical sextant, but also for the compactness of its structure, 
which renders it less liable to injury than the other more pre- 
tentious form. The box-sextant may, however, in the hand!s of 
some observers, appear not altogether free from the disadvantage 
of the necessity of requiring considerable practice in its 
manipulation, especially when more than ordinary accuracy is 
desirable — such, for instance, as when the meridian altitude of 
stars requires to be observed for latitude. Practice will over- 
come that impediment and enable double angles to be measured, 
by the aid of the artificial horizon, to 01 , or half a mile of 
latitude, so that practically the limit of position error will be 
found to be within a mile. Instrumental errors are liable to 
affect observations of angles exceeding 110° ; with measurements 
below that number of degrees existing errors may readily be 
detected and equated by observing one or more northern and 
southern stars. At the time of observation instrumental index 
error should always be determined and proper entry made 
thereof, indicating the same by a + or — sign, so that it may 
be applied to all apparent results. Frequent instrumental 
adjustments should not be resorted to, it bemg far preferable to 
apply a known index error to all observations than to have 
recourse to unuQcessary and habitual displacement of the more 
delicate parts of an instrument. When observing star altitudes 
with the box-sextant the telescope should be withdrawn while 
bringing the image of the star down to and making preliminary 
contact with the artificial horizon, after which it should be care- 
fully inserted and the contact completed. It will, however, be 
found advantageous to avoid the use of the telescope altogether 
when observations of horizontal angles are being conducted — 
such, for instance, as in the determination of bearings of hills 

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158 The Jowrrud of the Manchester OeographicaZ Society. 

and other natural features, where a more extensive field may 
be obtained by observing through the large aperture. The box- 
sextant, notwithstanding its especial applicability to general 
purposes, should not be relied on, nor, in fact, used at all, in the 
determination of longitudes by lunar distances, the graduation 
of the limb being of such an unsuitable character as to render 
results of no practical value. For the determination of the 
breadths of rivers the box-sextant will be found most service- 
able ; it ma^ also be used with advantage in determining the 
lengths of river-reaches not exceeding a quarter of a mile, by 
observing the angle subtended by a ten-feet staff. This staff 
should, theoretically, be held in a horizontal position, at right 
angles to the line of observation, because when in the vertical 
position the refraction at its bottom is much greater than at the 
top, causing an error in its observed angular length, and this, 
when the lK)ttom of the staff rests on the ground, is often con- 
siderable. This diflSculty may, however, be obviated, simply 
enough, by the use of a 13ft. staff having white marks at 3ft. 
from the bottom and at the top ; the refraction at 3ft. from the 
surface of the ground being practically equal to that at 13ft. 
The vertical staff will be found in practice the most reliable, 
because it can be more easily held in an upright position by an 
assistant than precisely at right-angles to the observer when 

Although the nautical-sextant is more easily manipulated, 
and the angular measurements observed by it are of greater 
value, its adjustments are so delicate and it is not specially 
adapted for transportation by land, therefore it cannot wisely be 
considered a substitute for the box-sextant, although it ought 
to claim a place in the equipment of a large party. For exten- 
sive use the writer prefers the prismatic sextant of Pistor and 
Martins ; whereas the common sextant is restricted to about 60° 
of arc the other measures angles from zero to 180°, which enables 
double altitudes to be observed by it of objects in or near the 

As an auxiliary to the sextf^nt an artificial horizon is necessary ; 
of this there are several varieties, each one of which advances 
certain claims to excellence of worth. The solid block-glass 
mirror, with levelling screws and spirit-level, h^s its advocates 
and admirers, but while its usefulness fcr sea-coast work, where 
much wind is often met with, is freely admitted, it cannot be 
so safely relied on as a fluid reflector. The simple trough of 
mercury with glass cover is undoubtedly the best-known form, 
but, even with the greatest care, the mercury is so liable to loss 
that on the whole it is a question worth consiaering as to whether 
a pannikin of cold tea is not, after all, the most convenient and 
desirable form of reflector to use when well sheltered from wind 
and inaccessible to mosquitoes. 

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Prctctical Suggestions Offered to Travellers. 169 

For special purposes, such as the conduct of extensive detail 
surveys, the transit theodolite is indispensable, but for the 
ordinary exploration of extensive tracts of country, where, even 
at best, the results can only be regarded, literally, as approximate, 
it is far too cumbersome. When available it will, however, be 
found very useful in the determination of the heights of moun- 
tains, trigonometrically, and of hills in localities where the sea 
horizon is visible. The approximate altitude of a hill ma^ be 
determined by observing the angle of depression of the visible 
sea horizon in minutes, which, bemg corrected for refraction and 
squared, will be equal to the height of hill in feet above sea- 
level. For the measurement of base lines and short distances 
the steel band is decidedly the most convenient ; this is now 
made in lengths of from 66ft. to 660ft. The writer, however, 
found the 330ft. length the most useful for most purposes. Its 
great utility is clearly observed in the measurement of mode- 
rately undulating surfaces, unobstructed by jungle or forest, 
where deep guUies separating ridges may be spanned, or in 
measuring extensive plains and foreshores. Care requires to be 
exercised in avoiding acute curves and twists in the oand when 
in use and in winding and unwinding. It should also be kept 
free from rust, and to this end especial vigilance is necessary when 
within the influence of the sea, or in localities where salt water 
is present. 

As in most cases the altitudes of elevated features depend 
chiefly upon barometric measurements, it seems proper to refer 
to the instruments available for this purpose. The aneroid 
barometers are, except in special cases, the instruments of most 
practical value to the explorer for the measurement of heights. 
Of these the larger sizes are not generally convenient, owing to 
liability to derangement through sudden jerks. It will therefore 
be safer to carry two small aneroids of nearlv equal size and 
similar make. The readings of both of these should be recorded 
when at rest, so that any apparent sudden divergence will 
indicate the probable arrangement of one of them, the particular 
one being easily detected when any position of known elevation 
is reached. The influence exercised upon aneroids by the 
variations of temperature renders the application of some test 
necessary, and for this purpose no readier and convenient means 
will be found to oflfer itself than that afforded by the exposing 
of the instruments alternately in the sun and in the shade, care 
being observed that while in these positions the differences of 
tem^ratures and of readings are minutely recorded. Frequent 
manipulation of the adjusting screws in the field should be 
avoided ; indeed, unless by the most skilful hands, no alteration 
of that governor should be attempted during the progress of a 
journey. It were better and decidedly safer to use a known 
index error, even though great, than to attempt an adjustment, 

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for a gradual change invariably follows, and continues for several 
days, a movement of the adjusting screw. 

In the writer's opinion, hypsometric measurements are not 
reliable for the accurate determination of heights, the equivalent" 
of 510ft. to V Fahr. being too great in range to satisfy " . 
requirements of accuracy, and this will become all the 11 
obvious when emphasised by the fact that the boilinr 
water varies consiaerably with the shape of the vesse. ^ 

boil it in ; for this reason alone hypsometric values can j be 
regarded as mere approximations. 

Notwithstanding the popularity of the plane table with 
some travellers, the writer's experience convinces him that 
it is not only deficient in accuracy, even when in professional 
hands, but very grave mistakes are liable to be made when 
attempting the orientation of the table at isolated stations 
where no connecting check with other established points is 
available. In thickly-timbered country, unless extensive 
clearings are made, it is practically useless, and its inability to 
record the number of degrees of measured angles frequently 
leads to confusion in attempting to rectify accumulated errors, 
and errors arising from unusual causes at any one station. 

In tropical climates, and in localities where the diurnal 
range of temperature is very great and irregular, the greatest 
care is necessary in the conduct of instrumental observations, 
more particularly with telescopic instruments with movable, 
adjustable diaphragms contaming spider-lines. Excessive 
humidity is inimical to perfect adjustment, and during the 
rainy season, in localities possessing wet and dry seasons, it is 
almost impossible to accomplish a day's journey without having 
recourse to frequent tedious and vexatious instrumental adjust- 
ments. These conditions will be found particularly prominent 
in country interspersed with belts of forest and open spaces, 
where the conditions of forest shade are not adaptaole to those 
exposed to solar influence. The importance of closely watching 
instrumental changes under these conditions cannot be too 
strongly emphasised, for very serious errors are almost inevitable 
when this is not attended to. 

When theodolites are used it will be found advantageous to 
employ, instead of the usual cross-hairs of platinum wire or of 
spiaer s threads, a thin glass disc with the horizontal and vertical 
lines etched on it; this glass disc is readily fastened to the 
diaphragm by cement. This form was used by the writer in • 
field practice in excessively damp localities for several years, 
with most satisfactory results ; he can therefore recommend it 
as being in every respect superior to the usual cross-hairs. 

Not the least important in field practice is the method 
adopted to so record the operations, as to avoid confusion and to 
minimise errors in the Cartographic Department. It not unfre- 

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Practical Suggestions Offered to Travellers. 161 


quently happens that field observations of the greatest value are 
rendered practically useless to the cartographer through careless 
and unintelligible entrj in the field-book. It is well known in 
the annals of exploration that the arduous labours of many 
explorers have been deprived of much of their value by inability 
to even approximately locate their discoveries on the maps and 
by not affording sufficiently reliable data to subsequently identify 
the features of the country. 

The method adopted K)r recording the details of exploratory 
operations by one of our greatest living Australian explorers, the 
Hon. A. C. Gregory, to whom the writer is indebted, may be 
elucidated in the following manner: Each page of the field- 
book constituted a small sketch-map, upon the lace of which all 
minor features on and near to the route were delineated, together 
with a record of the actual course travelled. This course w^s 
defined by straight lines, upon which were noted the beajings 
in degrees counted from zero to 360°, in the direction of north 
to east, such as 45'', 90^ 270'', and 31 5** as the case might be, the 
letters designating the cardinal points being avoided entirely, 
thereby minimising errors in entry. The distances in time 
were recorded at the commencement of a line and at the 

Soinis where changes of bearings occurred. Stoppages, or other 
elays, were indicated by bracketing the commencement and 
the end of the time lost as compared with the average rate of 
travelling. Supposing a course was travelled north-east from 
seven o'dock till half-past seven, when a change was made to 
east till eight hours fifty minutes, seven minutes having been 
lost in crossing a steep ravine, the entry in field-book would 
mdicate this in the following manner : — 

7h.-0m,— 45°: 7h.-30m.— 90°, 7h. 41m. 1 ^. .^ 

7h. 48m,; Sl^-^0^- 

In localities where rugged and broken surfaces render a 
circuitous route necessary it will be found advantageous to re- 
cord the average course in a direct line in the field-book, so 
that, as far as possible, confusion may be avoided by the absence 
of numerous traverses over comparatively short distances. By 
this method the route travelled will be indicated by a number 
of right lines, each denoted by its bearing in degrees and length 
in time, exclusive of delays, so that they may readily be 
delineated upon the map, together with all features in their 

The accompanying sketches are exact copies, the first of a page 
of No. 1 Field- Dook used by the Hon. A. C. Gregory on his famous 
expedition to Central Australia in search of the long-lost Dr. 
Leichhardt in 1858, and the second of a page of No. 1 Iield-book 
used by the writer in his survey and exploration of the coast of 
Vanua Leva These will illustrate diagrammatically what is 

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162 The JcywmaL of the Mwachester Geographical Society. 

probably the most convenient methods for recording field obser- 
vations, whether made by the explorer, the surveyor, or ordinary 

Inseparable from the foregoing subject, regarding route 
traverses, is the very important consideration of obtaining a 
satisfactory approximation of travelled distances. To this 
subject careful and patient attention should be bestowed, because 
to the practical man nothing is so unsatisfactory and annoying 
as to find that after a fatiguing journey, or on the completion 
of the survev of an inhospitable region, the positions determined 
astronomically and by dead reckoning, with aggravating per- 
sistency, refuse to agree within reasonable limit. For recon- 
noitring purposes and for long journeys, either by land or by 
water, distances by time are the most convenient ana practicable 
when actual measurements are inexpedient. To obtain satis- 
factory results from the recording of the time occupied in tra- 
velling in a given direction, an average hourly rate will reg[uire 
to be established. This may be most conveniently accomplished 
by the plotting of a whole day's journey in the direction of 
north and south, the hourly rate of three miles being assumed 
for that purpose. If the difference of latitude of the two camps 
agrees with the dead reckotiing the assumption of the hourly 
rate of three miles will be a correct one, but if on the contrary, 
it will become necessary to adjust the latter to the former by a 
proportional distribution of the existing difference. In deter- 
mining this standard of comparison prevailing circumstances 
must receive careful consideration, especially the character of 
country, conditions of weather, men, and beasts of burden. This 
is a matter of some importance, for while this standard may be 
satisfactorily applied to subsequent daily journeys, cceteris 
paribus, a material variation from former conditions will render 
its modification necessary. 

Dead reckoning should on every possible occasion and by 
every available means be verified, either by stellar, solar, or 
even lunar observations. As it frequently occurs, however, 
that an overcast skv and unfavourable atmospheric conditions 
render these irregular and uncertain, the bearings of all notable 
physical features of the country traversed should be carefully 
noted, their estimated distances recorded, and a faithful descrip- 
tion of their characteristics given ; special reference should also 
be made to the prevailing weather conditions. The latter sub- 

t'ect is important, not merely from a climatological standpoint, 
>ut the general physical appearance and the apparent distances 
of distant objects are very considerably influenced by local 
atmospheric conditions. The bearings of distant objects are not 
only useful in providing a check on estimated distances tra- 
velled, but when carefully observed and well-conditioned they 
assume the form of a preliminary trigonometrical survey, by 

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Prdctical Suggestions Offered to Travellers, 163 

i^hich we are enabled to locate prominent features by the method 
of intersections. For cartographic purposes they are also of 
special value in furnishing, which after all is, the only safe 
material for the basis of a map of the country. The labours of 
the cartographer will likewise oe facilitated if the geographical 
mile of Im. of latitude, e^ual to 92^ chains, be adopted in the 
measurement or estimation of distances exceeding a quarter of 
a mile instead of the statute mile of 80 chains. 

In observing the bearings of distant objects from different 
positions the necessity for the exercise of great care in the 
selection of well-defined and recognisable features cannot be too 
strongly emphasised. If trees or rocks be chosen they should 
be distinctive and not deceptive in character; if the head- 
lands of a coast-line be the objects of sight they should be used 
only when unmistakable from others m their neighbourhood. 
The writer feels justified in dwelling earnestly on this subject, 
for his own experience in frequently having tested the work of 
others has repeatedly shown hmi that inaccuracies were in the . 
majority of cases the result of, mot an inability to observe, Imt 
the want of power to identify, because objects assume different 
forms when viewed from dinerent aspecta 

In exploring broken and mountainous country bordering 
upon the coast-line preliminaiy steps should be taken to observe 
tne bearings and angular distances of all prominent features 
from well-selected stations on the sea-shore. If necessary these 
stations could be connected by traverses, their positions defined 
by astronomical observations, and the map of the country based 
upon them. To minimise errors thfe subtended angles, as well, 
as the compass bearings from point to point, should be observed, 
especially when the observations extend over extensive areas 
the geological character of which renders great liability to 
magnetic complications unavoidable. To obviate these on inland 
journeys, where reference to coast-line features is not possible, 
back-sights should be taken at every change of bearing and the 
necessary corrections for magnetic declination applied to the 
new courses. By this means tolerably accurate results may be 
obtained when the ordinary prismatic compass is used. 

In preliminary triangulation, for the purpose indicated, very 
acute angles should if possible be avoided, and manifold bearings 
radiating from any given point discouraged ; the one favours 
inaccuracies and the other has a tendency to confuse. When 
two courses are available accept as a maxim that least associated 
with complications. 

When examining extensive tracts of country their classifica- 
tion and approximate areas should not be overlooked. Fertile 
valleys should be separated from sterile ranges, alluvial flats 
from hills, and mountain slopes from plains ; some distinction 
should be drawn between forest and scrub, and green grassy 

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164 The Journal of the Manchester Ohogra/phical Society. 

patches should not be forced to mingle with jungle. These 
should be carefully defined and their areas judiciously approxi- 

In marking trees near camping places, and at stations where 
important observations are conducted, care should be exercised 
in guarding against superficialness. This is an important part, 
both for subsequent reference and identification; it should 
therefore be thorough. The bark and alburnum should be re- 
moved from its side and the marks cut deep into the wood of 
the tree, special consideration being given to their legibility. 
It might perhaps be better chat this should be done under the 
personal supervision of the leader. 

Concernmg the exploration of coast-lines it should be under- 
stood that the physical configuration of the land frequently affords 
many coignes of vantage not usually met with in inland regions. 
These, if properly utilised, may furnish ready and convenient 
material for useful systems of triangulation. The initiatory 
stage of triangular operations should be marked b^r the adoption 
of a tolerably reliable base-line, to which the general work should 
be referred. Headlands and mouths of watercourses should be 
connected by bearings, and from these the bearing of all pro- 
minent inland features bordering upon the coast-line should be 
observed, the intermediate features being merely a fiUing-in of 
details. These bearings should be so regulated that the positions 
from which and to which they are observed may be readily 
determined by the method of intersections. In tropical countries, 
where coast-lines are fringed by coral reefs, much useful work 
may be accomplished in the approximate determination of 
heights of elevated seaboard features, and in checking barometric 
measurements by the location of successive base-lines over the 
surfaces of the reefs. From the termini of these angles of eleva- 
tion may be observed the results if carefully aimed at being 
remarkably satisfactory. These base-lines may be expeditiously 
and accurately measured at low water by steel bands of 5, 10, 
or even 20 chain-lengths. When connecting coastal features by 
these means, adjacent islands and neighbouring rocks should 
also receive attention, their positions being carefully observed 
from convenient headlands, their leading features approximately 
delineated, and their areas estimated. 

Regarding the survey of rivers and of creeks, to which former 
reference was made, it is proper to state that while a useful 
object may be accomplished by the approximate measurement 
of the sinuosities and general trend of a stream for cartographic 
purposes, other observations requiring no special skfll and 
entailing no tedious complications, may be made that will mate- 
rially add to the value of final results. It is, the writer main- 
tains, an improper application of power to consume precious 
time and means in navigating or traversing watercourses when 

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Practical Suggestions Offered to Travellers, 165 

the results comprise nothing more than meagre data for mapping. 
This unhappily applies to the majority of cases. If current 
geographic literature be consulted it will generally be found 
that accompanying local maps simply show approximate width 
and direction of stream, with occasional reference to remarkable 
features, especially rapids and waterfalls. Seldom is any attempt 
made to indicate channels most suitable for navigation, and it 
is very unusual to find any information concerning the character 
of channel-beds, the depth and volume of water, and velocity of 
current. Surely it is most useful to know the volume of water 
passing through a river channel ; during periods of rain it affords 
valuable data for estimating the rainfall, and in dry seasons it 
indicates the approximate value of the water resources of the 

To obtain this information cross sections should be taken at 
convenient places by measuring width of stream, depth of water, 
and velocity of current. The former may be accomplished by 
the simple method of perpendiculars, when the stream is too 
wide for measurement otherwise. A sounding line or pole 
requires to be used for depth of water, and velocity of current 
may be determined by measuring a given part of river bank, 
denned by marks — a floatable substance being cast into the 
current and the time it occupies over the measured distance 
carefully noted. By this means the velocity per hour or frac- 
tional part of an hour may readily be determined by simple 

Latitiude and Longitude, — ^The determination of positions 
astronomically is an important and necessary part of an 
explorer's duty. Estimated positions may be obtained by the 
method usually called dead reckoning, but when necessity 
demands greater accuracy latitude and longitude have to be 
obtained by the observation of some celestial object. Concerning 
the objects to be observed, it were almost as impossible to offer 
suggestions to suit general conceptions as it would be to expect 
a universal concurrence with an individual opinion on the laws 
that regulate the life and affairs of mankind. The writer, there- 
fore, in the following remarks, simply refers to those most 
familiarly associated with his own professional practice, being 
convinced that they are the most suitable for the purposes 
indicated, and for those with limited means at their disposal 
for the conducting of observations outside the centres of civi- 

For the determination of latitude stellar observations should 
be conducted, the objects chosen being the planets and stars of 
the first, second, and third magnitude. These are easily identi- 
fiable, the former from the latter, when distant from the horizon, 
by the absence of the familiar twinkling, while the latter are 
distinguishable from one another by the characteristic constel- 

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lations they occupy. Thus in the northern hemisphere we have 
the well-defined constellations of Ursa Major, Cassiopea, Cepheus, 
Cygnus, Draco, and Auriga; in the southern neavens, the 
beautiful circumpolar constellations of Crux, Centaurus, Argo, 
and Eridanus. rlanets may be distinguished from one another 
by consulting their ephemerides in the Nautical Almanac, and 
noting the times of their passages over the meridian of Green- 
wich. These, to correspond witn local time, will simply require 
correction by a plus or minus (]^uantity determinaole by the 
longitude of the place of observation, east or west of the Prime 
Meridian, as the case 

To the mariner the sun may be a convenient object to observe, 
but with the explorer, who is usually on the march at the time 
of its meridian passage, the case is altogether different, because 
a mid-day halt lor the purpose of conducting observations might 
cause great inconvenience, loss of time, and confusion. Even 
were these objections obviated, the sun's pjosition either north 
or south of the Equator renders the detection of errors, by the 
observation at the same time of an object having an opposite 
declination, impossible. Besides these another serious oostacle 
presents itself, for in tropic and extra-tropic regions the sun's 
zenith distance at its meridian passage is so small that its alti- 
tude cannot be measured by the ordinary sextant when the use 
of an artificial horizon is necessary. 

In conducting observations of meridian altitudes, stars should, 
if possible, be selected with altitudes almost as ^eat as the 
sextant used is capable of measuring, so as to minimise correc- 
tions for refraction. Probable errors should be eliminated by 
observing northern and southern declination stars. A place 
should be selected near the camp, where a north and south zone 
of the heavens is unobstructed by trees, and where the smoke 
and glare from the camp fire will not be likely to interfere with 
the observations. At this place an approximate true north and 
south line should be laid down by compass, making the neces- 
sary allowance for variation, and its position defined oy a picket, 
or by some convenient object that may easily be recognised in 
the dark. By this means stars, when approacning the meridian, 
may readily be identified, and their altitudes conveniently 
observed. This, also, has the advantage of obviating the neces- 
sity of long and tedious waiting for objects to culminate, when 
the apparent position of meridian is unknown. When the star 
is north of the zenith, with declination north, the latitude = 90* 
— true altitude— declination; with declination south, the lati- 
tude = 90° — true altitude + declination. When the star is south 
of the zenith, and above the visible pole, the latitude = true alti- 
tude + declination— 90"*; if below the pole, the latitude = true 
altitude — declination +90**. When existing conditions render 
the observation of meridian altitudes impracticable, the latitude 

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Practical Siuggestione Offered to Travellers. 167 

may be obtained by observing the single altitude of a star when 
off the meridian, the time of observation being known. The 
formul® applicable to this method can be seen set out in 
"Loomis's Practical Astronomy," p. 148, paragraph 178. This 
method, which should not be adiopted otherwise than as an 
alternative, may only be relied upon for satisfactory results 
when the object observed is near the meridian. 

The determination of longitude is a problem associated with 
divers methods, and with so many nice complications, that its 
establishment by the explorer cannot be regarded otherwise, 
even when surrounded by favourable circumstances, than as an 
approximation to the truth. For nautical purposes, the method 
of lunar distances has lone been in use, the facilities afforded at 
sea having favoured its adoption, the results in many instances 
being fairly satisfactory. As it is not, however, the writer's 
intention to advocate its use in this instance, reference need 
only be made to what.appears to be the most practicable method 
both for convenience and applicability. 

The traveller should be provided with one or more reliable 
chronometer watches, properly rated and adjusted to the mean 
time of Greenwich, or some other standard meridian. To 
obviate probable errors in uniformity of rate, every favourable 
opportunity should be utilised to check them by comparison with 
others or by astronomical observation. To determine the longi- 
tude of a place, east or west from the meridian to which the 
watches have been adjusted, local time requires to be found ; 
the difference of longitude being equal to the difference between 
local time and corrected chronometer time. 

Local time may readily and conveniently be determined by 
carefully observing the smgle altitude of a star when east or 
west of the meridian, and noting the exact instant of time by 
chronometer. Probable errors in latitude may be eliminated 
by observing stars of north and south declination, and those 
whose paths lie near the prime vertical. Probable instrumental 
defects should be minimised by the adoption of the mean of 
several successive sets of observations of each object. When 
the weather is favourable, and clouds are absent, local time may 
be found by obierving equal altitudes of a star on opposite sides 
of the meridian. 

Given the latitude of the place of observation, the declina- 
tion and corrected altitude of a star, its hour-angle, or distance 
from the meridian, may be computed by the formulae given in 
''Loomis's Practical Astronomy, p. 133, paragraph 168. 

If, when observing the altituae of a star for local time, its 
magnetic bearing is also noted, the declination of the needle 
may readily be determined by comparing the magnetic azimuth 
with the true azimuth of the star, as indicated by its hour-angle 
in degrees. This will be found advantageous by economismg 

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labour in computing and in obviating the necessity of observing 
elongations and amplitudes. 

To show the solution of the spherical triangles it was at first 
intended to use as examples several of the writer's own stellar 
observations, made by him at the time he conducted the obser- 
vation of the Transit of Venus in Fiji, in December, 1882, but 
for want of time and space this intention could not be carried 

Mr. John Ooles read a paper on "The Art of ObBervint;" at the Briti&h 
Asflociabion Meeting. In this paper the art of ohserving with portable instrumentB 
for latitude and longitude was described, as well as the use of such simple surreying 
instruments as the plane table and prismatic compass. The different methods 
suitable to explorers of fixing positions by astronomical observations were explained, 
and the manner in which they may be taken so as to eliminate errors was pointed out. 
The latter part of the paper dealt with surveying, fixing heights by barometer, route 
surveying in a jungle or forest, and it concluded with some remarks on Mercator's 
projection in cases wherd it is required to lay down bearings, &c., or plot a route. 
The author also called attention to the fact that such instruments as the plane table 
and prismatic compass might be used with advantage in schools, and that such practical 
teaching in the field could not fail to give pupils a more intimate knowledge of the 
principle on which maps are constructed and surveys carried out than they could gain 
in any other way. — Proceedings of the OeographicaX Section of the Britiah Assoeiation. 

The Fonrth Oentenary of the Discovery of America.— The Spanish 

Government, desirous of celebrating with 6clat the fourth centenary of the discovery 
of America, is preparing, to that end, different fdtes and solemnities, of which some, 
by their international character, more particularly interest France. Such are, 
notably, the exhibitions which will open at Madrid, the 12th September, 1892, and 
which will remain open up to the Slst December following ; the Oongreas of 
Americanists, which will be held at Huelva from 1st to 6th October, 1892 ; the 
International Congress of Orientalists (10th session), which will be held in September 
at Seville ; and the Spanish-Portuguese- American Congress, which will meet at Madrid 
in the month of October. One of the exhibitions, called the Historical American Exhi- 
bition of Madrid, has for its object the representation, in a manner the most complete, 
of the state in which the difiiorent countries of the New World appeared before the 
arrival of Europeans and at the time of the conquest, up to the 18th century. It 
will comprise all objects, models, reproductions, plans, drawings, Ac, having reference 
to the people who at that time inhabited America, to their customs and their civilisa- 
tion, and ail those having reference to the navigators, to the first colonists, and to the 
conquest itself. The other exhibition — ^the Historical European Exhibition of Madrid — 
will be equally retrospective. It will include objects of art belonging to the period from 
the commencement of the 15th century to the end of the 17th century, thus giving 
an idea of the degree of civilisation which the colonising nations had reached at the 
time of the conquest. Architectural works will not be included among the works of 
art admitted to this exhibition. A place will be specially prepared to receive objects 
of liturgical art for the use of the Catholic Church. The thiid exhibition will be an 
International Industrial Exhibition. The fourth will be an International Exhibition 
of Fine Arts. More ample details are likewise given in a special paragraph upon this 
exhibition, upon the congresses, and the meetings of the Spanish academies, &c. 
Further information and applications for admission will be given by M. le Mis. de 
Croizier, D^^^ General du Comity du Centenaire, k I'Ambasaade d'Espagne, 86, 
Boulevard de Couroeilles, & Paris. 

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ImpreaHons of Travd i/n India. 



By Mr. C. E. Sohwaki, ILP. 

[Addreued to the Members in the Memorial Hall, Thursday, April 2, 1891.] 




HAYDra been requested to address the Society on my late journey to India, I gladly 
comply, merely premisiog that whatever I may have to say must be taken as the 
mere impressions of a traveller. 

Our journey was through Italy, and we reached Brindisi late on Saturday even- 
ing, November 1st, and found, on opening our French shutters in the morning, that 
the great handsome steamer which lay along the quay side was the P. and 0. boat, 
the Sutlej. At about ten o'clock on Sunday evening the mails came on board 
Irom the station, and the Sutlej slipped her moorings and left Brindisi. 

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172 Tlie Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

On the fourth day, an hour before dawn, we neared Port Said, and very lovely it 
looked in all the soft greys of an early Eastern morning. To avoid the clouds of ooal 
dust during coaling, everybody goes on shore for an hour or two at this queer little 
comer of the earth, which only sprang into existence through the opening of the CknaL 
A motley crowd of inhabitants it contains — of Arabs, Jews, Englishmen, Italians, 
Turks, Copts, Egyptians, kc The progress through the Canal is a strange experience. 
At fint wide lagoons spread on either side, upon which float countless flocks of 
pelicans and flamingoes, their red wings quite distinguishable with a good glass. 
Soon we pass the first Arab encampment, at a point where a long neck of sand 
traverses the lagoons. In former days the men of the desert and their camels could 
cross dry-shod from Palestine and Syria to Egypt ; now they find their ancient right 
of road barred by the innovations of the West By far the greater portion of the 
Canal was passed at night, the electric search-light being placed at the veiy bows of 
the steamer, and very mysterious our progress was, as we moved slowly ahead in our 
manufactured moonlight 

To relieve the monotony of the voyage down the Red Sea, the " Sutlej Amuse- 
ment Company, Limited," got up some beautiful tableaux vivants, representing the 
three continents which the steamer touches on her journey. Though arranged 
within twenty-four hours they were very successful " Europe " was represented by 
an emblematical figure of Britannia, with sailors on either side, and a lion, made of a 
tawny yellow railway rug and a rope. Unravelled at J the end, crouching at her feet 
*' Africa " was symbolised by the meeting of Livingstone and Stanley, and " Aua *' by 
an Indian wedding, the bride being a very charming Indian lady, surrounded by 
servants, friends, &c. She was depicted as being in the act of receiying the blessing 
of her father, who was scattering flowers on her head. The Lascars and Hindoo 
punkah-boys, who appeared in their beautiful turbans and scarlet silk waistcoats, 
made this a very gorgeous spectacle. After sunny days of dolce far niente and even- 
ings spent in dancing or enlivened by musical and dramatic entertainments, we began 
to near our goal, and on the morning of November 17th we dropped anchor in Bombay 
— or "Bom Bahia" (beautiful bay), as it was called (not without reaaon) by ita first 
European possessors, the Portuguese. 

India contains about two hundred and eighty-five millions of inhabitants, and 
one-and-a-half million square miles of territory. From the following account I hope 
some general idea will be gained of the present civilisation of the natives, as well as 
of the life of those members of the English race who take so prominent a part in the 
direction of the affairs of that most important portion of the British Empire. 

Since our arrival on Indian soil our ideas have been much enriched by our 
new experiences of men and things. We have been received by our English, 
Hindoo, Parsee, and Mussulman friends with Eastern hospitality and politeness. 
Every day a carriage and pair, with picturesque footmen, wearing scarlet and white 
turbans and with bare feet, have awaited our pleasure, and made it possible to cany- 
out all that we wished to undertake in sight-seeing. These were sent by a Hindoo 
lady. We have had many interesting conversations with gentlemen of the varioua 
conmiunities now congregated in Bombay. At first the beauty of the costumes seen 
in the streets— the flowing robe of the Parsee ladies (often rose, white, blue with an 
exquisite narrow border of ribbon embroidered with a small pattern in silk or gold 
thread), the clinging, coloured muslin dress of the Hindoo women, and the gorgeous 
turbans and costumes of the Mussulmans — engages the attention ; but as these 
impressions become familiar, the graver questions which affect the life and happiness 
of our 286 millions of Indian fellow-subjects press themselves on the attention. 

As far as our preconceived ideas of India are concerned they are quite outdone by 

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Impresaiona of Travel in India. 173 

what we see of the oountry, dimate, inhabitants, and costumes. It all seems like a 
Tivid realisation of the main features of the *' Arabian Nights." We see the same 
motley crowds, clothed in the brightest-coloured garments possible, with the[same old 
woman moving mysteriously along, as if she had a message to take to some imagina- 
tive youth in the bazaar from some maiden hidden away behind the latticed windows 
of yon Mussulman's house, as is depicted in those unrivalled tales of the East. The 
gorgeous afterglow, when the sun has sunk below the horizon, which brings the palms 
and bread-fruit trees into such beautiful relief as they tower above some spacious 
water tank, must be seen to be realised. We are simply overwhelmed by the variety 
of glowing colours, and picturesque human figures visible everywhere in the crowded 
streets. Here a group of Parsee merchants, wearing their well^own distinctive 
head-gear, discuss business under shelter of the trees round a fountain. There a 
Hindoo woman glides along with her easy g^raoe, bom of absence of all restraint to the 
motion of the limbs beyond a long piece of bright-coloured muslin wrapped round the 
body. Now a banyan merchant rolls along in his bullock-carriage, or an English 
officer rides by in his white helmet and white linen undress uniform^verywhere 
colour, brightness, and animation, defying the artist by the brilliancy of tints scarcely 
attainable on the palette. But though such scenes continually attract one's attention, 
yet I have not been allowed much time for peaceful contemplation of them, but have 
been busy from morning to night sight-seeing, receiving callers (English, Parsees, 
Hindoos, and Mohammedans), visiting schools and hospitals, and obtaining information 
on practical subjects, in spite of the surroundings, which invite more to poetic enjoy- 
ment and repose. Some of the Indian gentlemen I have met hold high legal appoint- 
ments, and are men of great attainments, such as the Hon. Justice Telang, a Judge 
of the High Court of Bombay, who well deserves his position. He was good enough 
to arrange for us to see the present position of education amongst the Hindoo girls 
of the middle class, by assembling the scholars of three schools in the lai^ drawing- 
room of Mr. Raoji Jagannath Shankarshett, whose grandfather had been a pioneer in 
educational work in Bombay. It was a very interesting sight to see the girls, ranging 
from six to twelve years of age, in their pretty round caps of coloured satin embroidered 
with small silk flowers or with gold embroidered band ; a silk or satin bodice more 
or less embroidered, and skirts in red, blue, or yellow material completed the picture, 
and made a very bright and picturesque effect. The little people recited in the 
vernacular (Mahrattee) language, and evidently seemed very intelligent. Finally, 
after a few speeches and the presentation of bouquets and garlands, *' Qod save the 
■Queen " in Mahrattee was sung by the children, and the assembly dispersed. 

As a matter of fact, primary education*among the Hindoos in the city of Bombay 
is very behindhand, only 2 per cent of their children being at school It is not so 
with the Parsees, who are wealthy and exceedingly generous both to their own people 
and to other races, whenever need arises, and who educate all classes of their co- 
religionists admirably. Their schools are a pleasure to behold — with every modem 
convenience and appliance— beg^inning with the kindergarten system for infants, and 
going on with secondary and higher education until the students are able to enter the 
University. There are 100 per cent of Parsee children at school in Bombay city, 60 
or 70 per cent European and Eurasian {i.e. of mixed European and native race), and 
only 2 per oent of Hindoo children. 

The primary schools were a year ago handed over to the municipality of Bombay 
by Qovemment) and little has been done since to effect any change for the better. A 
dispute is going on as to what share of the extra expense in building proper schools 
should be borne by the Corporation and what share by Qovemment. But as Mr. 
Sirkham, the Qovemment School Inspector, is a member of the Corporation, you may 

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174 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

be sure that he will Dot let the matter sleep. It doei not redound to the credit of the 
Qoyemment that^ better Bchools were not erected before they were handed over 
to the municipality. Some of those I visited were very miserable— in houses 
not built for schools, in which I found some rooms yery dark and badly yentilated, 
crowded with boys who appeared clever and bright, in spite of their surround- 
ings. This seems to be the case generally, but the early marriages cause their 
intelligence, I am told, to diminish later on. Mrs. Dr. Peeohey Phipeon, of 
Bombay, who* is well qualified to speak from her long experience at the Lying-in 
and Children's [Hospital here, delivered a very able address at the hall of the 
" Prarthana iSomaj," a month ago, which clearly shows how the early marriage 
system is one of the chief causes of sterility, and that where the young wife (of 10 or 
12 years of age) bears children, they are puny and sickly— the custom leading to the 
slow but sure degeneration of the race. She points out also that Hindoo girls are 
married before they reach the age of puberty — much before the body is formed and 
developed — and this causes the individual untold suffering, and often a painful death. 
Her address is to be translated into the vernacular, and should be distributed broad- 
oast amongst the more intelligent members of the Hindoo community. When they 
have had time to digest this and similar works, it will become a question Whether the 
Government should not take steps to prevent children, even though married, from 
leaving their parents' home for their husband's, until they have reached such an age 
as to insure full physical development Dr. Phipson alleges that it is a fallacy to 
maintain that Hindoo girls reach maturity at an earlier age than English girls, and 
asserts that the exact contrary is the case. Before leaving the subject of education I 
ought to say — to avoid causing any wrong impression — that the educational advan* 
tages offered to the native Hindoo population in the Mofussil (i.e., the rural districts 
as opposed to the cities) are very good on the whole, and that in most villages the 
schools are airy and suitable for the purposes of education. My strictures on 
education apply specially to the city of Bombay. 

As I am merely relating first impressions, so as to put anyone who is ignorant of 
India in a position to form some preliminary ideas as to its people, I will not give » 
list of the institutionB, educational and other, with which Bombay has been endowed, 
through the energy of the Qovemment and the generosity of the Parsee community, 
but amongst these are the University of Bombay, the Elphinstone College, the Parsee 
Benevolent Institution (established by the generosity of Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy), and 
a variety of hospitals, all apparently very well conducted, which deserve mention. 
As far as illness is concerned, I learnt that scarlet fever is unknown in Bombay, 
except when imported by British sailors, and of course any introduction of that 
nature soon passes away. But its place is taken by the prevalence of malarial fever. 
Pulmonary diseases, i&, bronchitis, asthma, &&, appear mostly after the rainy season 
or monsoon, but disappear when the sunny, fine weather which follows has prevailed 
a few weeks. From November almost to June no rain will fall in this province^ 
and accordingly you see touts pitched on all available open spaces, and they 
will be inhabited by whule &milies until the next wet season comes on. House rent 
is very dear in Bombay ; but even these plots for tents are not cheap, especially when 
they have nice little tennis-courts attached to them. Many officials live in them, and, 
in the more favoured localities, have only to turn out of their tents to listen to 
regimental bands or to walk on broad expanses of greensward. 

Most of the higher officials az^d rich English, and, indeed, native merchants, live 
on Malabar Hill, which rises above the city, and forms a background to, and shelters 
and overhangs, a splendid bay to the north. Here they live in lovely '* bungalows " 
open to the sea breezes, overlooking the Indian Ocean, surrounded by "compounds" 

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Impressions of Travel in India. 175 

(or gardens), filled with the most lovely tropical shrubs and plants, palms, aloes, and 
plantains. Beautiful creepers and fuchsias abound, and bougainvillias hang in 
splendid flowering garlands from tree to tree. Some of the Parsee and Hindoo 
merchants build even more substantial homes for themselves in this favoured 
locality — small private palaces ; but they know that they are not birds of passage, 
and are here to stay. 

I am afraid that there is not much social intercourse between the English and 
native gentlemen, and there are, I fear, as is usual, faults on both sides. 

Native gentlemen — Hindoo, Mohammedan, or Parsee — who have been to 
Europe, and are conversant with European habits and manners, feel indignant at 
the exdusiveness practised towards them, and the at times insulting experiences 
which they have to endure. For example, no native gentleman is eligible as a 

candidate for admission into the Tacht Club (a club situated in a beautiful position 
overlooking the magnificent harbour, and yet quite handy to the central business 
portion of the city for European merchants, bankers, brokers, &c.) ; and by a special 
rule he is not only ineligible, but, by some byelaw, is not allowed to come upon 
the dub grounds or to pass the entrance gate, to see any member whom he may 
wish to meet for a word or twa Another case : A Mohammedan gentleman, who 
had passed twelve years in London, and is a man of high position as a barrister — of 
good family and wealthy — goes to an hotel in Poona and asks for a room. He is at 
once met by the landlord telling him "he can have a room" — (and that is only 
conceded because he knows how important a position the Mussulman gentleman 
occiipies)~"if he will take his meals alone in his rooms," because, if he eats in the 
public dining-room, it would prejudice the hotel in the eyes of Europeans and 
damage the landlord's interests and connections. An engineer, whom I met at 

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Bombay, told me that he waB ataying at an hotel with 'a certain Engliah colonel and 
his wife, and one day chanced to ride back from aome engagement in a carnage with 
a Hindoo gentleman. The colonel aaw him from the yerandah, and said at breakfast, 
"Why did you ride in the same carriage with a native f I would have driven alone 
in a carriage, and let him follow me in another one." The opposition to Lord Bipon 
and the Ilbert Bill, which was tremendous from the rabid, bitter Anglo-Indian 
section of society out here, was another proof of the existence of race antipathy. I do 
not want to exaggerate the feeb'ng. I have merely given one or two facts, from which, 
anyone can judge of the real state of the case. I am bound to Bay that the natives, 
by adhering to their strong caste injunctions not to eat food vdth anyone of a 
different caste, and, therefore^ much less with Europeans, or, indeed, to touch 
food prepared by cooks of an inferior caste to themselves, have much to answer 
for on their own account. An Englishman's first idea on coming out and being 
introduced to a Hindoo gentleman would be to ask his newly-acquired acquain- 
tance to dinner. But he is met by the apology that his friend's religious 
"caste" belief will not allow him to accept it. It is rather a severe shock for an 
Englishman who considers himself "as good as anyone, only rather better.*' A 
certain number of native gentlemen, cultivated men, are anxious and willing to 
throw off the shackles of the past and of caste, and meet and eat and mix socially and 
sociably with Europeans. Ought it not to be our duty to assist them to the best of 
our power ? I do not say that we can expect any resident European to ask to his 
house, and to introduce to his family or to hid club, any Hindoo or Mussulman who 
has not the manners and cultivation of a gentleman ; but I do say, why not do so 
whenever the proper and necessary conditions of education and breeding are present^ 
and thus encourage native gentlemen to acquire refinement and fine manners, when 
they do not possess them already, which many do ? This is the school in which our 
young aspirants for civil posts in India should be encouraged to study. When they 
reach India, they are, at a comparatively very youthful age, vested with very great 
powers and responsibilities, as magistrates, &c, &c., and it is a pity when, on coming 
out to India, their young and impressionable minds are prejudiced against the 
" native s*' by some old official weary of India and anxious to return to England for 
good. Tet this often happens. The short passage home by the Suez Canal instead of 
by the Cape enabling Indian officials, civil and military, to run oftener " home,'* has 
contributed to a certain weakening in the official mind of its former tendency to look 
upon India as its permanent home and centre of interest. No doubt there are hundreds 
of offidals who nobly do their duty, without fear or favour, and in the most kindly 
spirit, and to them all honour is due. The question is whether their number is or is 
not diminishing. I have not sufficient knowledge to decide, but I fear so, and it is 
evident with twenty-one young Indians studying at Oxford and twenty-one at 
Cambridge, and considerable numbers preparing themselves in London for the law 
and civil service examinations, that cultivated gentlemen of Indian birth and 
European education will become a considerable factor in Indian life, and may make a 
revision of the social position they are allowed to take absolutely necessary, however 
distasteful such a course may be to Anglo-Indians of the more narrow type of mind. 
I am bound to say that some resident Englishmen I have met certainly have no ill- 
feeling against our Indian fellow-subjects, and are willing to, and do, treat them in a 
considerate and a kindly maoner ; but social laws are very strong here, and a 
European resident would risk being ostracised if he were to swim against the stream, 
and mix freely and sociably with native gentlemen. Then the position — the very 
inferior position — which woman occupies in Hindoo and Mussulman families is a 
serious hindrance to much friendly communion. She is practically, amongst the 

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Impressions of Travel in India, 177 

higher clMsea, lecluded from the world, and especially denied any contact with men 
who are not her own immediate relatives. There is no doubt that even in cases where 
the husband of a Hindoo married couple is educated, and has refined, intellectual 
tutes, his wife remains usually a century behind in mental power and habit& 

The increased facilities for female education in the primary and higher schools will 
do something in time to rectify this disparity in intellect and tastes, but at present 
the intelligent Hindoo and Mussulman is heavily handicapped, by want of education 
in his wife. I am here to note facts, not to pay compliments or state methods for 
altering the facts. Some good signs are present. There is an awakening spirit all 
over India, but the time of rapid change is not yet. The Parsees have emancipated 
themselves from the fetters of custom far more than their fellow Easterns, and are 
advancing in every way. Indeed, some of them are even copying Europeans in their 
follies, wear the latest Paris fashions, and are really " too, too English, you know," 
and don't recognise anyone who is "not in English society, you know," &c Hindoo 


adies and women wear little clothing below the knee, and their feet are covered 
only with velvet or embroidered leather slippers, while their mental vision and circle 
of interests is most limited ; but there is a remarkable and beautiful look of candour 
iDd purity in their eyes, from their very ignorance of the world and its ways, which 
is very touchiog and attractive. Much remains to be done, and much can be done by 
sympathy and encouragement from their more favourably placed European sisters in 
widening their intellectual horizon. Much indeed has been done in this direction by 
refined ladies of tact and affection for their sex, such as the late Miss Mary Carpenter, 
Lady Reay, Lady Ripon, and others. 

Of course we visited the caves of Elephanta, famous for their old carvings, in the 
Bay of Bombay, defaced, alas ! by time and the Portuguese. 

And now let me describe our visit to the Gaekwar of Baroda. Bombay was bathed 
in the most delicious silvery moonlight as we bade good-bye to our friends at the 
Colaba station, and many a lovely peep we had as we crossed the bridges which con- 

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178 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

neot the Island of Bombay with iti nater island of Salsette, and Salsetta again ivitb 
the mainland. We sped along in the luxurious first-clase compartment, as laige as two 
oompartments in an English railway carriage, and had scarcely time to scramble into oar 
clothes in the morning before the train drew up at the Baroda platform — ^the garlands 
with which our Indian friends had decorated us, at parting the evening before, looking 
rather tawdry in the grey morning Ught^ though still fragrant We were received by 
the Dewan (Prime Minister) of Baroda, and the enei^tic Mr. Dinshaw Talyarichan, 
the Chief Conmiissioner of Public Works to His Highness the Qaekwar— or Quioowarr 
as it is sometimes spelt. We stepped into an open victoria^ with coachman and 
serVant in the princely red livery, and drove in the misty morning through the town, 
accompanied by our distinguished friends in another carriage. We could see that we 
passed fine buildings — the College, the Mayo Hospital, the Board of Works of Baroda, 
&c — but also we perceived that the side and even the principal streets were not in 
unison with the fine boulevards and buildings which we observed on leaving the 
station. This seemed to show that Baroda was in a tranaition state, and such we 
found, later on, when we had penetrated into the tangle of dusty lanes of which the 
city consists, was actually the case. 

We alighted at the " Oueats* Bungalow," which had been the house in which the 
reigning prince had lived whilst studying for the duties of his position. It had had 
far more distinguished guests than ourselves within its walls, amongst them Lord and 
Lady Reay, and many a Rajah and Nabob of high and low degree ; but no one could 
have enjoyed their stay more than we did, or poesibly have seen more in a three days' 
visit. It is a square building, one storey high, with a pretty stone verandah in front, 
covered by a wide stone arched way, under which carriages drive to set down their 
occupants. Graceful shrubs stood in pots on the steps and under the arches ; around 
were pretty gardens and open grass-sward. 

A troop of horsemen were exerciung round a tree in the middle-distance as we 
arrived, and made the scene very like those one sees in the French Salon of " A 
Moorish Vedette,*' or some other analogous subject taken from life in Algeria. 

We learnt that we were graciously to be received in audience by his Highness in 
the afternoon, and meantime we recuperated ourselves for the fatigues of the night 
journey by a short siesta, as a preparation for a visit to the gaol, en route to the 
palace. The delicious coolness of the main saloon or audience-room of the bungalow 
soon refreshed us, and we started to visit the prison. Now, from the care bestowed 
upon prisons and the more or less advanced system employed to reform the prisooen, 
one may often accurately judge what the real desires of a ruler are, and what state of 
advancement his government has readied. I am glad to be able to record that the 
prison of Baroda is governed on modem principles, and does honour to the State and 
its ruler. It contains now between 500 and 560 prisoners, whilst formerly its inmates 
numbered some 700 — a very lai^ reduction in about 10 years. 

I cannot go into the full hbtory of this interesting native State ; but my readers 
will remember that the former Qaekwar was deposed, after a patient and impartial trial, 
for gross misgovemment and repeated alleged attempts to poison Colonel Phayre, the 
English Resident, through the latter's servants. The present Qaekwar, who was a dii- 
tant scion of the reigning house of Baroda, was at the time of Mulharrao's dethrone- 
ment being brought up in an obscure way at a village far from the capital He it s 
vary enlightened ruler, sincerely anxious for the progress of his people, and always 
devising new schemes for their advancement. Amongst other things he has recently 
established a very well-appointed Technical School in his State. 

There are many things in Baroda interesting to the sightseer, such as the Crown 
jewels— consisting of diamond necklaces, ropes of pearls (one of them with pearls as 

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Impressions of Travel in India. 179 

lAige M pigeon eggs, said to be worth £100,000), silver and gold cannon wonder- 
fully carved and jealously guarded, and the royal stables, which contain Arab and 
Australian horses, state bullocks, and silver and gold carriages of state, very 
gorgeous in character. 

Perhaps a visit to the elephants' compound is the most novel and truly Eastern 
light The elephants are so dififerent from those at the Zoo. Here they are at home 
and happy, wear woolly hair on their foreheads, have their trunks elaborately 
pitnted with gay designs, which look quite appropriate with the bright sun always 
shining in the heavens. The great beasts flap their ears like sails, and seem, as they 
bear down upon you in the streets, like great men-of-war sailing along ; and then they 
ire so intelligent ! In Oashmere the cows and dogs lying in the streets never even get 
op when an elephant comes along, sure that the clever beasts will pick their way over 
their prostrate forms without touching, much leas injuring them in the least At 
Bsroda they go through wonderful performances — ^f ence with their drivers with sticks, 
the combatant on each side defending himself with a leathern shield, strapped on the 
man's arm in one case and on the animal's trunk in the other. Occasionally an elephant 
tarns " rogue," and then the handsome spearmen with long lances (and scarlet coats 
with yellow turbans as livery) have hard work to keep the refractory animal 
within bounds. 

We were favourably impressed here and elsewhere in India by the kindness of the 
inhabitants generally to the brute creation, a virtue Isi^gely inculcated by their various 
rdigions. Everywhere the animal world seems to be on the most friendly terms with 
man. Squirrels, with striped coats and long tails (not so bushy as our squirrels), play 
about in every comer, flit about the brass-worker at his toil or the child at his game, 
without the least fear. Qreen parrots fly screaming from tree to tree ; the pigeons 
losroely make way for man, so sure are they of immunity from harm. This kindness 
to animals might well be copied by us, and its existence in India gives unfeigned 
pleasure to all those who are friends of the furred and feathered tribes, with their 
winning ways and beauteous forms. Of course their are exceptions to this rule, and 
one sometimes sees overworked horses and bullocks in India as in other countries. 

Our short stay at Baroda was terminated by a reception at the Quests' House, 
iddch some of the principal officers of state attended, amongst them the Commander- 
in-Chief — the Gbekwar's eldest brother — the Dewan, some professors, and "many 
others. They were a very distinguished-looking body of men, and the Prime Minister 
is very intelligent, and speaks English, as indeed the majority do, quite fluently. 

Our stay at Baroda was in semi-princely quarters. At Ahmadabad we took up our 
humble abode in a room at the railway station. Such is life ! Our experiences were 
a true picture of the East, where one finds a dusty hovel next door to the Maharajah's 
palace. But I don't wish to insinuate that the Ahmadabad railway station is a hovel, 
snd one is so tired with travelling and sight-seeing that no amount of whistling by 
enginca or chattering by natives is sufficient to disturb one's rest. Tea, certainly the 
natives do indulge in a considerable amount of animated conversation before they 
■stUe down, for they are always packed like herrings in a barrel in every train. At 
ill hours of the day and night they are crammed and jammed into the third-class 
eemages, as is the case with us on tiie lines to the Crystal Palace on Bank Holidays. 
The native bears it all philosophically, runs about with the major part of his wardrobe 
on hii back or done up in wonderful packages, from which the mouthpieces of pipes, 
^ nedoi of huge teapots, protrude. 

Ahmadabad does not require much elaborate^descripUon. On the whole it is a 
gnat improvement on Baroda ; has evidently more manufsieturing resources, wider 
streets, finer monuments, and a finer position on the Sabarmati river. It lies on a 

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180 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

plain ; but where the rainfall ia sufficient, such a situation often means greater facility 
for carrying on agriculture, and therefore more wealth, and wealth fosters enterpriae. 
One of the indigenous trades of the city is wood-carving in the exquisite detail with 
which we are familiar, or can become familiar, by a visit to South Kensington 
Museum. We visited one workshop and saw how cleverly the workmen, with rather 
primitive tools, and using their feet almost as much as their hands, turned out mar- 
vels of intricate design. Photographs were shown of a house in New 7ork which 
had been entirely furnished by this Ahmadabad firm — all in rich Eastern work. 
Panels, wood-work, mantelpieces of entrance-hall, dining-room, and drawing-room, all 
were sent out in numbered pieces, and put up " on the other side of the water," as the 
Americans say. There are not a few cotton mills and a silk mill or two in the dty, 
but much beautiful work is done on hand-looms, also of a primitive nature, by familieB 
working at home. These are chiefly cloths of rich silk, and gold and silver thread, 
and are very handsome. If you do become the possessor of any of them, it will <mly 
cause you pain when you pay for them — ^for afterwards they will prove " things of 
beauty and a joy for ever." 

Besides these greater industries are a thousand other ones, carried on in the open 
street, for the edification of the passers-by. Dyers, ropemakers, confectioners^ tailors, 
goldsmiths, shoemakers, &c., &c, ply their trades unceasingly, without any thought 
of " eight hours bills " or limitations of personal liberties. However, there are ia 
some ways more limitations than with us, for there is a separate caste for every trade, 
and the dyers have been dyers for generation after generation, and the profewsional 
beggars have been beggars by profession from time immemoriaL Very busy every 
worker seems, and very contented and happy, in spite of poverty ; for in this warm 
climate, and with the vegetable diet strictly enjoined by his religion (for the great 
majority of castes), his wants are few. No doubt in country districts there must be 
great want, privation, and chronic semi-stravation, and in the large cities and towns 
much abject and crushiug poverty ; but the impression which fixes itself on the mind 
of the mere visitor is that the poorer classes are, on the whole, better off and more 
contented than with us, and the look of anxiety as to where the next meal will come 
from, which is noticed in the London " East-ender," is absent in India. 

I confess that, so far, we are somewhat disappointed by the aspect of the country 
when once the seaboard is left well behind. Especially the route from Ahmadabad to 
Jeypore, right across Rajputana, seems anything but fertile, and the eastern provinoes 
of India — e.g., Orissa, the seat of the late famine — are still more arid and unproductive. 
Tet it is wonderful to note the efforts which are made by the people to wring eveiy- 
thing that is possible from the ungenerous soil. Wherever it is practicable, wells are 
sunk, and from morning to night the patient bullocks draw the fertilising element 
from the bowels of the earth, which is distributed by a thousand little channels to the 
thirsty fields. 

From the carriage windows one notices the wide plains, with tall hedges and tofts 
of pampas grass, dividing fields of pulse and other grain, diversified in warmer and 
well-watered districts by cotton. Indian com, tobacco, and sugar-cane. Occasionally 
one catches a glimpse of antelopes and black buck in the distance, while partridges, 
peacocks, and pheasants are too tame to pay any heed to the passing train. 

From Ahmadabad our next halting- place was Ajmere (also in Rajputana), the site 
of which very much excels in beauty that of the former city, for behind Ajmere rise 
fine hills, with old forts crowning their heights ; and walls, running down the ridges 
from these forts, in order to give a protected way of retreat for the defenders of the 
city in case of dire necessity. We were taken for a drive in the early morning, and 
visited amongst other objects of interest the public gardens. Here you mount a 

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Tmpresaions of Travel in India, 181 

flight of marble steps, and quite unexpectedly find yourself on the shore of the Lake 
of Anaaagar. Right away from the terrace upon which you stand it stretches to the 
hills oppoeite, which are mirrored in its bosom. Flocks of wildfowl rest at the further 
edge, and near where you stand, on various slight elevations, are charming bungalows 
inhabited by English officials. It is a fairy scene of loveliness, all the more beautiful 
from its existence being quite unlooked-for. Outside Ajmere stands the Hayo College 
— a fine institution — in its own extensive grounds, surrounded by the bungalows of 
the masters, and still more gorgeous buildings, in various Eastern styles of architec- 
ture, to serve as the homes of many of the students, who are sons and relatives of the 
native princes of India — such as those of Owalior, Ajmere, Eotab, &c. 

A few hours by rail from Ajmere brings us to Jeypore — a state like that of 
Baroda, ruled by a native prince, under the supervision of the British Resident If 
report speaks truly, the present ruler of Jeypore is not so enlightened a prince as the 
Gaekwar of Baroda — more inclined to grosser pleasures, and therefore less occupied 
with the advancement of his subjects. However, that sort of a prince is not always 
disliked by the powers that be in India, it is said, as they are more easily amenable to 
advice from the Resident, and have less spirit of independenca 

Jeypore, we have been told, was one of the finest cities in the native states, and 
so it may be to native eyes, for it has one great broad street running from east to 
west, intersected by two equally wide streets running at right angles to the first, 
the busy pavements of which are crowded by picturesque throngs from morning to 
night, and especially in the morning and at night But the straightness of the streets 
gives an air of stififness, and the park, with its museum, was too EogUsh to attract us 
in the East, where one looks for Oriental achitecture, plants, and tanks, and is not 
anxious to be reminded of Sydenham or the Alexandra Palace. Salmon pink is the 
j^revaOing colour of walls and buildings in Jeypore, and they are decorated with white 
pendllings, which make them Iooil unreal and like huge birthday cakes, with white 
sugar lines upon them. The palace is also a great pink building, with tawdry decora- 
tions and rubbishy European furniture, reminding one of the large buildings at 
suburban tea gardens, an impression which is intensified by the strains of a European 
band playing in the gardens below the 2^nana, or part'of the palace inhabited by the 
hidies, who are pretty numerous — about 200, it is whispered — within these well- 
g^oarded walls. 

But a wholly different effect is produced by a visit to Amber — the seat of the old 
city. In ancient times it was the custom to change the site of a city every 500 years, 
and Amber is the ancient site of Jeypore. It is situated on a range of hills outside 
the town, and the trip begins in an Eastern manner, because one has to mount up to 
the heights on elephants. It requires a good hold on the howdah to prevent one 
being thrown backward as the huge beast gets on to his fore legs, or forward as he 
raises his hind legs, but once in motion he goes well and steadily. From Amber one 
bears away a vivid recollection of beautiful wooded goiges, charming lakes with 
islands in their midst, and gorgeous audience halls, in palaces which command lovely 
▼lews over hill and plain ; but it is difficult, if not impossible, to reproduce such 
impressions by words, and I must leave them to the more or leas brilliant imaginative 
powers of my hearers. 

As to the all-pervading dust of Jeypore, I am glad that you cannot imagine how 
horrible it is. It makes one's throat parched and one's eyes smart, only to think of 
it ; and owing to its presence we could scarcely enjoy the odd medley of vehicles we 
met on our road from the hotel to Jeypore and back. Some were drawn by bullocks, 
some by bu£Gdoes, and some by donkeys and horses. One, especially smart, is 
characteristic of the country. It is like a beehive in shape, draped with bright- 

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coloured doth, on ponderous wooden wheels, drawn by fine, lAi:ge Indian bullocks, 
with their, to our eyes, picturesque humps. Inside ride one or two equally deourative 
native merchants. But I must not forget our Indian dinner-party. ' We were at 
least ten guests, but our host could not eat with us at the feast owing to the prohibi- 
tive rules of his caste. He looked on, however, and encouraged us to try the various 
dishes, all of vegetables, different grains or fruits, with or without sugar or curriee 
Our host did us the especial honour, in Eastern fashion, of handing to us some of the 
dainties in his own fingers. 

The journey from Jeypore to Lahore — the capital of the Punjaub, and the centre 
of administration for the LUiore division and district — viA Ferozepore, is very similar 
to that from Baroda to Jeypore. One passes wide expanses of plain, more or less 
cultivated, and stops at stations of very fair size, at which the same bustle and hurry- 
scurry of the picturesque labouring population takes place, although, since towns or 
villages are not generally visible from the train, it does not always seem obvious 
whither the passengers who get down will betake themselves. The country, quivering 
vdth heat and apparently pathless, does not look inviting to our eyes ; and we are glad 
to remain in the carriages, fortified by fruit and iced soda at frequent intervals. But 
«at Lahore there was not much need of cooling elements, as the weather was delightfully 
fresh and the atmosphere exquisitely clear. Lahore, like most Indian cities, is sur- 
rounded by fine suburbs, containing good roads or boulevards, with noble shady trees 
on either side, though the native town leaves much to be desired as far as cleanliness 
and regularity of structure are concerned. However, art often gains by what offends 
against good municipal laws. Although Lahore is so near the north-west frontier — ^it 
is only about 24 hours' journey from Lahore to Peshawur, and ten miles from Peshawur 
to the celebrated Khyber Pass—- yet I do not intend to weary my hearers with any 
account of the defences of that frontier. 

I will only quote one short passage from a recent work on India by Sir John 
Strachey, in which he speaks of the precautions taken to guard against a repetition 
of the Indian Mutiny, which would probably be more disastrous to the true interests 
of the Indian population generally than it would be to the English people, who are, in 
many cases, now looking to Africa as much as to Asia, for a field for the super- 
abundant energy of their surplus [population. Sir John Strachey writes as follows : 
* After the Mutiny was quelled it was decided that the proportion of native to European 
troops in India should never greatly exceed two to one, and that the field and other 
artillery should be exclusively, or almost exclusively, manned by Europeans. Now at 
present) if all the fortresses are not manned by Europeans, the heavy batteries and 
all the batteries of field artillery practically are. The two principles are therefore 
maintained of keeping an overwhelming force of British troops in the country and of 
keeping the artillery in the hands of Europeans. Our troops, before the Mutiny, 
were scattered all up and down the country in small detachments, and it was difiicult 
for them to support one another, and difficult to move them from one pomt to 
another. It took from three to four months to move troops from the seaboard to 
Lahore ; now it can be done in a week. Reinforcements from England can come in 
thirty days, vid Sues Canal, whereas formerly it took three months, round the Gaps 
of Good Hope. Again, English troops have breechloaders (and vrill soon have 
repeating or magazine rifles), whilst native troops of native states—as those of 
Afghanistan, Nepaul, Owalior, &c — are chiefly armed vrith smooth-bore rifles. There 
are now, roughly, some 17,000 miles of railway open, so that a concentration of troops, 
on any threatened point could be effected rapidly, and any mutiny quelled before it 
had had time to become dangerous. Since 1858 more than thirty miUione of pounds 
sterling have been spent in military work in ludia, in putting the north-west frontier 

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Impressions oj Travel in India. 183 

in a thorough state of defence, and in providing good barraok aooommodation for the 
troops, military railwayi, &c." 

Through the improyed barrack aooommodation the death rate amongst the soldiery 
has been reduced from 69 per 1,000 (which was the average for 40 years ending 1856) 
^19 per 1,000, and even, in exceptionally-healthy years, to 15 and 11 per 1,000. 
There is no part of Britisl^ India where the people habitually carry arms, and the 
oocaeions are rare (perhaps two or three per year) when, in consequence of disputes 
betwixt Hindoos and Mussulmans, they are called out to assist the dvil power. As 
the population of India exceeds that of the five great Powers of Europe, this is a great 
testimony to the success of British rule, and to the quiet character of the great 
majority of the people. It is said sometimes that we have to dread attack from the 
intriguing Hindoo — ^not from the man of the hills, who is as hardy and warlike as 
you please ; and we have found this to our cost in many a bloody battle and border 
akirmish with Sikh and Pathan. But as far as my experience is concerned, in 
all our conversations I never heard a word of disloyalty breathed to the English 
•Government or to the Queen. On the contrary, the loyalty is sincere, because it is 
felt by all peaceable citizens that British rule is, *' for better, for worse," an accom- 
plished fact ; that to rush into the arms of Russia would mean oppression, abolition 
of freedom of the Press and of personal liberty ; and that a return to " native rule" 
would mean a permanent reign of terror, and the thousand nameless horrors of 
government by, in many cases, debauched and ignorant men. The adviubility of 
either of the two latber alternatives is not entertained by any man who has anything 
to lose; At the same time, it may pass through the mind of the warlike Sikh that if 
looting is to be the order of the day, and a general row takes place, he would probably 
•come off as well or better than his more peaceful neighbours. Our greatest and best 
•defence must be in the loyalty and goodwill of the vast population over which we 
rule, and these can best be secured by creating a real sympathy and good understand- 
ing betwixt the educated natives and Anglo-Indians of all classes, civil, military, 
oonmieroial, and professionaL 

From Lahore to Delhi was our next change, but we stopped for three hours en 
rotde to buy some shawls at Amritsar, and have a peep at the Gh)lden Temple, one of 
the most beautiful objects in India, situated in the centre of a huge tank, and con- 
nected with the tank by a marble bridge. 

In Delhi, the Jama Masjid, or Great Mosque, which is an imposing pile, is the first 
place to be visited. It was built by Shah Jehan in the fourth year of his rejgn, and was 
•completed in six years. From almost all parts of the dty it is visible, for it stands 
high on a rooky plateau, with lofty minarets of marble and sandstone in alternate strips. 
One has to mount many steps to reach the vast central, open court, 450ft. square, at 
•one end of which stands the mosque in all its vast proportion of lofty archway and the 
three crowning domes of dassling white marble. In size and magnificence the Jama 
Maiqid is without rival amongst moeques, and from its minarets the most extensive 
views of Delhi may be had. In the environs of the dty are several mosques and temples 
in fine repair, and numberless others in a ruined state. An imposing feature some 
miles from Delhi is the Minar Tower, built, it is said, by Chutab-ud-din for his 
daughter. The legend runs that she expressed a wish to be able to see the waters of 
the river from a country palace outside Delhi As the Jumna was dght miles off, 
this could only be accomplished by building a high tower. Her whim was satisfied 
by the construction of the Minar. It is a fluted tower 288ft high, built of red and 
yellowish stone in alternate layers. In the Fort at Delhi are beautiful audience-halls of 
the Mogul emperors, made of marble inlaid with predous stones, agate, lapis laauli, Ac. 
A small mosque, called the Pearl Mosque, the baths, and seraglios, are iQso of marble 

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184 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

inlaid with mosaics, and often perforated in the most beautiful arabesques. Daring 
the Mutiny many of the mosaics were partly destroyed by the Sepoys, who hacked 
out the precious stones with their bayonets, but enough remains to speak of the past 
splendour of those barbaric times. 

We reached Agra from Delhi about five in the evening, but had been aware some 
little time before reaching Agra Fort Station of a wonderfully beautiful white-domed 
building on the left of the line, which we gradually recognised, as it became more 
distinct, as the world-renowned Taj Mahal — the magnificent mausoleum erected by 
Shah Jehan to the memory of his favourite wife, Arjamand Banu. (See page 170.) 
Of course we visited it before leaving Agra, and found it charming, with its pure white 
dome standins; out against the deep blue of the sky, and contrasting with the lovely 
tropical foliage at its foot. Round the pure arched fa9ade some really lovely mosaic 
traceries, reduced by height and distance to their proper function of relieving the dazzling 
efiEect of so much white marble, have been most cunningly and artistically introduced. 

At the railway station we were met by a number of Hindoo and Mohammedan 
gentlemen, who accompanied us to our hotel, after a formal introduction on the plat- 
form, and under their able guidance we visited the sights of Agra ; but as the Fort in 
that andent city is almost a duplicate of the Fort at Delhi, on an enlarged scale, I do 
not propose to devote further time to a description of it Our friends arranged 
a delightful excursion for us to the now almost deserted city of Fatepur Sikri. It has 
now about 6,000 inhabitants, but in its prime may have had more than twenty times 
that number. It was built by the great Akbar, the real founder of the Mogul empire 
who reigned for fifty years, covering about the same period as that during which 
Queen Elizabeth sat on the throne of England. I will not describe in detail the 
numerous mosques, courts, audience halls, stables, tanks, zenanas, &«;, which Akbar 
erected on the summit of the hill upon which the town stands, and which commands 
a splendid view over the fertile plain on every side. The gem of the whole is the 
tomb raised by Akbar to the Sheik SuHm Chisti. It is of marble, exquisitely chiselled 
and perforated, looking like the finest ivory. Inside the tomb one notices numberless 
little threads of silk and wool and cotton tied round the tracery of the marble windows 
through which the tomb is visibla These votive ofiferings are placed by women who 
wish for male progeny, and are withdrawn when their prayers are answered by the 
birth of a son. In the evening we drove back twenty-three miles to Agra, through 
a country swarming with game. Some wild boars furtively crossed the road, and we 
noticed one or two jackals, wild peacocks, pheasants, and duck, herons, and stoiks 
without number. 

From Agra our route lay through Cawnpore to Lucknow. Two hours' enforced 
stay at Oawnpore sufficed to enable us to see the park and memorial erected to those 
who fell at Cawnpore during the Mutiny, not only English soldiers, but, alas ! women 
and children, who were murdered by the furious Sepoys. The victims were thrown 
the dying and the dead together, into a well, and it is on this spot that an octagonal 
Qothic wall has been placed, and in the centra the figure of an angel with arms crossed 
in white marble, by Marochettl It is not a very first-rate work of art, and we were 
more touched by the simple resting-places of others who were buried in a tiny grave- 
yard adjoining. Their graves are covered by clustering roses, and singing birds 
chant vesper songs over them at sunset. But it was at Lucknow that the 
sad story of the Mutiny came before us most vividly, for it is indelibly associated with 
the gallant deeds of Sir Henry Lawrence (who died at the Residency, into which the 
besisged crowded for safety), of Sir James Outram, who defended, and Sir Henry 
Havelock, who relieved Lucknow for the first time, and Sir Colin Campbell, who did so 
a second time. The Residency was not exactly the building one would have chosen 

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Impressions of Travel in India, 185 

for defence, as it consisted of two or three disconnected groups of buildings in a 
lai^ garden, and never had sufficient men inside adequately to protect so lai^ an 
enclosure. Of course, earthworks and batteries were hastily thrown up, but the 
external mound, we were told, was not much more than 8ft. high. The chief merit 
of the place was that below the principal buildings were some lofty vaulted cellars, 
which afforded protection to 250 women and children, who lived cooped up in that 
confined space for five months and twenty-five days. 


Sir Henry Lawrence was killed by a shell five days after the commencement 
of the siege. His grave lies near, in the cemetery, and bears upon it the simple 
inscription which he desired to be placed on his tomb- 
Here lies 
Henbt Lawrsnob, 
"Who tried to do his duty." 
It would take up too much time to narrate all the events of the gallant defence and 
of the heroes and heroines who figured in it. " It was wonderful," as one of those who 
went through the awful experience wrote, " Co see what calm courage and endurance 

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186 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

frail English ladies could show during that '.fearful time, when each day threatened to 
be their last upon earth." 

In Lucknow live many reduced families of the ancient Nabobs of Oude. Kow, 
if report speak true, some of these families, and their hangers-on, are not only not 
models of propriety, but have the reputation of being much demoralised and degraded 
in their tastes and habits, and opium-smoking has given the coup de grdee to many 
among them. Opium-smoking is par excdbence the vice of the vicious, and the incen- 
tive to licentiousness ; but in that it does not differ much from alcoholic drink, when 
taken in excess. From all accounts, however, opium causes a deeper degeneration 
of mind and body, and, if my informants are to be believed, in many cases is the 
immediate cause of madness, and often of distortion of the limbs and countenance. 
I was especially anxious to learn what was thought in Lucknow of this, because when- 
ever opposition is raised in England to the opium traffic, it is always urged that the 
pictures of physical deformity brought by Dr. Legge and others from China are frauds, 
and that opium is used to '' ward off fever " (which is possibly, under some circum- 
stances, the case), " w most beneficent in its effects," &c. I would set against this the 
deliberate opinion of my Lucknow friends, that opium is a curse, and the destroyer of 
honour, health, and happiness. The wealthy Mussulmans who practice it have a room 
in their houses set apart for smoking opium, and they invite their frieni 's to oin them 
in the stupefying process. The commoner sorts smoke in opium dens, and a visit to 
one of them is instructive if not edifying. One has to mount an almost perpendicular 
staircase, aided by a friendly rope, which hangs down for the purpoee, and to enter a 
courtyard, for so it seems, though on the second floor. Under sheds, on three sides, 
lie groups of thred or four men, their heads indiscriminately on each other's laps or 
chests, and with each of these groups was, alas I a girl or woman, partaking of the same 
deadening pipe as the men. Every now and again one of the group would raise him- 
self on his elbow, fill the short, open-mouthed pipe with a drop or two of the concen- 
trated poppy- juice, hold it in the glowing charcoal flame for a minute, take a whiff or 
two, and then fall back again into any easy position his limbs might assume, and enjoy 
(for I suppose it is enjoyment) the effects of the intoxicating smoke. I asked one smoker, 
through an Indian friend, if he enjoyed it ? '* Tes," he answered, " but I wish the 
Government would stop it !" Another said he "earned 8 pice (3d. or 4d.) a day, of 
which he spent 8 pice on opium-smoking, and he had a wife and family to support on 
the balance of 5 pice ! " 

Abstinence from alcoholic drinks has its advocates it India as in England, and I 
lent my voice to Mr. Evans one evening in Lucknow, when he addressed a large meeting 
of students of the various colleges and schools, with the object of inducing them to form 
a temperance society amongst the students and pupils. A more intelligent set of youths 
I never met. The Rev. Thomas Evans speaks very forcibly and well — is partly 
prophet, partly orator, partly actor, and he excels in all three parts, fie mixes many 
clever tales in the vernacular in his discourse, and frequently brings down the house 
vnth his happy hits and anecdotes. He said that the i^i:ABib revenue of the North- 
West Provinces of India was in 1858 nine lakhs of rupees, to-day it is 57 lakhs. 
Fortunately, since the agitation initiated by Mr. Caine and others, the Government 
of India has put down out-stills (which led to much illicit drinking), and the excise 
revenue of Benares has fallen by Rs. 41,000, and the reduction of consumption is from 
800 to 200 gallons per day. The bazaars in Lucknow are very good — ^f uU of pretty 
fabrics, silver objects and jewellery, day figures, gold and silver wire on bobbins or in 
doth, printed stuffs, &a 

But we must not linger any longer in the picturesque, crowded, fascinating streets 
and bftsaars of Lucknow, but push on to Benares, the sacred city of India, where every 

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Impressions o; Travel in India. 187 


true Hindoo prays to end his days. It takes its name because it is situated betwixt 
the Barana and Asi rivers, whence Baranasi, corrupted into Benares, is derived. It is 
said that the god Shira, when he established his city here, wanted his votaries to 
remain in the city, and promised salvation to whosoever died within the walls. All 
the gods were called upon to reside in Kashi, the centre of the city, where no blood 
could be shed or &acrifice of life offered. They agreed, but his wife Durga refused, 
because her worship could not be performed without the offering of sacrifice. She 
therefore took up her quarters outside the limits of the city. At one time 
thousands of monkeys were fed at her temple, and they lined the walls and trees on 
the way to the temple for a couple of miles, and occupied every comer of the stone- 
virork of the temple. But, alas ! they are almost a thing of the past t They 
proved such a nuisance that quantities have been deported to the forests of the 
Maharajah of Vizinagram, and others have wandered into the city of Benares 

itself. A few remain behind, and come when they are called, but they are but 
the remnants of an army, and the glory of the Monkey Temple has departed for 
ever ! Buddha at one time made Benares his headquarters, and from it sent forth his 
emissaries to preach his doctrines in China, Japan, and Ceylon, and the distant Thibet, 
so that Benares is equally revered by Buddhists and Hindoos. The effect of a sail 
down the holy river in a barge, past the palaces and ghauts, is one never to be for- 
gotten. Slowly one moves down the sacred stream — strewn with chaplets of flowers, 
votive offerings of the devout. Above rise temples, palaces, platforms, minarets, rest- 
houses for pilgrims, in tier upon tier, to a dizzy height ; whilst at intervals flights of steps, 
crowded with devotees in every variety of costume, run from on high down to the 
water's edge. It is perhaps the most entrancing and interesting sight in the world, 
and almost baffles description. Each different race oonflnes itself, more or less, to a 

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188 The Jov/mal of the Mcmchester Oeographical Society, 

special ghaut or flight of steps, and there performs the prayers or ablutions enjoined 
by its religion. Every pious, orthodox Hindoo would wish to visit the sacred city 
as often as practicable, and finally to have his ashes confided to the hallowed waters of 
the Ganges. I say " ashes " advisedly, because one or two of the ghauts are devoted 
to the cremation of the dead. These " burning ghauts " are always occupied by one 
or two corpses, decently clothed in white and covered with flowers and garlands. The 
fire of rough logs of wood is kindled in the open air, quite exposed to the gaze of the 
multitudes, who come down at all hours to bathe, and the relatives stand in a group a 
little way off, waiting until the body has been consumed, and they can perforin the 
last act by consigning the ashes to the stream. 

Let me here give the history of the aunt of one of my Hindoo friends, for the 
truth of which I can vouch, and which will give the reader a glimpse into Indian life. 
She was left a widow at fourteen years of age. Whilst her husband lay sick unto 
death she was told to prepare a certain dish for him, but before it was ready the 
patient died, and she became a widow. She at once registered a vow that as she had 
not been able to fulfil her duty and cook the meal in time, she would not eat any 
more cooked food as long as she lived, and she kept the vow religiously, living only 
upon milk and fruit. Tiiis diet agreed with her, however, for she reached the age 
of 84, enjoying perfebt health, and without turning grey. About a fortnight before 
her death she said she felt that her end was approaching, and that she wished to 
die in the dty of Benares. Her friends rallied her delicately on her apparent good 
health, but she insisted on setting out for the sacred city, and a few days afterwards 
her friends at home heard that she was dead. Some little time before her actual decease 
she asked the relatives who had accompanied her to carry her to the water side; where 
she in an hour or so expired. It is enjoined by the Hindoo religion that one ought to 
devote the latter years of one*B life to contemplation and to setting one*s worldly 
affairs in order, but of course it is not always easy to arrange to throw off one's mortal 
coil with as much dignity and precision as this Hindoo lady. 

Thousands upon thousands of pilgrims, from all parts of India, visit Benares during 
the year, and worship at the various shrines. Some, specially devout^ follow the 
waters of the great river from source to mouth and back again ; but this is a rare feat, 
as it must be done on foot, and is said to require six years fonts performance. In 
Benares, the holy of holies is the Golden Temple, the sanctuary of the terrible Siva, who 
is, more than any other god, bloodthirsty and cruel, and requires sacrifices of blood. 
I have omitted to speak of the Ascetics, who hold their limbs continually in one 
position until they wither and shrivel up, and of those who bathe in the well of 
Heeling, or Manikamika— the spot sacred to Vishnu (which is only three or four 
feet deep and four feet square)~and into which multitudes of bathers descend, and 
then drink the filthy water, thereby, it is thought^ cleansing the bather from all his 
previous crimes and faults, however heinous they may have been. I have not spoken 
of these things in detail, because they are nasly ; but they exist, and are practised 
daily and hourly. 

Calcutta, as every schoolboy knows, is situated on the banks of the Hooghly, and 
is the seat of the supreme government of India. At a first glance it is dear to even 
the dullest observer that Calcutta is a capital city, by its wide, open grass spaces, fine 
buildings, aud dashing equipages. At Government House the Viceroy, Lord Lansdowne, 
holds his court in state, whilst the Lieutenant of Bengal (the enlightened Sir Charles 
Elliott, K.C.S.I.) lives at Belvedere, two miles from the city, across the Maidan. 
Government House is a stately place enough ; but if I were Viceroy of India I should 
cast envious eyes on Belvedere, which is a smiling, handsome residence in lovely 
grounds. The only drawback to Belvedere is its proximity to the Zoological Gardens. 

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Impreseions of Travd m India. 189 

It would be haixl for hia ExoeUenoy, perplexed by some tiokliah question of State 
policy, to be awakened at dawn by some devout bird praising his Creator by an oft- 
re'>eated shriek, or to have his viceregal dreams disturbed by the roar of the African 
lion. In town, of course, he is not free from persecution, since the Bengal crows caw 
and scream from dawn, all through the day, and ahnost all through the night, with 
untiring pertinacity. By-the-bye, in these Zoological Gardens is a celebrated man- 
eating Bengal tiger, who has killed no end of people, but was so wily that for years he 
wa« scarcely ever seen, except by his victims, and eluded every kind of trap. At last 
he was caught in a pitfall, but he was always an unruly subject. Once a dispute 
arose between two of the keepers as to whether a lion or a tiger was the stronger. 
They raised a door which divided the " man-eater " from a lioness, and in an instant 
the tiger sprang upon her back and killed the lioness by one blow. Now his teeth are 
getting blunt ; still, he looks at one with a curious leer, as if he were fancying to 
himself how uncommonly nicely one would eat. About Christmas and New Tear is 
the time for all sorts of festivities at Calcutta, for it is the cool season, and though hot 
enough from eleven to three in the afternoon, yet the mornings and evenings are chilly. 
Strange to say, the hot weather is the healthy season, for all impurities seem to be 
rendered innocuous by the burning sun. The hot season is from April to June, then 


oomes the rainy season from June to September, and then the cool season from Octo- 
ber to March. The heat from April to June is evidently insupportable, and Anglo- 
Indians show a somewhat sardonic spirit when they learn that you are leaving at the 
end of the cool season, by saying, " Oh, I wish you were going to stay for the hot 
weather 1 We should see whether you would like India then." 

During our visit the weather was perfect. Roses were blooming in all their glory, 
the sunshine was splendid, the air clear as crystal But the official world moves off 
beiames for Simla or Darjheeling, and so they have not much to complain of. The 
unfortunates are the merchants and judges and barristers and permanent minor 
officials who remain to swelter in the plains. Whether it is right for the supreme 
Government to move away to the hills is a grave question. Before railways were 
introduced everybody remained in Calcutta, and it is evident that there must be a 
state of suspended animation in the business of government when it is carried on at 
such a distance. But unless pressure came from England of a very strong nature, 
there is no probability of a change, as no Viceroy, however strong-minded he might 
be, could initiate a change, so wedded is the higher official world to the annual 
migration. In one way it may be an economy, for few officials could bear the strain 
of many hot seasons, with the responsible work they are called upon to perform. 

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190 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

Hone races are quite aniiiiatitutioii of Calcutta, and not the moat beneficent one we 
could have brought with ua, for evidently the Hindoo, the Mussulman, and Patvee, all 
take kindly to racinK. and its evil side, betting. Though disapproving, of course I felt 
bound to see the races, on the same principle that takes everyone to the buU-fight in 
Spain. The course is on the Maidan, quite dose to the city, and crowds Hne the 
whole course, look through the wooden palings, and perch themselves, often sitting 
on their hams (wrapped in their scarlet, or blue, or white shawls), on the top of every 
imaginable carriage which the wit of man can devise, the most frequent being the 
ordinary " ticca-g^ri,'* corresponding to our old hackney-coach, but more roughly 
made. In the enclosure and in the grand stand many nations are represented — first* 
the English, by the Viceregal party and officers of the staff and garrison, added to by 
stray globe-trotters, some of the business men of Calcutta, brokers, &c ; then the 


Hindoo race, by sporting native princes or rajahs, some in European and some in all 
the gorgeous apparel of the East. Another group are Eurasians — probably railway 
employes or petty officials ; and yonder is a grave Paraee, with his sloping shiny hat 
and spectacles on nose, examining the whole thing from the philosophic point of view, 
and looking delidously out of his element One Sunday we made the regular 
Sunday trip by steam launch to the Botanical Gardens, about four miles down the 
river. They are wonderfully rich and varied, and have an admirable curator in Dr. 
King, himself the successor of many other devoted horticulturists. Except orchids, 
the flowers do not form a great feature ; but the Cuban palms, mahogany treea, deodar 
trees, and an infinite variety of other tropical plants and flowering shrubs, adorn the 
gardens and are reflected in the marshy pools. The chief glory of the place is a great 
mammoth banyan tree, with a trunk fifty feet in circumference, and suckers and feeders 
as thick as ordinary trees, running down from the main branches. Lovely ci ee p ec a 

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oover purt of it and make it a handsome monster. Two-thirds were broken-off in a 
terrible cyclone some two or three yean ago. What a splendid creation it must have 
been then, looking now '* so majestical 1 " 

Barrakpnr, tiie country residence of the Viceroyi is up the river, situated in a 
beautifully- wooded park ; and further up still are Ohandamagar (a tiny French settle- 
ment), and Hugh, once an old Portuguese settlement 

In Calcutta, '* society " — I mean English society — amuses itself much as it does 
everywhere else by a succession of morning calk, and balls, dinner parties, tennis, polo, 
reviews, &c. ; but as our object was to study Hindoo life and character, we did 
not see more of the former than a formal reception or dinner party gave us the 
opportunity of doing. English people in Calcutta are proverbially hospitable, and we 
regretted not seeing more of them. 

Some of our Indian friends arranged for us to meet many of the cultivated native 
gentlemen of Calcutta, and we had some veiy pleasant and instructive chats on the 
various questions which agitate the minds of the more enlightened members of the 
native oonununities. Similar opportunities were afforded us at Delhi, Lucknow, Agra, 
and Benares of meeting well-informed drdes of natives, and of acquainting oiurselves 
with the state of opinion among the educated people, who nearly all speak English 
fluently. The pity is, as was said of the British infantry, that '* they are so few.*' 
But these 30 to 60 enlightened men in each dty form "a centre of light and 
leading " for the rest of the more backward population, and great honour is due to 
them for their efforts to advance in the path of educational progress and social reform. 
They will be constantly reinforced by Indians returning with a university education 
from England, and some of their views will gradually permeate the masses, it is to be 
hoped, and assist in breaking up caste and the idolatrous, if poetic, religion of the Hindoo. 

There is a growing section of Hindoo society which is adopting European modes of 
thought and European modes of life, notably those who are members of the Bramo 
Somaj — a kind of simple monotheism expounded by Rajah Gammohun Roy. Of 
course, these more enlightened persons are but as a drop in the ocean of superstition 
which exists in India ; but they are being perpetually reinforced by new adherents 
who have been to England, or who see the advantages of adopting the best modem 
European ideas and modes of living. India lies in a state of coma, sunk in the 
lethargy of ages, and the only hope is to introduce the new blood of European 
civilisation into her veins. What will be the result ? Will old race instinct be too 
strong, or will India spring into new life ? Hundreds are in a transition stage ; but 
many fence about the question, unwilling to offend the susceptibilities of the mnsnoe. 
Let me give two pictures of two different scenes from contemporaneous life in 
Calcutta. This morning I visited the shrine of Kali, or "the Black One," situated 
about ten minutes' drive from the aristocratic portion of the city. Kali is the 
goddess of blood, with three eyes and four hands, who sends pestilence and famine, 
and who wears a necklace of human skulls, and is only to be appeased with sacrifices 
of blood. At one time those sacrifices were human beings^ now they are goats and 
kids. Every morning until noon the pious throng in crowds to make their ofierings — 
the priests decapitate their victims at one blow, and sprinkle the worshippers with the 
fresh blood. It is only such sacrificial meat which the true Hindoo may eat The 
priest pockets his fee, and the devout person descends to a branch of the Hooghly hard 
by (also a sacred river) to wash off the pollution. All the beggars and rascals of Calcutta 
are present in crowds, for almsgiving is enjoined on all. Ladies who may have a child 
dangerously ill go in disguise and remain on their knees for 24 hours, as a propitiation 
to the goddess, offering two or four kids. The humbler classes give flowers and less 
costly objects. 

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192 The Journal of the Mcmchester Oeographical Society, 

That is one picture. The other is an eyening entertainment by the Tigore family 
at their old family houae in the heart of Calcutta. The narrow road which leads to 
it was illuminated with innumerable little oil lamps and evergreenSi palm leaYos, fta, 
and the courtyard was turned into a large theatre, with an exceedingly pretty stagei 
Lady Lansdowne and suite were present, the Lieutenant-Goyemor of Bengal and Lady 
Elliott^ and a numerous company of Hindoo and English ladies and gentlemen. The 
piece was a romantic operetta, entitled "Yalmiki Pratibha," or **The Lupiration of 
Vahniki" — the first Indian poet. 

The piece was written by Mr. Robindranath Tagore, who also played the heror 
Valmiki, and all the performers were members of the Tagore faooily or con- 
nections. It was admirably given. The part of the hero required the utmost dignity 
of poae and delivery to sustain it, and Mr. Tagore's rendering could not be improved 
upon. He has a noble face and a noble presence ; but the minor parts were equally 
well filled, the goddesses and nymphs were charming and refined, and the principal 
robber, who played a comic part somewhat after FalstafTs style, would be an acquisi- 
tion to any troupe in the world. The play was in the vemaculai', but a very full 
English synopsis was given for the benefit of European visitors ignorant of the 
language. The whole sight was most fascinating from its beauty and good taste 
and a high English official, who has refinement enough to enjoy it» said it was the 
most interesting thing he had seen during his 30 years^ experience of India. 

We have now the problem of India before us — ^how to extend this cultivation to 
the upper portion of the Hindoo community, and then gradually, and in a less degree* 
of course, to the masses — the real worshippers of Kali — ^those who offer blood sacrifices. 
Education will do much, and in the course of time legislation must do something also, 
I imagine. 

To be in Calcutta and not to visit Darjheeling would be little less than a crime. 
It is about as near heaven as one can conveniently get upon earth, in more senses 
than one. Perhaps the fact that India is, as a rule, so flat and level causes one to 
rate the charms of the mighty Himalayas at more than their real value. But it is 
not easy to overrate the grand and peerless peaks, covered with their weight of 
eternal snows. 

Then the route to Darjheeling, and the ascent on the little, miniature, two-foot 
gauge railway, is so wonderful, that one has no sooner made the ascent and feasted 
one's eyes on the lofty peaks, and descended to the plain, than one's first impulse is to 
make up a party and return again to the lovely scenes. How shall I describe the 
beauties of the scenexy as the toy train winds its way up the steep inclines, occasion- 
ally twisting round in a small circle like a dog trying to catch ius own tail, sometimes 
going back a short piece of steep line in order to gain impetus to cany the train up 
an unusually stiff bit, like a switchback railway at Olympia ? At first the line runs 
through rank growths of cane and jungle grass, somewhat like pampas grass in growth, 
with blades twenty feet high, and seed stalks with feathery tops standing out ten feet 
higher ; then through tropical jungle, almost impenetrable, owing to the thickness 
of the undergrowth and long strands of rope-like creepers, which hang in festoons 
from tree to. tree. This jungle is the home of the tiger, wild hog, bu£BUo, bear, 
sambhar-deer, &c 

By-the-bye, we saw in a clearing at the foot of the hills a tame elephant, grazing 
in a field like a horse or other domestic animal He pulled the tofts of grass up by 
the roots, raised his knee, and beat the wisp of green food against it to knock the 
earth off, and then swallowed it. We heard the swishing sound of the grass striking 
against his knee, but did not at once understand his clever manoDuvre. 

Qradaally, as one ascends, the foliage changes in character. Beautiful trees stand 

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Impressions of Travel vn India, 193 

out, oaks, indiarubber, acacias, fig, &c., with magnificent clumpa of bamboo 
riisiDg fifty or sixty feet high, with their whip-like canes falling round the parent 
stems in graceful curves, like a fairy fountain of yerdure. As one gets higher 
the beautiful tree-ferns appear, clothing the wooded slopes with a peculiar charm. 
Here and there a whole hillside is devoted to the growth of tea, and though 
the plantations themselves are not picturesque, with their regular lines of short, 
round bushes, relieved by zig-zag paths, leading down from the planter's bungalow, 
-which IB always perched on a hill, yet they act as a foil, and prevent one being 
satiated by the almost overpowering richness of the sceneiy and foliage. The 
train twines and twists through villages of the quaintest descriptions ; with the 
inhabitants quainter still, sitting in front of their wooden huts or shops, from which 
they could often shake hands with the passengers without moving from their seats. 
The railway is an afterthought and innovation on the old bullock-cart road, which 
was the only means of ascent, and which the railway has coolly appropriated and cut 
up with its rails, curves, points, &c. Bullock carts still bring up heavy Juggage and 
stores and carry down tea from the plantations to the plains. The inhabitants of the 
Tillages are chiefly Lepchas, Thibetans, Bhutias, and Bengalis. But the three former 
tribes are very difierent from the Babus of Bengal, with their intellectual faces, and 
shawls wrapped round them like Roman togas, reminding one irresistibly of Brutus, 
Oassius, and Marcus Aurelius. The others are real hillmen, strong, thick-set, clothed 
in sheepskin coats or woollens, but all possessing a Mongolian type of face, and making 
one wish to push on to China and Japan to see more of that fresh class of nationality. 
There is an air of virile strength about the men which is very refreshing ; the children 
run about as children should ; and the women are as strong as the men, to judge 
from the fact that they are politely allowed to carry all the heaviest trunks and 
packages by their husbands and sons. No secretaxy of any women's rights association 
has any cause to complain that woman is not put on an equality with man amongst 
the Bhutias and Kepaulese. 

But to return to our armchairs in the last open carriage attached to the train, 
from which we can see the magnificent views of distant plains, intersected with rivers, 
far down the ravines. Through occasional clouds we go, up, up to a height of 9,000ft. 
above sea level, then turn downwards 2,000ft. to Darjheeling. Then we see towering 
aloft the snows of Einchinjunga, some 28,758ft high, surrounded by his four attendant 
I>eaks, all above 22,000ft, which gives them the name of ** The Thrones of the Five 
Qenii" lb is a glorious chain, and puts Mont Blanc and other Swiss mountains quite 
into the shade. Sometimes on clear days, from a higher point than Darjheeling, 
Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, is visible, but it is rare to find 
him without a cloud. He is only 1,000ft higher than Einchinjunga. 

'Darjheeling is a great sanatorium for the English troops in the Bengal Presidency. 
Formerly it used to be at Jalapahor, a ridge about ten miles from Darjheeling, but so 
many soldiers committed suicide from the isolation and constant sojourn in doud- 
land, that the sanatorium was moved to a lower sphere, and is to be moved to a still 
lower ridge beneath Darjheeling. Sunday is market day, or bazaar day, and on it the 
little market-square and adjacent streets are full of peasantry come to sell produce 
and other wares, and coolies from the tea plantations come to purchase clothes and 
supplies of food, chiefiy grain, for consumption during the week. The chaflfering is so 
great that it can be heard a mile off in the clear air. Most of the women wear wonder- 
ful chains round their necks, of beads of agate and other stones. These necklaces 
support small oblong gold or silver amulet boxes. For a proper consideration these 
fair ones will part with these treasures, also with their ear-ornaments of turquoise, all 
very handsome and barbaric The babies are carried about in baskets, and sometimes 

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194 The Jaiimal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

a kid ie slung, for sale, round the shoulders of some of the boys. I said that tiie 
women of the Bhutia tribe are strong. Rumour goes that one woman carried " a 
grand piano " on her back from the station to the hotel on the hill above, but this is 
no doubt apooryphaL There is only one drawback to Darjheeling. Every rose has 
its thorn ! It is that after and during the rains the place swarms with leeches. 

I must now turn to a more serious subject, and yet one which should be under- 
stood by the English at home, because the occasional miscarriage of justice which is 
alleged by the natives does more than perhaps anything else to irritate the Indian 
people against our rulei This miscarriage of justice, it is said, comes in only when the 
race-feeling of the Anglo-Indian portion of the community here \b called into play. 

Justice betwixt Hindoo and Hindoo, or between EUndoo and Mohammedan, is 
impartially administered, and no genuine complaints can arise on that head. The 
natives say that it is when an Englishman is in the dock that English juries — and, I 
am sorry to say, judges — seem sometimes inclined to lose their heads. Let me refer 
again to the celebrated Dum Dum murder case, which will show what I mean. Dum 
Dum is a suburb of Calcutta, and the military lines are there. One night, in the 
spring of 1890, four soldiers, in a drunken spree, left the cantonments, with their 
rifles in their hands. But though intoxicated they wanted more drink, and finding 
grog-shops closed at that late hour, they entered the enclosure of a Mohammedan's 
house, and found the proprietor sleeping under the verandah. They asked for liquor, 
but were told that, being a Mussulman of course he had no intoxicating drinks in his 
house. Then they said that he must come and get them some. They dragged him 
away, but on the road they passed a pond, and one of the soldiers pushed the poor 
fellow into the water. Evidence given at the trial went to prove that O'Hara pointed 
his rifle at the man in the water. His companions, in horror, shouted to him not to 
shoot. But exclaiming, ''There are plenty more of the black devils !" (he used a 
still fouler word), he fired. 

Inunediately there was a general aauve qui petU, But naturally such an out- 
rageous murder could not be hushed up, and the soldiers were put on their trial 
Two turned ** Queen's evidence." and O'Hara was condemned to death by Judge 
Norris, who, on passing sentence, explained the enormity of the crime. But no sooner 
was the sentence pronounced than many Anglo-Indians raised a tremendous storm* 
Pressure was pub upon the Advocate-General to grant a certificate for a review of the 
case. Then, on the point that the soldiers* evidence given against their comrades 
had not been corroborated by any independent evidence, the verdict was quashed. 
There may be some legal grounds for the plea that Judge Norris misdirected the juiy. 
I am no lawyer, but I leave my readers to form their own opinion as to what would 
have happened had the murdered man been an Englishman instead of being a Mussal- 
' man and a native. The murder took place late at night, and it could only have been 
by an unusual chance that other witnesses could have been present. Two shots were 
fired, for two ball cartridges were wanting. Two soldiers gave evidence against ^eir 
own comrade. And the Mohammedan was dead, of that there was no doubt, with 
bullet wounds to show how he died. The soldiers in court, when the judgment WM 
given in favour of the condenmed, I am told, cheered lustily, and O'Hara was carried 
home to barracks in triumph. His companions, who had turned Queen's evidence, 
were boycotted, and had finally to leave the regiment. We must make some allow- 
ance for the feeling of comradeship amongst ignorant soldiers in an Irish regineot^ 
but think of the effect on the Indian people of such an apparent miscarriage of justice 
under the clamour of the Anglo-Indian world. 

The case of Mears is also notorious. He struck a postman— a native postman, I 
need scarcely say— for not saluting (" salaaming ") him one morning. The postman 

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Impressions of Travel in India, 195 

prosecatod him for the assault^ but was preyailed upon to withdraw the sait. Later 
on, for having dared to complain, Mears had the poor fellow seized and tied up, 
and thrashed him so severely that his life was despaired of. For this offence Mears 
was actually condemned, and, wonderful to relate, imprisoned for three months, 
amidst a howl of abuse from Anglo-Indian journals. This abuse was even levelled 
against those judges who heard the appeal and had the courage — the exceptional 
courage even for an English judge — ^to reject the appeal in this glaring case. 
Those judges were the then Chief Justice (Sir R. Couch) and Sir John Phear. 
On the release of Mears -from prison he was offered a public dinner by ** high- 
minded " Anglo-Indian sympathisers, and was feted generally, and gloried in his own 
^ noble deed." All this requires no comment from me. 

Now, as I may be told that the impression of the Indian people, that there is some 
prejudice against them in the courts when an Englishman is the aggressor, is totally 
unfounded, if not libellous, I will quote what the Englishman (a journal which, as its 
name implies, is nothing if not Anglo-Indian) said in its issue of the 16th May, 1879, 
with reference to " Jitoo Lai's appeal," arising out of the celebrated ** Monghyr " case. 
Amongst other ''pleasing features" of this case, a wealthy man, named Luchmi 
Das, was arrested by a district magistrate, kept in Monghyr Qaol for twenty days, 
without having been brought before a magistrate, although the charge made against 
him under sections 154 and 155 of the Penal Code, was a bailable offence, and the 
district magistrate admitted later on in the Sessions Court that he " directed that no 
bail should be taken, and knew that ofiences under sections 154 and 155 were bailable." 
But to return to Jitoo Lai's appeal The BngliahtnafCt cofnment was as follows : 
' We feel bound to add, in the interests of public justice, on which more than any- 
thing else the permanence of our government in India depends, that the Judges of 
the High Court have shirked their duty, and, under the veil of a half-hearted, and 
indeed most gentle, censure, have attempted to screen one of the grossest perversions 
of the criminal law that has ever come to our notice." 

The Statesman (another Anglo-Indian journal), commenting on the same case, viz., 
the witiidrawal of Jitoo Lai's appeal, in its issue of the 20th May, 1879, in a leading 
article, says : " Jitoo Lai is, unfortunately, a representative man. There is throughout 
the Mofussil a deep feeling of dissatisfaction with our administration of justice, and 
this ought to be known and acknowledged, for it is fatal to true loyalty. There can 
be no advantage in blinking unpleasant facts, in trying to delude ourselves into the 
belief that the people have confidence in our administration of justice, and in making 
omr eountfymen at home believe that this is one of the great boons we have bestowed 
on the people, for which they are truly thankful. The truth is not so. The people 
have the greatest confidence in our High Courts, and generally, we think, in our 
senion judges, but not in the justice administered by our Mofussil judges." I leave 
Anglo-Indians to fight this out with the editors of the Englishman and the Statesman, 

The traveller who leaves Calcutta by steamer for the south, unless he has looked 
at the map beforehand, will probably imagine that a couple of hours' sail down the 
Hoofi^ will take him out to sea. But it is not so, and he will be lucky if he gets 
free of the river in twenty-four hours, and has not to spend a night anchored in mid- 
■trsam. However, he will not grumble at this apparent loss of time when it is 
explained to him that the Hooghly is 6ne of the most treacherous and dangerous 
rivers in the world to navigate, and that more haste might mean worse speed. It has 
many shifting quicksands, and is never two days alike, so that the steamer takes the 
most tortuous course possible, and now heads straight from one shore across to the 
other, and then back again, as if it were a skater doing the letter S on the ice. 
IHiring the spring tides— after the rains— in a freshet, a steamer will strike the 

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196 The Journal of the Manchester Oeogrwphicai Society. 

bottom, and the rush of waten will turn her over in a moment, and down she will 
go (without it being possible to get out a boat) right into the sand, and it is the pilot's 
belief that she comes out at the other aide of the world — at least so he said, and pilots 
often speak the truth. 

But once having crossed the bar — which is frequently traversed when there are 
only one or two inches beneath the keel — indeed, sometimes the boats actually jump 
the bar — danger is past, and, especially in January, the Bay of Bengal and the 
Indian Ocean are as smooth as glass and as safe as a pulpit. 

So we found it on our way to Madras and subsequently to Ceylon. We only 
stayed a day at the former place, sufficient to whet our interest to return and to 
understand why it is called the *'city of long diatanoes"— a name which it deserves 
far more truthfully than Calcutta that of the " dty of palaces.'* Lord Wenlock had 
just reached his new post the very morning on which we entered Madras harbour, and 
we hurried ashore to see the procession and crowds assembled to welcome him. They 
were the same crowds as those who so lately bade farewell to Lord Connemara, at the 
unhappy termination of his otherwise successful and tactful rule, for he managed to 
gain the confidence of both the native and Anglo-Indian population, a feat which it 
is not given to every Qovemor to perform. The heat is very excessive in Madras and 
Southern India this season (which should be comparatively cool), owing to the scanty 
fall of rain, and famine on a more or less extended scale must be looked for, or, if not 
actual fiimine, great distress, from the failure of crops. Very warm we found Madras, 
and we were glad to return to the steamer and watch the clever native boatmen 
rowing about in their dug-out canoes, called *' catamarans," formed of two logs of 
wood lashed together and slightly scooped out. Slight craft they seem, but able to 
live in the rough sea outside the breakwater. 

In a day or two we reached Colombo, and began to view the beauties of that fair 
tropical isle 

" Where Europe amid Asia smiles." 

I daresay most people connect Ceylon chiefly with coffee, and lately with tea, and 
possibly they would have hit upon its most salient feature, for without tea Ceylon 
would be little or nothing, as far as commercial prosperity is concerned. 

If " cotton is king " in some other parts of the world, tea is undisputed sovereign 
in Ceylon. It was not always so, for until fourteen or fifteen years ago coffee reigned 
supreme, but was dethroned by the insidious attacks of a parasitical insect, which 
slowly, but surely, undermined his empire. Coffee is still grown, but the quantity 
produced dwindles every year, whilst the growth of the tea trade is phenomenal The 
total exports from — 


1st January to 22nd December, 1887 were 12,451,391 

1888 „ 22,976.112 

„ 1889 „ 82,450,872 

1890 , 44,913,918 . 

They have nearly quadrupled in four years, and have given Ceylon the prospect of 
retrieving the fearful losses made by the ravages of the cofifee disease, which reduced 
the poor planters from opulence to beggary in a short space of time. 

I cannot say that the growth of tea has added much to the beauties of the island — 
quite the contrary — for planters merely clear the jungle by fire, and leave the charred 
trunks of the trees to stick out in a hideous manner amongst the low tea bushes, 
which only stand about 2ft from the ground. One good thing about the cultivation 
of tea versus that of coffee is that twice as much labour is required to maintain tea 
plantations in order, and to pluck the leaves, than is necessary in the production of 

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«o£fee. Perhaps my readers are not aware that only the fresh green leaves or shoots 
on the trees are plucked, and that this is done in regular rotation, so that the torn of 
each bush comes round once every nine or twelve days. 

On one estate I visited the tea is placked, prepared, and "fired" five days in 
every week throughout the year. When bushes show signs of exhaustion by putting 
forth poor, drooping, unhealthy shoots they are cut down almost to the bare stem or 
stump and allowed to rest. In four or five months they are restored by Nature 
to full leaf, and are ready for plucking again. 

When the baskets, fitting on to the backs of the pluokers, are brought in full of 
the tender, green, but fair-sised leaves, they are loosely sprinkled on the floor of a 
warehouse, and on layers of canvas suspended one above another, called " tats." Here 
the tea remains until it is withered — the work of a few hours— and then the leaves 
are brushed together and sent down by a shoot into a chamber below, where they are 
passed through rollers, allowed to ferment, and are then fired in an oven, sifted, 
refired, again sifted (to separate the various qualities), and then packed, loarm, in tins, 
after which they are placed in boxes, and are ready for transport to port of 

The finest tea consists of the smallest leaves, which appear at the top of the 
bushes, and has the most aromatic flavour. It is called " orange pekoe," and is not 
kept separate, as otherwise the whole quantity from which it was separated would be 
wanting in flavour. Occasionally, to make a r6dame for a certain plantation, it is 
separated and sold at a fancy price. Thus a pound of Ceylon tea was lately sold at 
Hindng Lane for 85s., and almost immediately afterwards for upwards of £5. 

The chief labourers on the tea estates are Tamil coolies from Southern India, with 
a certain proportion of Oinghalese and Moormen. The Cinghalese chiefly grow paddy, 
ie. rice, and are peasant proprietors to a large extent, and, as such, do not care to 
descend in the social scale and become labourers for hire. One cannot say that they 
are very fond of work, but a large number of them have been compelled by want and 
the loss of their paddy-lands to work for hire. 

This brings me to the consideration of the paddy tax, or tax on paddy-fields. 
This tax, amounting to £75,000 a year, is raised only on one article of produce, and 
that, strangely enough, the food grown by and consumed by the poorest portion 
of the population. 

A planter may grow tea, coffee, cocoanuts, cinnamon, what you like, and has no tax 
to pay, but the paddy grower is charged a comparatively heavy tax, which he is 
called on to pay in years when the crop may have been an absolute failure. Such a 
tax on the food of the people is obviously indefensible— at any rate, the burden of 
proof that it is the only source of revenue must rest with those who defend so cruel, 
so exceptional a tax, which strikes at the food of the poor and allows all others to go 
practically free. It is true that a poll tax of Rl*80 (about 2s. 9d. to 3s.) is levied on 
the tea planter and coffee planter ; but it is also levied on the paddy grower, as it 
is a tax to maintain the roads. It is true also that the Qovemment levies an import 
dulgr of 7\ to 10 per cent on imported rice, and that this duty is chiefly paid by the tea 
planter, who has to buy rice for the support of his coolies. But this tax on rice 
imports is not a protective duty, as Ceylon does not produce, generally speaking, 
sufficient rice to maintain its population of Tamils and Cinghalese. Now, as a 
follower of Cobden, I object to import duties on food ; but I object still more to a tax 
on paddy-lands, on which rice is grown, which brings such disasters in its train 
whenever the season proves unpropitious. 

In 1882 the Government in Ceylon, alarmed by arrears in the collection 
of the tax, were instructed to insist on payment and swoop in arrears, even at the cost 

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198 The Jawmal of the Mcmohester Oeograiphical Society. 

of Mlling the laadB of the defaulters. Too well they oarried out their instruetionfl 
which resulted in the destruction of the proprietary rights of a very large number of 
the native peasantry, and caused great want» privation, sickness, and death in many 
cases. The horrors which took place in the Malapan^ district are well known to 
those who have studied the subject^ and they are merely t7pi<Md of those which 
occurred in other districte. From a statement which appeared in the CeyUm Inde- 
pendent of December, 1889, it appears that in ten years some 29,899 lots, representmg 
some 29,182 acres, were sold by GoYemment for less than one year's rent, of whidi, 
approximately, about one-half was bought in by the Goyemment, and the other by 
private individuals, Moormen, Tamils, low countrymen, &c. 

I do not think it is the duty of any stranger, in face of facts like these, to propose 
taxation to replace such a partial and one-sided tax. But why should not a light 
land tax be levied en the whole of the island, or an income tax on all incomes above 
1,000 rupees, and the liquor duties raised, which are exceptionally low ? It is said that 
it would be impossible to levy and collect a land tax. But why should it be possible 
in India and impossible in Ceylon ? Fortunately the whole question has been brought 
up by the Hon. Mr. Christie before the Ceylon Legifll*tive Council, and the report of 
a committee, which lately sat on the subject in the island, and also the reports of the 
Qovemment agents in the various districts, baaed on the conclusions come to by that 
committee, are before the Colonial Office. I trust they will come to a dedsbn in 
&your of the harassed, unfortunate native paddy grower. 

Every visitor to Ceylon is expected to go up to Kandy, the capital of the island 
and seat of Qovemment. It is several thousand feet above sea level, and delidously 
cool when Colombo is " red-hot,'* I had almost said. From Kandy it is easy to push 
on to *' the buried dties of Ceylon," to DambuUa, Anuradhapura, kc In the first 
are to be seen the largest and most celebrated Rock Temples of Ceylon — possibly of 
the world. The Maha Vihare, or Qreat Temple, is by &r the finest and biggest of the 
five. In it are 53 statues of Buddha in a sitting position, and the first impression is 
very striking. At one extremity is a recess covered with historical paintings. The 
landing of Wijeya— an outlawed prince from India — who is said to have arrived in 
Ceylon with a few followers B.a 548, conquered the aborigines, and eetaUished the 
Cinghalese in the island — the planting of the bo tree at Anuradhapura, and the 
dedication of the island to Buddha, are figured on the walls. 

The bo tree just referred to is the oldest historical tree in the world. It wu 
planted in 245 B.a, and is now 2,186 years old, and is a branch of the original bo tree 
under which Gautama sat on the day on which he attained to Buddahood. For over 
2,000 years pilgrims have walked along the track which leads to the tree, to ofiRnr 
their devotion to the most venerated symbol of their religion. 

But besides visiting these " buried cities " — which showed, by the richness of 
their carvings and the magnificent architectural proportions of their bufldings tad 
the extent which they cover, what a numerous and a prosperous race must have 
bunt and inhabited them — I wished to see some of the paddy-fields in the hill district 
with my own eyes, and accordingly took train to Nuwera-Elija (called Neurellia), and 
thence thirty-six miles by coach to Badulla. It is wonderful to see how the rice or 
paddy fields are there constructed in terraces, which are irrigated from some spring or 
mountain torrent diverted from its course. Sometimes these mud terraoes are swept 
away by floods, and then the laborious work must be reoommenced, if, indeed, the 
Government has not already dispossessed the poor occupier for non-payment of taxes. 

Badulla is a village of exquisite beauty, lying like a jewel at the bottom of a deep 
valley, set in beautiful palms and tropical plants. One enters it by a charmioK 
avenue of treer, and the red roofs of the bungalows add to the natural attractions of 

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Impressions of Travel in India, 199 

the pkoeu The OoYemment agent, Mr. Fiaher, ib a fine fellow. He ib in favour of 
the abolition of the paddy tax, or its reduction, bub the latter has the drawback that 
the expenses of collection would be half the sum collected. His beautiful bungalow 
was adorned with many trophies of the chase — elephants* skulls and tails, leopards' 
skins, bears' heads with open jaws — and the talk was of elephants. One fellow was 
referred to, who was well known in the district, and was called the *' United Service 
elephant," because nearly every civil and military officer in those parts had had a shot 
St him. When he was killed, he had eighteen old shot-holes in his skull from as many 
shots ; but he fell in splendid condition, though he may have had a headache, no 
doubt, from time to time. In the church was a memorial stone to Thomas William 
Rogers, a former Government agent at Badulla, who was struck by lightning at the 
summit of the Eaputal^ Pass, in the neighbourhood. He was a great administrator, 
and, the tablet adds, killed 1,500 elephants. These animals were not destroyed for 
Uie sake of sport, but because they committed the greatest havoc among the rice 
fields of the poor Gk>iya, as the peasantry of Ceylon are called. 

I can hardly expect that in this rapid survey I have given my readers any 
adequate notion of the vast country and the many races that inhabit India, but I 
hope that I have at least succeeded in interesting them in the Indian people by these 
harried sketches of Indian scenes and Indian life. Of the gentle manners of the 
Hindooe as a rule, and of their good temper and good behaviour, even when assembled 
in the streets in vast crowds, I can scarcely expect to give you any impression. 

Never was a nation more blessed with critics anxious to point out their mental, 
moral, and physical defects. The very subtlety of the intellect of the Beugalese is 
triumphantly quoted against them, and their moral nature is said to be as stunted 
and distorted as their physical growth is declared to be puny and weak. Martial 
heroes, fresh from the cricket fields of Eton, their thews and sinews built up on the 
roast beef of old England, have nothing but lofty scorn for the emaciated limbs of a 
■abmiasive peasantry, fed upon rice or millet, and daily exposed to the rays of a 
burning sun. The shady habits of the natives are dilated upon in every tone of 
reproach, and the embezzlement of a native bank clerk is descanted upon with 
virtuous indignation by Anglo- Indians, who conveniently forget the Redpaths, the 
CoUiee, and the secretaries of building and benefit societies, who occasionally disappear 
with funds which do not belong to them, even in this immaculate country. 

On board the steamer we came home with a distinguished Calcutta merchant, a 
former member of the Legislative Council, returning to England for good, after forty 
years spent in business in India ; and on inquiring what his opinion of the honesty of 
the natives of India was, he said emphatically that he ** had almost always had 
hundreds of thousands of rupees in the hands of native cultivators of Indian produce, 
indigo, jute, &c, and had never had a written contract with them, and had never 
suffered loes amounting to a four-anna piece ! " Strong testimony from a practical 
man, well able to judge, and quite as reliable as that of some English barrister at 
Bombay or Calcutta, who feels the competition of the keen wits of the Bengal Baboos, 
who has probably never moved out of a very narrow circle, and who has scarcely 
ever visited a town other than the one in which he practices. 

I suppose that the Hindoos are no more free from faults than any other nation ; 
that oppression by the Moslem and climatic influence will tell their tale on character ; 
but in every country there are infinite varieties of character, and no one can justly 
draw an indictment against a whole nation. If the Indian people need guidance, all 
the more is it incumbent on their English fellow-subjects to show sympathy with them 
in their weakness and ignorance. The real friends of India are those who, in the 
words of the biographer of Lord Lawrence, " know the natives ; who sympathise with 

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200 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

them and have leamt to love them ; who in the spirit of a truly imperial race, look 
upon themselves as the servants of those whom they rule, and rule by serving them ; 
who do everything that in them lies to bridge over the yawning gulf, which by our 
fate, or by our fault, still separates colour from colour, race from race, and creed from 
creed. Till that gulf can be in some measure bridged over, whatever our good 
intentions, and whatever the benefits of our rule — and they are neither few nor 
small — we still, disguise it as we may, hold India by the sword ; and so long as we 
hold it by the sword alone, we hold it by the least satisfactory and the most precarious 
of tenures." 

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Digitized by 


The Recent Progress of Indian Agriculture, 201 


(See Maps.) 

By Mr. C. L. TUPFER, Chief Secretary to the Punjab Oovernxnent. 

[AddreMed to the Societj, at the Ohamber of Oommeroe, Tuesday, October 20th, 
1891, at 7-80 p.m.] 

LAST summer I read an address on this subject in the Econo- 
mic Section of the British Association, at Cardiff, and I 
have been asked to discuss the same question on the present, 
occasion. I must necessarily traverse a good deal of the same 
ground ; but I shall follow here a different order of arrange- 
ment, and shall endeavour to bring to notice a few fresh points. 

The president of the section in which my paper was read at 
Cardiff was Dr. W. Cunningham. I have since been looking at 
an excellent book of his, " The Growth of English Industry and 
Commerce during the Early and Middle Ages." The work 
carries the industrial history of our own country down to the 
end of the Tudor period. 1 mention it here because it opens 
with an interesting comparison between the economic conditions 
of our own day and those of England in the times of the Norman 
Conquest and the early Norman kings. In reading that com- 
parison I was much struck with the resemblance in certain 
points betweon England at the time of the Domesday Survey 
and rural India at tne present day. I say rural India advisedly, 
because it is one of the most interesting and remarkable circum- 
stances of the existing situation in India that we have in close^ 
continuous juxtaposition the primitive conditions of a number 
of very archaic societies, and the latest, or some of the latest, 
results of the application of steam and electricity, if not in any 
great degree to the production, certainly on a very large scale 
to the distribution of commodities. In the large towns, indeed,, 
manufacturing industries are beginning to appear. But I have 
here to speak of agricultural matters and interests; and in 
India, in the country, in what we call the mufassil, the village 
groups are ordinarily self-sufficing, just as they were in England 
m An^lo-Saxon and in Norman days. Markets and fairs have 
their importance, no doubt, for the exchange of goods; but, 
economically, the most general idea I could convey to you of an 
Indian village is that it is a community which itself produces all 
that is requisite for its own subsistence. 

In a rough and general way English commercial history may 
be divided into four great periods ; first, the period of village 
life ; secondly, the period of town life and the trade guilds ; 


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202 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

thirdly, the period of the mercantile system described by Adam 
Smith when the interests of the colonies were subordinated to 
the interests of the mother country, and the prevailing idea 
was that you must bring gold and silver into the country by 
means of the balance of trade ; and, fourthly, our own times of 

great questions between capital and labour, of joint-stock 
mited liability companies, of co-operative methods of distri- 
bution, of Rochdale societies of equitable pioneers. Now rural 
India stands in a period analogous to tne first period when 
village communities were self-sufficing. This idea is, I know, 
somewhat crossed and altered by the enormous import of cotton 
piece goods, which necessarily displace homespun material. 
j3ut, making allowance for that, we see in an Indian village a 
survival of a social group which has long died out in Western 
Europe ; a group belonging to times when there were no great 
manufacturing towns, when coal and iron formed no important 
items in industry and trade, when raw produce was the staple 
of such little export as there was, when there was neither capital 
nor rent in the modem sense of these words, and when labour, 
in one way or another, was closely bound to the soil. It would 
take a separate paper, or perhaps several papers, adequately to 
discuss the meaning and character of rent m India ; but the 
general absence of capital (that is, of a share of wealth which can 
be employed in one direction or another as the prospects of 
remuneration are more or less favourable) and the immobility 
oi labour (that is, the reluctance of the cultivators to leave their 
homes or adopt new walks of life) are very important factors in 
the progress, past and future, of Indian agricultura In a 
typical Indian village the village artisans keep no shops. They 
are housed just like the other villagers, and the carpenter, the 
potter, the blacksmith, the shoemaker, and others supply all the 
pots and pans and implements and leather work required, and 
are remunerated for their labour by a fixed share of the produce. 
So varied and so vast a country is India that what is true of one 
part of it is constantly either untrue or not wholly true of 
another ; but I may safely say that there are enormous tracts, 
especially in Northern India, where the land is everywhere 
owned by the members of village communities, in which this 
very primitive form of barter still goes on. If you travel by 
rail from Allahabad to Peshawur you will, in the daylight — for 
the journey will take you two days and two nights — freauently 
see on either side clusters of small flat-roofed, mud-built nouses, 
so joined together that the backs of the outer houses form, as it 
were, the wall of a little fortalice. These defensible habitations, 
dotted all over the flat fertile plains of the Ganges and Jumna 
and Indus systems, are the homes of the famous Indian village 
<^ommunities ; and as you see them gleaming white amid the 
dusty foliage on the sun-smitten expanse, when you are hurrying 

Digitized by 


The Recent Progress of Indian Agriculture. 208 

along, you will very likely say to yourself, how strange it is that 
we should be driving our railways straight through the heart of 
a country whose living institutions are actually more archaic 
than were those of our forefathers 800 years ago. 

The first point, then, to be borne in mind m considering the 

S regress of Indian agriculture is the exceedingly primitive con- 
ition of rural India. That a comparatively few thousands out of 
the many Indian millions have learnt the English language — ^that 
a comparatively few Indian gentlemen have the force of character 
and the means to come to England, and the ability to distinguish 
themselves in examinations — that there is a vernacular press of 
considerable volume — ^that there are numerous native societies 
modelled on our societies for literary, social, and political pur^ 
poses — and that a few hundreds of Indians have learnt to copy 
Western methods of political agitation, are circumstances of 
much interest both politically and socially. But they are cir- 
cumstances which should never blind us to the fact that the great 
mass of the agricultural population, except for the blessings of 
peace and immensely enlarged facilities of communication, 
remains at the stage of progress which it had reached when, 150 

Es 1^0, began in Southern India the contest between the 
lish and the French, which has ultimately resulted in British 
an dominion. And that stage of progress, I need hardly add, 
had been attained many centuries before the beginning of that 

If the primitive condition of the country is one main point 
to be kept in view, another is its vast variety. We are con- 
cerned with agricultural conditions, and in illustration of their 
diversity I may quote a despatch of the Grovemment of India 
written in June, 1880, but in principle, though not perhaps in 
every detail, as applicable now as it was then. " The popula- 
lation" it was said, "in the several districts or coimties (of 
which there are altogether 229 in India) ranges from 39 to the 
square mile in Assam to 700 or 800 in Bengal and Behar. The 
annual rainfftU ranges from 5in. or 6in. in the lower Indus valley 
to lOOin. in Assam or Malabar, and to 200in. in Arracan. The 
soil varies from the arid, sandy wastes of the Western Punjab, 
or the stony uplands of the Deccan, to the rich deposits of the 
Ganges delta, where not a pebble can be found for tens of thou- 
sand of square miles. Tenures vary from the proprietary com- 
munities of North- Western India to the large estates of Bengal 
and the petty cultivating holdings of Madras and Bombay. 
There is at least as much variety in the physical and mental 
characteristics of the people of the several provinces." With 
due deference to the Grovemment of India, I should say that 
the variety of the population is even more remarkable than the 
variety of agricultural conditions, though, indeed, the one kind 
of variety is not capable of being directly compared with the 

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204 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

other. In Europe most men are content to try and learn some* 
thing of a single countiy. In India most of us find our experi-^ 
ence limited to a few districts or, perhaps, a single province. 
But in any general remarks about India we must have regaid 
to a great assemblage of many diverse countries and states,^ 
removed in space by thousands of miles, and in all tliat makea 
social and political progress by at least nine or ten centuries 
from all the experiences we may have gathered at home. 

With these preliminary remarks I come to our agricultural 
returns — a symbol of the contact between our civilised rule and 
the mediaeval or pre-mediseval societies upon which it is super- 
imposed. It is desirable to explain briefly what the returns are, 
ana how they are compiled, so that we may see what amoimt of 
weight should be attacned to them. They have been published 
in their present form only since 1884-85 ; and they now extend 
to all British provinces except Bengal, where the permanent 
settlement has divorced the Government from the soil, and the 
administrative arrangements for the record of agricultural facts 
are consequently imperfect or absent The returns include rice, 
wheat, oil seeds, sugar-cane, cotton, jute and other fibres, indieo, 
cofiee, tea, tobacco, and chinchona ; and lumps together under 
the designation " other food grains " a multitude of millets and 
pulses, for most of which we have no English names. In pro- 
vinces other than Bengal the returns are comf)iled by villages, 
by tahsils or sub-divisions of districts, by districts, by divisions 
including from three to seven or eight districts, and for the pro- 
vince at large. The statistics thus collected by the local govern- 
ments and administrations are brought together in a single set 
ot returns for the whole of British India except Bengal. 

The strength of a chain depends upon its weakest link; and 
it is manifest that if the village statistics are bad, the errors in 
the district and provincial returns are likely to be enormous. 
Every effort has therefore been made of late years to improve 
the village statistics. They are made up by the Palwaria or 
Village Accountants, indigenous officials who have existed in 
most parts of India under various designations for centuries- 
before our time. Perhaps the greatest agricultural reform 
undertaken in India during the last twenty years has been the 
revision and improvement of this agency. There was nothing 
new in the collection of village statistics; there was nothing 
new in the careful scrutiny of their results by the local gov- 
ernments or their Boards of Revenue or Financial Commis- 
sioners ; but it was known that when the time came round, as 
it does every twenty or thirty years, for the revision of the 
land-tax or state rental, the statistics collected by the Village 
Accountants would not siiffi e, either in accuracy or fulness, for 
the land-valuation required. Hence, when in any district the 
land-revenue is revised, when, in Indian phrase, the district 

Digitized by 


The Recent Progress of Indicm Agriculture. 205 

''comes under settlement/' it has been the practice to appoint a 
special staff of native subordinates to help the Village Account- 
ants in producing what was needed or even to do their work 
for them altogether. In this way the Settlement Officer obtains a 
complete picture of the agricultural conditions of every village 
in his charge. Now I think it may be said to have been one of 
the main points insisted upon by the Indian Famine Com- 
mission that every officer in charge of a district should have 
continuously at command the same sort of detailed agricultural 
information in regard to every part of his district that is specially 
acquired by a Settlement Officer when engaged in revising the 
land revenue. To this end it was necessary to improve the 
intermediate agencies between the Village Accountants and the 
District Officers, and to give the District Officers help, both at 
their elbows and in a central office, towards the full and con- 
sistent elaboration of the whole system. This has been done 
almost throughout British India. In every province there is 
now some officer under the designation of Director of Land 
Records and Agriculture, or Commissioner of Settlements and 
Agriculture, or the like, who is specially charged with the pro- 
vincial supervision of the collection of agricultural statistics; 
and in most districts intermediate native officials have been 
appoijated to act under the orders of the District Officers and 
tneir principal assistants, and to supervise the Patwaris and 
keep their work up to the mark. 

In this reform there have been many great advantages. For 
the futuije, as fairly trustworthy crop returns are prepared from 
harvest to harvest, famine ought to take no one by surprise. 
Scarcity, not amounting to famine, should be detected on its 
first approach, and some remedy or alleviation in the way of 
remissions or suspensions of the land tax speedily applied. The 
maintenance of a continuous record of agricultural facts should 
diminish the extent and duration of the special inauiries neces- 
sary for re-settlements. As for the returns to which I am about 
to refer, I think it will be admitted that they are probably much 
sounder now than thejr could have been ten years ago, when, 
indeed, they did not exist in their present form. 

In the period of six years covered by the agricultural returns 
the total cultivated area has risen by 10,000,000 acres, from 
126,000,000 acres to 136,000.000. But from this total increase 
of 10,000,000 acres we must deduct 8.000,000 for Upper Burma 
and certain comparatively small tracts which were not included 
in the figures for 1884-5. Comparing this increase with the 
amultaneous increase in the population, I find that there is 
about iinF^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^® ^^^ ®^^ additional mouth to be fed. 
The population of the whole of India, including the native states, 
was announced, when the figures of the census of 1891 were 
known only approximately, to be 286,000,000. The grand total 

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206 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

finally announced is 288,159,672. The net increase since 1881 
in British and native territory has been nearly 28,000,000. But, 
omitting the increase in native states and in tracts or provinces 
not included in the agricultural returns, I calculate that the 
increase which we have to compare with the 7,000,000 acres of 
increased cultivation amounts to 15,000,000. We must take 
only six-tenths or three-fifths of this sum, because the figures 
of population are for ten years and the figures for cultivated area 
for six years. We have therefore 7,000,000 acres for 9,000,000 
people, or yrn^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ®^^^ additional person, as I said 
just now. 

But the statistics of the extension of the cultivated area 
taken by themselves give a very inadequate idea of the exist- 
ing situation. We must also consider the extension of the 
irrigated area, because whereas the produce of one unirrigated 
acre will suffice to sustain one person for a year, the produce of 
one irrigated acre will, according to the computations of the 
Famine Commissioners, support two and a half people for the 
same period. The total increase of the irrigated area during 
the six years under review is about 4,500,000 acres. Of this a 
part must have been cultivated before it was irrigated, and a 
part was no doubt virgin soil, which was incapable of cultiva- 
tion until it was irrigated. From these data we can vfoxjs. out 
the follo\^ing sum : — 


1. 2,500,000 acres of new irrifEfttion in Yirgin soil, yields, ftt two and a 

half persons per acre, a food supply for 6,250,000 

2. 2,000,000 acres of new irrigation in soil previously culUyated, at one 

and a balf penoDs per acre, yields a food supply for 3,000,000 

3. 2,500,000 irrigated acres at one person per acre, yields a food supply 

for 2,600,000 

Total 11,750,000 

Hence my conclusion is that we have an additional food supply 
for 11,760,000 souls to set against an actual increase of 9,000,000 
in the population. This is the same conclusion as that which I 
stated in the paper read before the British Association at Car- 
diff, except that I have corrected the figures of population to 
make them accord with the results of the last census, which at 
the time of the Cardiff meeting were not finally annoimced. 

My broad general conclusion, apart from arithmetical calcu- 
lations, to which it would be a mistake to attach more weight 
than usually belongs to Indian statistics, is that the increase of 
cultivation Keeps pace, and does not much more than keep pace 
with the increase of population. This is not an alarming con- 
clusion, but it is obvious that the process cannot ^o on for ever. 
To the mere extension of cultivation there are (musical limits 
everywhere. It is, however, satisfactory to note in India the 
enormous advantage which is to be gained by artificial irriga- 

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The Recent Progress of Indian Agriculture. 207 

tion. In localities which are suited for that improvement we 
can increase the available food supply by leaps and bounds. 
The practical inference I draw from my examination of the 
returns is not that in India, as a whole, we are in danger from 
excessive pressure of the population on the soil, — though that 
danger has actually arisen m a few congested localities, — but 
that we ought most deliberately to persevere in our present 
policy of extending artificial irrigation in those parts of the 
country where it is shown by experience to be beneficial. 

Last autumn, during a visit to Cambridge, I had the pleasure 
of meeting Professor Henry Sidgwick, who had seen the paper 
read by me at Cardiff. He pointed out to me that the argument 
in that paper assumed that the additional food supply was con- 
sumed by the additional population, and asked me how I recon- 
ciled that assumption witn the well-known fact that the Indian 
exports are largely in excess of the imports vear by year. How 
did I know that the whole of the extra food supply was not 
exported ? I frankly confessed that this important point had 
not struck me ; but I promised to consider it and to take, if 
possible, some opportunity of mentioning any conclusion I 
might come to in respect of it. 

I think I am now able to ofiCer an explanation which will be 
quite satisfactory to Professor Henry Sidgwick, and which, at 
all events, seems sufficient to me. The excess of the exports 
over the imports is no novelty in India. It naturally dia not 
occur some thirty years ago, when the capital was being raised 
for the guaranteed railways, and money and railway plant and 
material were being poured and piled mto the country ; and it 
reached its present proportions, or something like them, in the 
five years period 1869 to 1874. Some ten years ago, at the 
time of the report of the Famine Commission, the excess of 
exports over imports amounted to about £16,000,000 sterling a 
year. It has increased since, and was by the latest returns 
£18,760,000. Since the date of the report of the Famine Com- 
mission there may have been some local scarcities, as there are 
at this present time, but there has been no great famine. India, 
therefore, has been able to support her population and to meet 
the various charges which the excess of exports over imports repre- 
sent. For all these charges India receives a proper equivalent. 
She gains by the peace of the country, by British administra- 
tion, oy the great influx of British capital; and it is to these 
advantages that the charges are due. Generalljr they represent 
the whole cost of the English branch of the administration, part 
of the cost of the Indian administration, payments for British 
troops, stores and material, and the interest on British capital 
invested in India in private trade or public works, or invested 
in Indian sterling debt incurred for India in England. Now, 
as these charges have been met all along, it is only necessary 

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to show that the increase of the food supply will enable the 
additional population to meet any increase of these charges 
which may nave taken place. I find that the excess of the total 
annual exports over the total annual imports averaged, in the 
five years ending March 31, 1889, £16,500,000 sterling. As 
I have said, the latest figures show an excess of £18750,000 
sterling. We have, then, to account for an increase of 
£2,250,000. Even if we suppose this to be permanent, 
which it may not be, the food supply has sufficiently increased 
to keep pace with it, I have shown that we have an extra 
food supply for 11,750,000 against an actual increase of 
9,000,000. There is a surplus, therefore, consisting of food 
supply for 2,750,000, or of equivalent conmiodities, if, as is 
no doubt the case, part of the additional irrigated or culti- 
vated area is sown with products that do not yield food. The 
value of that food supply or of these other commodities may be 
roughly estimated at £2,000,000 sterling. This will nearly cover 
the £2,250,000 increase in the excess of imports over exports 
for which we have to account; and it ought not to cover it 
completely, for the agricultural returns, on which the whole 
argument is founded, omit Bengal, an enormous province, three 
times the size of England, containing a population 9,000,000 in 
excess of that of the United States. !Bengal is a rich and 
thriving province as well as a great one; and I have no doubt 
that if statistics for Bengal were available we should find an 
ample surplus to cover the £250,000 sterling which remains. 

I have no space here to enter upon the large question of 
railway construction in India considered as a means of famine 
prevention and agricultural improvement ; but I will just briefly 
allude to it, lest I appear to have overlooked a matter of so con- 
spicuous importance. Objections are often raised to the con- 
struction of canals for artificial irrigation on the grounds that 
thev ultimately exhaust the soil, produce swampage, beget fever, 
and enfeeble the population. I never but once heard any general 
objection raised to railways in India, and that was the remark 
of an officer who had spent many years in Northern India, but 
was perhaps too much versed in languages and ethnology to be 
equally familiar with political economy. He thought that the 
enormous stimulus to the export of food grains, which has been 
due to through railway communication with the seaboard, had 
added to the difficulties of the rural population by raising the 
price of food. I am not prepared to say that there has been no 
suffering amongst landless classes from this cause ; but so far as 
they are paid in grain, it would not affect them, and the equal- 
ising of the prices of food grains which has taken place over 
large areas in consequence of railway construction, though it 
necessarily involves an increase of price in some places, is on 
the whole one of the very best and surest of the safeguards 

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The Recent Progress of Indian AgricvMure, 209 

against famine. It spreads over millions that economy in con- 
sumption which may be a sort of insurance for the lives of 
nearly alL Politically, commercially, and agriculturally the 
advantages of railway construction in India are so vast that it 
may be ranked, with the construction of irrigation works, at the 
head of aU possible agricultural improvements in that country. 
That the Government is fully alive to these considerations may 
be seen from the fact that the railway mileage in India has 
been nearly doubled in the last eleven years. There were in 
India 8,492 miles of open line in 1879-80, and in 1889-90 no less 
than 16,097 milea 

As for the objections which have been raised to the construc- 
tion of canals, I cannot but think them to be largely due to the 
mistakes of ourselves and our predecessors. The Muhammadan 
emperors or governors constructed more than one canal in the 
Delhi territory or the Punjab proper, but these old works were 
very badly aligned. Some of our own works have been badly 
aligned too ; and occasionally canals may have been made where, 
from the nearness of the water-table, or the incapacity of the 
soil to benefit by irrigation, or the previous existence of irriga- 
tion from wells on a sufficiently extensive scale, no such works 
were really necessary. But, as experience has been gained, such 
mistakes have been avoided, and it is extremely unlikely that 
any canal would now be constructed w here it would not pay ; 
and if it pays, we may pretty safely assume that the general 
conditions are favourable for that form of water supply, though 
in no case must we overlook the importance of avoiding that 
swampage of the soil which in the sequel injures its productive- 
ness and the health of the population. The fact is there are in 
India many forms of artificial irrigation suited to different 
localities ; and in some places the soil is rapidly exhausted by 
irrigation unless it is simultaneously manured. I may mention, 
for instance, two forms of irrigation from hill streams, at the 
base of the Sulaiman range and in the Punjab Hills respectively. 
In the one case, the waters of the intermittent torrents, which 
flow only in the rainy season, are led into embanked fields : and 
when the higher fields have had their share, a cutting is made 
in the embankment and the water is passed on to nelds at a 
lower level. In the other case, the clear spring water of per- 
petual flow is conducted in tiny channels ramifying intricately 
amongst the little terraced fields which are cut out of the steep 
mountain sides, and buttressed up with rocks or masonry to 
keep them in position. In parts of the Deccan and Mysore the 
storm- water is caught in tanks, often of enormous size, and then 
distributed in channels to the fields. At suitable points above 
the deltas of the great rivers of the Madras Presidency dams, 
called anicuts, are thrown across the stream, and the water thus 
raised to a higher level is taken out of the river by canals. In 

Digitized by 


210 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

the Punjab we have two neat classes of canals ; the inundation 
canals, rough works which depend for their supply on the rise 
of the rivers in the flood season ; and the perennial canals, 
constructed with elaborate and costly head works placed high 
up in the course of great rivers so as to intercept part of their 
volume and direct it to a level from which it can be utilised by 
gravitation at all seasons of the year. In soil, in climate, and 
in configuration and levels, the Punjab is abundantly adapted 
for canal construction; and there are many million acres of 
virgin soil available, that require only water and cultivation for 
the production of excellent crops. In ereat measure like 
remarks apply to Sindh ; and it may be said' generally that the 
Punjab and Sindh should be an Egypt, of which the Indus and 
its confluents should be the Nile. Much has been done and is 
being done to put some such idea into practice. 1 have else- 
where described at length the great progress which has been 
made in canal construction in the Punjab ; and I will here only 
say that the canals of permanent flow in that province have now 
a sanctioned mileage of 1,469 canal miles of 5,000ft., while the 
distributaries connected with these canals are, in the aggregate, 
7,308 like miles in length. Most of these works have been com- 
pleted. But the Sirsa branch of the Western Jumna canal and 
the Chenab canal are still under construction. 

Nor is it only in the Punjab that there has been recent pro- 
gress in India in that recent important form of agricultural 
improvement which consists in the extension of facilities for 
irrigation. Far down in Southern India there is a very bold 
and striking project, known as the Periar project, which was 
ably described by Colonel Hasted at a meeting of the Society of 
Arts on April 30, 1891. A whole river is to be turned back 
through a mountain range to water 140,000 acres in the Madura 
district. The Periar river naturally flows down the west side of 
the Travancore ghauta But it is being caught in the watershed 
by a dam 155ft. high, which pens the water into a lake 8,000 
acres in area ; and the water is then conducted to the east or 
Madura side of the ghauts by a tunnel 6,650ft long. 

In the construction of wells, also, there has been progress 
worthy of note. The extension of canals means that capital 
raised by Grovemment is being applied to the soil; but th& 
multiplication of wells shows that private effort is being directed 
to a most useful form of agricultural improvement Loans can 
be, and often are, obtained by private persons from the (jovem- 
ment for the construction of wells ; and the frequency of such 
construction is a healthy symptom of security of tenure. Here 
again the diversity of agricultural conditions in India is a pro- 
minent fact. In some places, particularly in upland tracts 
between great rivers, the water table is too far below the surface 
for wells to be constructed with profit Sometimes the subsoil* 

Digitized by 


The Recent Progress of Indian Agriculture. 211 

is too friable for wells to be made except with a masonry lining 
at considerable cost. Sometimes a rocky subsoil forbids well 
construction altogether. The main country for wells is that 
which lies along the great rivers of the Indus and Ganges sys- 
tems in Northern India. In the Madras Presidency rather more 
than a million acres are cultivated b}f means of wella But in 
the much smaller province of Oudh the well acreage exceeds 
that of the Madras Presidency ; and out of a total area of 
9,967,700 acres irrigated by wells in India generally (except 
Bengal), the Punjab and the North-West Provinces taken 
together account for nearly 7,500,000 acres. The area thus 
irrigated in other provinces is insi^ificant. Between the years 
1885-6 and 1889-90 the area irrigated by wells increased by 
about 1,250,000 acres. 

Another fairly recent improvement of very great consequence 
to the a^cultural population has been the revision of the land 
tenures in the whole of Northern India, undertaken largely with 
the view of extending security of tenure so far as this mi^ht be 
compatible with the undoubted rights of certain classes m the 
soil The tenancy question has been deliberately faced in Bengal, 
the North-West Provinces, Oudh, the Central Provinces, and 
the Punjab ; and in each case a new law has been passed within 
the last ten years dealing comprehensively witn the whole 
subject. Simultaneously new laws for the assessment and 
collection of the land revenue have been enacted for the Punjab 
and the Central Provinces, and in the Punjab the whole land 
revenue system has been remodelled so that it shall better 
harmonise with the methods of agricultural inquiry advocated 
by the Famine Commission. 

I may now briefly sum up the really important improve- 
ments in the conditions of agriculture in India since the date of 
the report of the Famine Commission, from which we all recog- 
nise that we have made a new departure. First, agricultural 
inquiry has been systematised in all provinces in tne manner 
already explained. Secondly, the distribution of produce has 
been immensely facilitated by the extension of railways. 
Thirdly, the irrigated area has been enlarged by the construction 
of canals and wells. Fourthly, there has been that rectification 
of the law of landlord and tenant which I have just described. I 
will add here a fifth improvement of much value and significance 
in such a country as India, where agricultural improvement in 
general largely consists of measures lor the prevention of famine, 
or the mitigation of its ravages, when it unhappily occurs. In 
accordance with the advice of the Famine Commission, famine 
codes have been prepared for all parts of the country known to 
be liable to famine. These are manuals framed with due regard 
to local circumstances, and assigning in detail their proper func- 
tions to all who may be engaged in the relief of famine. Projects 

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-212 The Jov/rndL of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

-for relief works, which will serve some useful purpose and may 
be undertaken at once when necessity arises^ have also been 
-elaborated ; and are kept on record in an accessible form, so, that 
the business of relief, when it is inevitable, may be undertaken 
without any delay, and without that confusion which is sure to 
ensue if there are no plans, or if a number of different plans, 
hastily devised in an emergency, suddenly come into competi- 
tion with each other. 

Looking to the future, I may remark that there is still abun- 
dance of waste land in many parts of the British Indian empire. 
There is a vast extent of culturable land, as yet untillea, in 
the Northern Punjab, in parts of the Central Provinces, and in 
Assam and Burma. But m many places where land is available, 
the soil is poor, or the country is feverish, or the conditions of 
life would be so strange to emigrants from the congested tracts 
of Northern India that any considerable movement of the 
population to these localities is not to be expected. Where the 
colonisation of Indian soil by natives of Inaia presents the best 
prospects of success is in the vast spaces between the great 
Punjab rivers, which are, as it fortunatelv happens, so well 
adapted for the construction of canals. The Punjab, opened 
out by the railway to the port of Elarachi and by the increa- 
singly numerous railways which converge on the strategic points 
of Lahore and Multan, is becoming, and ought to become, one 
of the great wheat fields of the empire. 

In the congested tracts, which include the Patna and 
Burdwan Divisions of Bengal, the Benares Division, the Lower 
and Middle Do^bs in the North-West Provinces, parts of Rohil- 
khund and Oudh, and two or three districts near the foot of the 
hills in the Punjab, there is little or no room for the expansion 
of cultivation and what is technically called internecine agri- 
culture has an importance comparable with that which it 
possesses in the populous countries of Europe. If we take up 
virgin soils, that is extensive agfriculture ; if we increase the 
produce of, or reap more valuable products from soils already 
cultivated, that is intensive agriculture. It is part of the Indian, 
as of some other agricultural problems, to turn extensive into 
intensive progress. Here, except in the very important matter 
of the spread of artificial irrigation, the past record has little to 
show. Experimental farms have never proved very successful 
in India; more often they have entirely failed. A few new 
products have been introduced — New Orleans cotton, Mauritius 
sugar-cane, potatoes, tea, coffee, and chinchona. The prepara- 
tion of tobacco for the English market is also a new and a 
successful industry. Next to nothing has been done in the 
introduction of better agricultural implements; not for want 
•of effort, but because the conditions of Indian agriculture differ 
widely from those of the West, In a vast pnmitive country 

Digitized by 


The RecevU Progress of Indian Agriculture. 213- 

where, off the Imes of rail, means of commiinioation are com* 
monly bad, and where there is abundance of labour, the applica- 
tion of steam to husbandry is usually out of the question. And 
where farming is not a business in which capital is invested, 
but the means of subsistence for millions of small peasant pro- 
prietors, tools of all kinds must be very cheap, and so simple in 
construction that they can easily be mended by village black- 
smiths. I know of only one conspicuous success in new agricul- 
tural implements. A mill, called the Beheea sugar mill, has a 
large sale in Upper India. 

The problem of manure has much importance in India, but 
certainly has not yet been solved. Tnere have been ereat 
changes in Indian trade; and though indigo and opium nold 
their own, the gossamers and brocades of the East, the spices, 
silk, lac, dyestu£& and the like, the old traditional exports from 
Oriental countries, have lost their relative conseauence. Europe^ 
now sends to India cotton piece-goods, and taKcs from India 
raw cotton, wheat, oil-seeds, hides, and jute. Will this export 
of raw produce and import of manufactured articles tend to the^ 

gradual impoverishment of the soil? This question struck 
rofessor Crookes, who heard the paper I read at Cardiff, and 
he was kind enough to send me a very interesting little book, 
by M. Ville, called " The Perplexed Farmer." Professor Crookes 
lias lately translated this book, and, although I have no know- 
ledge of agricultural chemistry, it seems to me, so &r as I can 
venture to form an opinion, to deserve the attention of Indian 

M. Ville's book comprises an analvsis of plant life, and enu- 
merates the fourteen mgredients that are always present in^ 
plants — ingredients, some drawn from the atmosphere, some 
nrom water, some from the soil. By a series of experiments in 
the growth of plants in the wholly unfertile medium of calcined 
sand, it may have been demonstrated that difierent chemicals 
are dominant in the nutriment of difierent plants. M. Ville 
states this conclusion as a certain one, and it may be so, but I 
have avoided positive expressions because, as a mere inquirer, 
I am not aware how far his conclusions have been endorsed by 
other authorities. However, the theory is that the dominant 
ingredient is that which, if present in sufficient quantity, pro- 
duces the maximum of growth; and that the best chemical 
manure for a soil which has not the required dominant in suffi- 
cient quantity is that dominant itself. 

I tnink it would be worth while to test M. Ville's conclu- 
sions by experiments in India, and if they are accepted, to carry 
the experiments on to the analysis of soils suitable for wheat, 
sugar-cane, and other products, and to make local inquiries as 
to the presence in particular places of the dominants required 
for different plants at distances from the fields of their cultiva- 

Digitized by 


214 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

tion short enough to prevent the cost of transport being prohibi- 
tive. If the whole theory is sound and coula be made intelli- 
gible to Indian cultivators, I think it probable that they would 
find out how to avoid the difficulty of the cost of carriage and 
to get useful dominants extracted from some soils in India 
itself for the purpose of applying them to others. The cost of 
carriage makes any imported manure at present appear unpro- 
mising ; and in India £a.rmyard manure, though used in fields 
near village sites, is very largely needed for fuel. 

In conclusion, let me add that we must not forget the relative 
importance of improvements in agriculture when regarded in 
connection with other work that the Indian Government has to 
do. It has to manage and strengthen the complicated finances 
of a great empire. It has to devise and steadily pursue a two- 
fold foreiffn policy towards other Asiatic countries on the one 
hand, and, on the other hand, towards the six or seven hundred 
internal states of Native India which are under the protection 
of the British power. It has to provide suitable laws for multi- 
form and multitudinous populations. It has to see to the 
efficient administration of justice, to attend to police, saols, and 
medical relief, and all the requirements of civilised rule. After 
all, the greatest of all agricultural improvements is peace ; and 
that has been bestowed by the British Government on the 
Indian continent. Dr. Cunningham's book, which I quoted at 
the beginning of this paper, describes how William the Conqueror 
harriea the north of England so thoroughly that page after page 
of Domesday Book shows how one manor after another, wnich 
had been fairly well stocked in the time of King Edward the 
Confessor, was then valueless and wastd. There are many parts 
of India, such as Khandeish in the Bombay Presidency, the 
Karndl District in the Punjab, and portions of the Southern 
Deccan, which have been exposed within the last two hundred 
years to similar ravages. On and beyond the north-west frontier 
1 have myself seen what the state of -many parts of India was 
like in the times before British rule, — towers in the fields as 
places of refuge, villages built with a view to defence against 
attack, all the operations of husbandry and pasturage carried 
on by men with arms at hand. Except on the frontiers of the 
empire we have no lontrer to contend with the intermittent or 
ever incessant raiding o^ predatory bands. In the greater part 
of India organised brigandage and unceasing private war have 
been suppressed The pacification has been so complete that 
we sometimes seem to be in danger of forgetting that it was ever 
eflFected. But the condition of Upper India in 1857 should be 
a warning that however stable peace may appear, vigilance must 
never be relaxed. 

Nothing is more true of economic history than that it is 
closely related with the political conditions of the time. Mis- 

Digitized by 


The Recent Progress of Indian AgricvMv/re. 215 

government, war, and anarchy mean the absence of security ; 
and insecurity is fatal to improvements in agriculture, as it 
is fatal to improvements in commerce, and for the same reason 
it sans the motives to industry. We cannot hope in a few 
decaaes to change the hereditary character of peasants which 
has been formed in centuries ofoppression and violence, nor can 
we convert in any brief space of time to Western scientific belief 
the empiricism of a thousand generations. But we can, at all 
events, give to the people security of person and property ; we 
can frame just laws and enforce them ; we can promote primary 
instruction and diffuse useful economic information ; ana we can 
add to the efficiency of agriculture by the adoption of a variety 
of preventives against famine, and conspicuously by the con- 
struction of railways and canala When we have done all this, 
we must leave very largelv in the hands of the people themselves, 
in the hands of these multifarious Indian races and states, for 
whose well-being the British nation is responsible, such further 
progress in Inaian agriculture as the future may have to 


The Engliih Imperial AiUu of the World, By J. G. fiartholomew, F.RQ.S. Gontain- 
iDg o^er 220 maps, charts, plaos of citiea, &c., revised to the preuent date;, also a 
QflUBOtteer of above 50,000 places with new census returns. Crown folio, doth 
gilt. Price One Guinea. Published by T. Nelson and Sons, London, Edinburgh, 
and New York. 

This is an admirable handy atlas, suitable for the student and for family use. 
The maps are printed on stout paper, back and front. Astronomical geography, 
meteorology, commercial geography, physical and political geography, are all well 
repreeentML The colours for tiie map printing are delicately used. Some of the 
physical maps are very good, and the north and south polar regions are illustrated 
with maps of great clearness and value. Many of the maps are illustrated with 
sections of elevation which are most useful in giving an idea of the orography of the 
countries. The Index or (Gazetteer is very full, the population according to the 
latest Authorities being given. It would have taken too much space perhaps, but one 
desires to see Uie latitudes and longitudes given to the places in the index. These are 
wanting, and in this respect there is a manifest deficiency. However, the Atlas on the 
whole is one that is of a convenient size, clearly printed, brought up to date as far as 
possible, and will, we trust, have a wide circulation. It is a very good illustration of 
the movement in cartographic circles for something better than we have hitherto had, 
and we are glad to welcome a book so well done and at a price which is small compared 
to the value offered. We recommend our members to examine the copy in the Library, 
with which we are sure they will be delighted. 

If€icmUlan*s School AUas : Physical and PoLUical. — ^A series of eighty maps, with 
general index. By J. G. Btutholomew, F.RG.S. Published by Macmillan and Co., 
London and New York, 1891. Price 7s. 6d. 

This is a delightful book, well got up, and will be of great use to those 
pupils who may have the good fortune to become possessed of a copy. In the index 
of geographic tl places, the latitude and longitude is given, and the number of the map 
where the place named can be found. The physical maps are well done, and the page 
of map projections is useful. It is a capital book. 

Digitized by 


216 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 


By Mr. W. 0. FURNIYALL, Mem. Lut OiTa EDgineen. 

(See Maps.) 

[Read to the Members, in the Large Room of the Manchester Chamber of Gommeroe, 
Tuesday, October 20th, 1891, at 7-80 p.m.] 

A SUGGESTION has been made that a note on Indian rail- 
ways will be acceptable, and may prove interesting to the 
Society. The subject is a very wide one, and I have not anything 
like the time to give an exhaustive treatment of the subject. I 
feel, however, encouraged to attempt to supply an outline, which 
by its barrenness of" detail may perhaps attract attention to 
points of practical importance, and may thus possibly lead to 
useful results. 

Railways were begun in India about forty years ago, but 
the first contracts date from 1849. 

Whether the East India Company — then the British ruling 
power in India — ever contemplated the development of railways 
by private enterprise, in a manner similar to the development 
of railways in England and America, without a guarantee, does 
not appear in official records. It seems probable, however, that 
the directors would have preferred to keep matters in their own 
hands by a tight agreement with constructing companies — in 
any case they did so — even had there been a reasonable hope 
of inducing English capitalists to invest money without a gua- 

The trading classes of India have always striven to make a 
high percentage out of small investments, and at the time when 
railways were first commenced would not have invested any 
money in such undertakings. As a matter of fact, they have 
done ]ittle or nothing since. 

The agricultural population has always been extremely poor, 
and is not directly interested in raising the value of land by 
increasing facilities for commimication with other districts. 
Land is usually held by tenants for a term of years only, and 
proprietary rights are rare except in the case of native princes, 
rajahs, and hereditary landowners, who bear a small proportion 
to the whole. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Railway Commv/nications of India, 217 

It was arranged bj the Government that a guarantee of 5 
per cent should be given. This sufficed to attract money in 
England, and four companies were formed in 1849 : — 

1. The East India Railway Company. 

2. The Great Indian Peninsula Kailway Company. 

3. The Madras Railway Company. 

4. The Bombay and Baroda Railway Company. 

All lines were to be constructed on a standard gauge of 5ft. 6in., 
and all works were to be carried out in accordance with instruc- 
tions issued from time to time by the Government. 

A few years afterwards a fifth company was added to connect 
Karachi with the Punjab, by a railway to Kotri on the Indus, 
from which point a steam flotilla was to be established to Mool- 
tan, and from thence another railway was to be constructed to 
Lahore and Umritsur. (See map of railways.) 

Experience has shown that the routes were wisely chosen. 
The East India Railway traversed the rich valley of the Ganges 
for quite 800 miles, and though it was in competition with the 
boat traffic upon the river, justified its selection at a very early 
date after completioa Its course, almost parallel to the great 
river, caused it to meet many very formidable obstacles, neces- 
Bitating several very large bridges requiring great engineering 

The Great Indian Peninsula Railway had to ascend the 
Ghauts at two points— one in a direct line with Jabulpur, where 
it was to join the East India Railway, and the other a little 
further south to effect a junction with the Madras Railway at 
Rinchur. This was a bold engineering effort, for mountain 
railways had not been previously attempted in Europe. 

The Bombay and fearoda Railway route passed along the 
'Coast, and so tne line had to cross many big rivers at points 
where they enter the sea. The most recent accounts from 
India give information concerning some destructive floods that 
have just occurred which have damaged this railway over 60 
miles of its length. If after so many years security has not 
been gained, it may be imagined how difficult the first efforts 
to construct a line must have appeared. 

The Scinde and Punjab Railways and the Indus flotilla were 
designed to afford direct communication between the Punjab 
and the port of Karachi. The flotilla, however, proved a failure, 
owing to the difficulty of navigating the shoal water in the 
rivers, and eventually a connecting link up the valley of the 
Indus had to be added, necessitating several very large bridges, 
one of 790ft. span over the Indus at Sukkar. This connecting 
link railway was built by the Government of India State Rail- 
way Department, not by the Guaranteed Railway Company. 

The selection of the first routes for the first railways built in 
India was greatly simplified by the absence of good ports on the 

Digitized by 


218 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

coast. On the west coast, Bombay and Karachi were the onl^ 
ports — ships touched in fine weather at many places — but until 
the construction of the harbour at Mamurgoa Bay, in Portu- 
guese territory, very recently, there were no ports except Bom- 
bay and Karachi. The east coast is even worse off, for it may 
be said that there are no ports, even to the present day, as far 
north as Calcutta, a distance of about 1,000 miles. A harbour 
is bein^ built at Madras, but damage has occurred several times 
by cyclones, and the works are still incomplete. Calcutta is 
situated about 90 miles up the Hoogly river. The approach is 
not good, but accidents are rare, now that tug steamers are used 
for all sailing vessels. All the most important trade of the rich 
Ganges delta centres on Calcutta. 

The great Indian Mutiny of 1857 afforded terrible evidence 
of the need of railways in British interests for military opera- 
tions. Shortly after this event the East India Company ceased 
to exist, and the government was assumed by the Crown. 

Drought caused a great famine in 1859-61, which drew 
forcible attention to the need of improved communication in 
times of scarcity of food. The Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
Company was the first to open a section of line to public traffie 
20^ miles in length in 1853 ; the East India Railway followed 
the next year with 37^ miles ; and up to the year 1860 in all 
480 miles were open to public traflSc. In the next ten years 
the open mileage rose to 4,775, of which 27 miles, was 4ft. gauge. 

Traffic on the different lines at first did not realise expecta- 
tions, and about the year 1870 the obligations of the Govern- 
ment pressed heavily on the Exchequer. It was thought that 
the 5 per cent guarantee system was an expensive one, and led 
to extravagant expenditure in construction, and it was deter- 
mined to enect economies. Among other measures a change of 
gauge was taken into consideration, and it was determined to 
build all new railways, and to manage them also, under the 
direct supervision of the State, by a State Railway Department. 
This policy was maintained during the next ten years — 1870 ta 
1880. A metre gau^e was introduced instead of the 5ft. 6in. 
gauge, the total mileage open at the close of the decade 
being: — 


Broad gauge 6,885 

Narrow gauge 2,478 

Total 9,808 

The narrow gauge includes two or three short lines of 2ft. and 
2^ft. besides the metre gauge. 

During this period the East India Railway Company's con- 
tract terminated, and the line became State property on pay- 

Digitized by 


Railway CommuTiicaticma of India. 219 

ment to the shareholders of certain Securities. Arrangements 
were, however, made for a company to work the line. 

Two famines occurred between 1870 and 1880, both disas- 
trous in their effects, and trouble with Afghanistan drew atten- 
tion to the need of frontier railways for militar3»^ purposes. 

Shortly after 1880 a question arose concerning the advantage 
which had been gained by the State accepting the direct 
responsibility of constructing railways, and it was eventually 
decided to appeal to private enterprise again, which led to 
several contracts with companies on special terms, some of the 
lines being broad gauge ana some narrow. The history of these 
efforts would not prove very interesting, and explanations would 
be very long. 

During the next ten years construction of railways progressed 
as rapidly as the provision of funds was sanctioned by the 
Imperial Parliament. The contracts of several more of the 
older guaranteed companies had terminated ; their lines, there- 
fore, became State property, under terms similar to those 
arranged with the East India Railway Company. 

Map No. 2 shows the Indian railway system as nearly as can 
be ascertained at the present time. All the broad-gauge lines 
are coloured red, and!^ all the narrow gauge blue. It will be 
observed that the north-west frontier has been protected bv 
broad ^auge entirely, and that these lines are connected with 
the mam system of railways by way of Lahore only. This might 
prove a disadvantage in times of war, and it is certainly desiraole 
to command another route. Another connection is, however, 
difficult, for the coimtry intervening between the narrow gauge 
system of Rajputana aild the Indus is mostly desert, in which 
great waves of sand are blown about by the scorching hot winds 
which prevail at some seasons of the year. This feature of the 
country is a very serious obstacle to the construction of railways, 
and efforts to overcome the difficulty have not as yet been made. 
Water is also very scarce — deep below the surface, and in many 
places very salt. 

All the railways finished in India have been extremely well 
built. Many of the physical obstacles met with have required 
engineering works of great magnitude. It would be impossible 
in a short paper to give details of these structures ; it will suffice 
to say that very many of the bridges can be most favourably 
compared with railway bridges in any other part of the world. 
The floods met with in India are at times very heavy, and have 
needed very exceptional measures to insure safety. A few 
instances may be given. The flood of 1868 at Attock, near 
which a bridge over the Indus has been built within the last 
ten years, rose over 100ft. The highest recorded flood in the 
Chambul between Agra and Gwalior rose to 97ft. The Ganges 
rises nearly 70ft. at Benares. Some of the rivers run into flood 

Digitized by 


220 The Jowmal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

for several miles on each side of the main channel, which is 
usually in shifting alluvial soil, needing elaborate training em- 
bankments and very costly bridge foundations. 

Many years ago it used to be a common saying in India that 
if the English left the country the evidence of their tenancy 
would be recorded in the number of broken beer bottles that 
they left behind them. Such a reproach cannot with justice be 
applied now. The evidence of an ever-increasing and peacefully- 
disposed population may be the greatest achievement of the 
English, and at least some noble engineering works have been 
built in their days. 

The questions arise, however, have the English done enough ? 
So far as railways are concerned, does the completed mileage at 
the present date indicate a rapid progress, or the reverse ? An 
analysis of some of the records lately received will throw 
some light on this subject. 

As regards capital outlay, I find the following statement in 
an explanatory memorandum by the Under Secretary of State 
for India, heaaed Accounts and Estimates, 1891-92 : — 


Miles open at end of 1890 16,277 

Capital outlay at end of year 2,128,293,590 nipeee. 

Average cost per mile open 130,750 „ 

Number of passengers carried 110,165,080 

Number of tons of goods carried 22,193,298 

Gross receipts 204,498,690 rupees. 

Working expenses 102,608,800 „ 

Net receipts 101,889,989 „ 

Percentage of net receipts on capital cost 4'79 „ 

It is added, in somewhat of a rueful strain, however : " While, 
however, the railways gave in India a return exceeding by 4f 
per cent on their capital cost, the expense of paying in England 
the interest in gold was so heavy that the result of the railway 
revenue account is to impose a considerable charge on the 
Government, as shown in the following statement." 

The statement referred to need not be given here, because it 
evidently includes payments for services, besides the railway 
account. This "considerable charge," as designated by the 
Under-Secretary of State, is an accident in the fluctuation of 
the value of Indian money, and bears a direct ratio to the rela- 
tive value maintained between silver and gold 

The following remarks, occur in the Administrative Report 
on the Railways m India, by Colonel Conway-Gordon, director- 
general of railways. The report is for the year 1889-90, and is 
therefore nearly eighteen months old, but it is the most recent 
procurable. These reports do not reach London until September 
m each year. 

Digitized by 


Mailway Commv/nicationa of India. 221 

** It is extremely difficult to give a clear idea of the financial 
transactions of railways in India. In many cases the capital 
has been raised in sterling in England; in a few others the 
capital has been subscribed in rupees in India ; while in the 
case of all the State railways the expenditure is met from the 
general Treasury balances of the empire, pajrments in England 
being made in sterling and payments in India in rupee cur- 
rency. For the conversion of the sterling payments into rupees 
no general fixed rate of exchange can be or has been adopted. 
In the case of the older guaranteed companies a rate of exchange 
of Is. lOd. was agreed upon in the contracts ; in other contracts 
other varying rates have been fixed ; while for the State rail- 
ways the excnange varies yearly, roughly following the mercan- 
tile rate of exchange. The result is that nearly all statements 
in connection with capital expenditure, whether the figures be 
given in sterling or in rupees, have to be accepted subject to 
such modifications for purposes of comparison as may be 
required, owing to the rate of exchange adopted in the parti- 
cular case. Tne figures showing the revenue earnings and 
working expenses are in the main unaffected by exchange, and, 
as stated in rupees, may be accepted as accurate." 

Short of adopting a bimetallic currency there seems no 
remedy for this state of things in India ; but such a measure 
affects too man}^ interests to render discussion of its influence 
on railways possible in this paper. 

In the memorandum of the Under-Secretary of State which 
I have already quoted it is stated that the total capital outlay 
up to the year 1890 has been 2,128,293,590 rupees. The sum 
is expressed in tens of rupees — rx., as it is written — ^because it 
was at one time usual to convert rupees into pounds sterling by 
dividing by ten, a fallacy long since exploded. 

The last census of India, taken February this year, gives the 
following figures : Population of British India, 220J millions ; 
and that of the feudatory States, 65^ — total, 286 millions. 

The railways which have been constructed serve the whole 
area. It therefore follows that the expenditure equals 7'44 
rupees, or lis. at present rates of exchange, and the length 3^in. 
per imit of population. 

I have occasionally heard a comparison made between the 
development of the United States railways and Indian railways, 
and I nave now made some investigations, the result of which 
show that up to 1888 the length of railways completed in 
America was 156,082 miles,* and the expenditure 9,369 mil- 
lion dollars. The population may be computed at about 60 
millions at that date. The progress therefore was 13f feet in 
length, and £32 4s. per unit of population, which, compared 

* January 1, 1891, 167,741 miles. 

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222 The Journal of the Mancliester Geographical Society. 

with the figures for India, gives — ^length, 47 times ; expendi- 
ture, 58^ times progress in India per unit of populatioa 

At this point the comparison may be permitted to cease, for 
it is absolutely impossible to find mathematical formulae which 
will express with any approach to truth the difference between 
the circumstances existing in the two coimtries. It would need 
a very vivid imagination to suppose conditions in India which 
would cause the profitable development of railways at the rate 
maintained during the recent years in the United States. 

The construction of railways in the United States has been 
effected by the people themselves, for their own individual 
benefit ; they take the profit whether derived from " operating 
the lines " or from the enhanced value of land, and they bear 
the loss if their speculations do not realise first anticipations. 

An interesting account is given in a book lately published, 
called " The Railways of America," in which it is stated that at 
the close of 1876 the total capital invested in American rail- 
ways amounted to 4,468J millions of dollars, while at the close 
of 1888 the investments had increased to 9,369^ millions of 
dollars, or about 1,010 million pounds sterling had been expended 
in the interval of 12 years, equal to 84 millions sterling a year. 
The book concludes with the following remarks : " It is smo to 
say that no financial interest shows a total of such wonderful 
magnitude. And with greater emphasis may it be said that 
the finances of the world record in all ages to the present day 
no such astounding increase of investment." 

In India the people love old customs, and are wedded to old 
ways. Personal energy is not a distinctive characteristic of the 
race, and they are extremely poor, so poor that the taxes which 
would appear very trivial m most other countries would be 
viewed as a great burden in India. 

In connection with railway making, the following little illus- 
tration will suffice to show how narrow a margin exists in the 
income of many of the labouring classes. 

Suppose that the railways in India only paid their working 
expenses and earned no profit, and that the Government had to 
tax the people in order to obtain funds to pay 4 per cent on the 
capital invested up to the beginning of this year m railways, the 
sum required each year from each house would be 1*6 rupee, 
equal to about 2s. 4d. There are 52 million* houses in India 
occupied by the 286 millions of people. Small as this tax may 
appear, it would nevertheless press heavily on many of the 
people, for there are many housenolds all the members of which 
nave to exist on less than 100 rupees a year. Such a contin- 
gency is not in the least likely to arise, however, for the railways 
pay 4f per cent on the stated capital outlay during this year 
ending 31st December last. 

• Consiis this year. 

Digitized by 


Railway Commtmicationa of India, 223 

The most recent administration report now obtainable is for 
the year 1889-90, by the Director-General of Railways, from 
which I have abstracted the following figures. These details 
are not absolutely accurate, separate figures not bein^ given for 
broad and narrow gauge of one system of railway m Bengal, 
which has entailed an estimate of results in that case only, out 
this affects general results in a very minute degree. 

Results for the Ybab 1889-90. 
broad gaugk. 

Total mileage open to public traffic 9,428 

Total capital outlay 1,674,166,139 rupees 

Qroes rerenue earned 158,699,052 „ 

Expenses 75,874,042 „ 

Net receipts 78,825,010 „ 

Percentage earned 4*98 percent 

Traffic per mile per week 318 rupees 

Ayerage cost per mUe of railway 166,967 „ 


Total mileage open to public traffic 6,413 

Total capital outlay 476,294,855 rupees 

Gross revenue earned 51,237,577 „ 

Expenses 28,899,965 „ 

Net receipts 22,887,612 „ 

Percentage earned 4*80 

Traffic per mile per week 154 rupees 

Ayerage oost per mile of railway 74,470 „ 


Total mileage open to public traffic 1 5,841 

Total capital outlay 2,050,460,994 rupees 

Gross reyenue earned 204,936,629 „ 

Expenses 103,774,007 „ 

Net receipts 101,162,622 „ 

Percentage earned 4*93 

Traffic per mile per week 249 rupees 

Average cost per mile of railway 129,440 „ 

It is worthy of remark that the narrow gauge earned nearly the 
same percentage on capital outlay as the broad ^auge on rather 
less than half the traflSc per mile per week. It is true that the 
broad gauge has over 900 miles of unproductive military frontier 
lines, but the narrow gauge has also been carried into sparsely- 
populated districts where traflSc develops slowly. 

A break of gau^e in any country is a national misfortune. 
The disadvantage is most acutely felt when the necessity for 
maximum efficiency is greatest, during a famine perhaps or in 
war time, when a steady stream of trains constantly running is 
needed. A check is given at the point where the break occurs, 
and after a while the wildest confusion occurs in transhipment 

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224 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

Discussions regarding the relative merits of different gauges 
very often end in acrimonious disputes, and it is not my m- 
tention to endeavour either to justify the Government of India 
in its decision to change the gauge twenty years ago, or to 
accuse the administrators of those days of fault. Financially, 
the returns now show that both gauges have proved successful, 
and have earned dividends which many chairmen of railway 
companies in England would be proud to present to their 

Regarded as carrying machines, it must be recognised that 
the broad gauge possesses advantages over the metre gauge, 
for it will carry more in a given time. This advantage is 
thoroughly appreciated during the times of urgency, such as 
war and famine. 

The East India Railway has now a heavy traffic, and pays 
well, although the construction has been costly. Two years ago 
it is represented to have paid a little njore than 8 00 per cent 
on a capital expenditure of 364 millions of rupees. The gross 
receipts were 538 rupees per mile per week (aoout £40). The 
same year in England the average gross receipts of thirty-three 
of the most important lines was £77 16s. per mile per week. I 
am unable to give the percentage earned in the latter case. 
Efforts have from time to time been made to discover the 
means of comparing the railway goods freights and passenger 
fares of England and other countries, but absolutely accurate 
results cannot be obtained, because competition causes diffiBrent 
railways in England to establish similar tariffis at certain points 
irrespective of distances traversed. 

Some calculations have been lately made, the results of which 
are given in a book called " English and American Railways 
Compared," which are probably very nearly right. The follow- 
ing fibres will give an idea of the relative charges in England, 
America, and India, based upon the best evidence which it 
seems possible to obtain at the present : — 

Lowest Passenger Special Goods. 

Inures. Minerals, Qraln. 

Per MUe Per Ton-Mile. 

England (very approximate) ..« Id. Oa. Jd. to Ob. Id. 

America (variable) Id. la. 8d. to 28. 5d. 

India (yary different lines) Is. 7d. to la. 4d. Is. 4d. to U 8d. 

In some exceptional cases, no doubt, lower rates have been 
obtained in America. Circumstances have established low rates 
in India. After the policy of lowering the rates was adopted 
the people began to travel, and the grain to move, and better 
returns were obtained from the railways. 

I have prepared a short statement of traffic on eight of the 
most important lines in India, which shows the average receipts 

Digitized by 


RaUvxiy Commv/nicatioTis of India. 


in rui)ees for the carriage of certain commodities in 1889-90 
per mile of railway. Total mileage worked, 9,580 miles : — 









Ck>tton, raw .. 
Cotton piece 












All other mer' 


















































































17,636 7.838 7,118 



• Timbor250 

The figures contained in this statement are evidences of the 
trade of the different countries of India. A short description 
will explaiQ the meaning of the figures. 


The distribution of coal in India is at present limited to the 
wants of the different railways and manufactories. The habits of 
the people do not encourage its domestic use. The imports of 
foreign coal seem to have ranged from about 800,000 tons, five 
years ago, to 600,000 tons last year. Most of this goes to Bom- 
bay, and part of it goes forward and is distributed northward 
by the Bombay and JSaroda Railway. 

In Bengal, the extensive coalfielos of Raniganj and Birbhoom 
cause an important traffic upon the East India Railway. 

Abstracting from the table, the following comparison may be 
made : East India Railway, 4,519 rupees per mile ; Bombay 
and Baroda, 491 rupees per mile ; six other lines, aggregate, 
462 rupees per mile. 

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226 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society, 

The coal industries of India are absolutely in their infiancy 
at present. Old customs prejudice the people in favour of 
using certain methods of cooking their K>od, for which coal 
would be inconvenient, and so it has not been used, except in 
Calcutta and a few other towns, to a very limited extent 

If it be assumed that one million people consume l|lb. of 
coal per head a day, the demand would be 243,000 tons in a 
year per million, which is eq^uivalent to about the quantity con- 
sumed by the East India Railway in working nearly 1,600 miles 
of line. As the last census shows that there are 286,600,000 of 
people in India, the extent of the demand for coal, if the fuel 
be ever generally used by the inhabitants, may be imagined. 
In rural parts, wood will possibly remain always the fuel of the 
people, but in some of the lar^e towns coal has already been 
used, and it is probable the demand will increase as wood 
becomes dearer. 


The great Indian Peninsula and Bombay and Baroda Rail- 
ways are the most extensive carriers of cotton, as might bo 
anticipated, because the tablelands of Central India and the 
Deccan, and the plains to the northwards of Bombay, and also 
Rajputana, are great cotton-growing districts. Some of this 
cotton is for the mills of Bombay, but about 200,000 tons are 
exported annually. 


It is not possible to ascertain what proportion of this trade 
is native ana what is European. The average trade of all lines 
in India for 1889 was 675 rupees per mile. The East Indian 
Railway earnings amounted to 1,389 rupees per mile. 


The total traffic of the eight selected lines amounted to 23f 
millions of rupees during 1889-90, the average being 2,500 
rupees per mile of railway. Some of this grain certwnly 
reached England, and the trade is therefore of intematioiud 

The East India Railway and Eastern Bengal Railway supply 
Calcutta with contributions of grain of 2,885 rupees and o66 
rupees per mile respectively. This is really a small portion of 
the whole grain trade of Calcutta, because native boats carry 
enormous supplies of rice from the fertile districts to the east- 
ward. Carriage by boat is more advantageous to the merchants 
than carriage by railwav for some reasons, because the boats are 
detained for two or three days without demurrage charges* 

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Railway Commnnicaiiona of India. 227 

-which are very heavy in the case of the railway, but boats are 
more risky. 

Bombay receives the contributions of the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway, the Bombay and Baroda and Rajputana 
systems respectively — 4,809 rupees, 2,491 rupees, and 2,085 
rupees per mile of railway. 

Karachi gets a portion of the North Western 2,730 rupees, 
but is materially aided by boat traffic from the Indus. Railways 
have greatly influenced the development of the grain trade in 
India, as the following few figures will show: The average 
freight of wheat in India mr distances over 450 miles 
is 3*27 pies per ton per mile— one pie is the l-192nd part 
of a rupee. It will thus be seen that a quarter of wheat can be 
carried 1,200 miles for 6s. 9|d. per 100 miles per quarter. 
These rates are sufficiently low to produce a large trade with 
England, when harvests are plentiful in India. 

As an illustration of the value of railways in the develop- 
ment of the resources of India, it may be stated that animal 
or cart carriage is about twelve times as expensive as railway 
carriage, and, therefore, supposing a 1,200 mile radius to limit 
the horizon of any particular commodity from each port in 
India for European markets, without railways the horizon would 
be 100 miles only ; or, in other words, if grain has to travel 600 
miles by railway, and to reach the point of despatch on the rail- 
way 50 miles by road, freight charges would be doubled. 


Jute is produced in Eastern Bengal, and the Eastern Bengal 
Railway absorbs nearly all the trade — ^some of this goes to 


Indicate almost entirely English manufactures, being carried 
to places where railway construction is being proceeded with. 

The remainder of the articles contained in the list need not 
be separately noticed. 

With the single exception of metals, it is impossible to esti- 
mate the influence of railways in India on the imports from 
England. A low railway tariff must produce some efifect, but as 
the commodities are stored at the ports as they reach the country, 
it is impossible to trace their onward progress by railway. 

Metals are so distinctly English, that there can be no 
doubt — ^and when it is remembered that the demands of India 
now equal about one-tenth of the whole English exports of iron 
and steel to all countries, and that the demands of the United 
States and South American republics are diminishing year by 
year — ^the value of the development of Indian railways to the 
iron industries of England will be realised. 

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228 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

Summing up the few remarks which have been made, the 
following conclusions may be arrived at : — 

1. Indian railways have been well laid out, and have been 
well built — except that the introduction of a break of gauge is 
a great misfortime. 

2. That the passenger fares and goods rates are sufficiently 
low to promote trade. 

3. That a very valuable source of supplv of what has been 
provided for England, by faciUties afforded for inland transit 
m India, at cheap rates. 

4. That the aistribution of English manufEictured goods is 

5. That a demand for English iron and steel has been 
created, amounting at present to about 10 per cent of the entire 
English exporta 

The question to which I cannot give a reply is — Has suflS- 
cient progress been made in the development of railways in 
India ? 

A preliminary report of census taken this year, says: 
'' During the decade that has passed since the last enumeration, 
the gross increase has been twenty-nine millions, the population 
of Italy or Prussia at their last census." 

If seriously asked to state my opinion on the question of 
progress made in railways, I think I should reply by another 
question. Is private enterprise in England dead towards India, 
tnat it leaves in the hands of the Government the development 
of railways by refusing to supply capital without a guarantee ? 

Accounts show that a reasonable return for investments has 
been obtained, and that the older lines are earning handsome 
dividends. Experience indicates that the development of Indian 
railways opens an iinportant field of demand m the iron and 
steel industries of England, and furnishes a supply of wheat the 
price of which competes with America and Russia, so that the 
cost of bread to the English consumer may be regulated. 
Experience also shows that railways in India have done much 
to waken the people to new lights and a sense of new responsi- 
bilities which tend to the obliteration of old superstitions, and 
the generation of loyalty towards the central governing power, 
and of interest in maintenance of the empire. It is true that 
the Indian currency has depreciated in its comparative value 
to sterling money of late years, and that this circumstance has 
acted as a deterrent to investors in Indian securities, but are 
not similar risks encountered in other countries ? 

Had the money which is now so firmly locked up in the 
Argentine been invested in the extension of Indian railwaj^s 
without any (xovemment guarantee, would not many houses m 
Eneland now be in more prosperous circumstances than seems 
to be indicated ? The Indian rupee is a silver coin, and has 

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Railway Communications of India. 229 

some intrinsic value, and it is backed by its being the currency 
of a population of 826 millions of the subjects of the Empress, 
whicn time seems to render more and more loyal. The Argen- 
tine paper dollar depends for its value in relation to gold on the 
honesty of a nation whose interests appear to be widely separated 
from the interests of England. 

I proposed in the beginning of this paper to trace an outline 
only, and I shall feel well rewarded if I discover that abler hands 
than my own undertake to fill in the details. 

AfHca. — Dr. H. Blink, in " Het Kongoland en zijne bewonen," begins with a 
historical account of the Congo territory from antiquity till the foundation of the 
Congo State and the recent Anti-Slavery CongresB. He then gives a good description 
of the coast and of the Ck>ngo itself with its principal tributaries. Some remarks are 
made about the climate and the flora and fauna, and a further chapter is devoted to 
an ethnographical summary of this pare of Africa. The volume concludes with an 
interesting account of the trade carried on at present on the Congo, and the import- 
ance of Banana as the chief trading place near the coast. The map shows the large 
number of European trading-places which exist near the coast, and the author 
asserts that Dutch enterprise is active, not merely on the cosst but also far in the 
interior. — Proceedings of the Royal Oeographieal Soiietyf Juiy^ 1891. 

Mr. F. S. Amot's Progress in West Central Africa. — Mr. Amot, 
writing from Bih^ on the 6th August last, informs us that his long detention at that 
place on his journey from Benguella to Garenganze is coming to an end. His caravan 
was nearly complete, and he hoped in a few days to cross the Quanza river, on his 
easterly route. He will be accompanied by Mr. H. B. Thomson and a party of five 
missionaries and four coloured handicraftsmen from Jamaica. Three of these would 
probably remain on the way in the interesting country of the Cuvale, in which case 
Mr. Amot would stay with them for two months, Mr. Thomson going on to Qaren- 
ganze, taking with him the present which the Royal Geographical Society had 
entrusted to Mr. Amot in 1889, for delivery to Chitambo, the chief of the Dala 
country, who behaved so well in connection with the removal of Livingstone's body 
and personal belongings. The present will be delivered to Chitambo at the earliest 
possible opportunity, either by Mr. Thomson or Mr. Swan. — Proceedings of the 
jRoyal Oeogrofphical Society^ November, 1891. 

The Causes of Chinese Emigration. — M. J. de Groot, a sinologue in the 

service of the Dutch Colonial Government in the East Indies, hss made an interesting 
communication to the Geographical Society of Amsterdam on the subject of Chinese 
emigration. According to the writer the causes of this emigration are not to be found 
in the excess of population, but simply in the poverty of the soil of the provinces 
whence these emigrants come. It is the bare, mountainous valleys of the eastern part 
of China which furnish the emigrants to the English, Spanish, and Dutch colonies ; 
to Oslifomis, Australia, and especially to Indo-China and Cochin-China. The prevail- 
ing formation of the ground in their native regions is granitic ; the soil yields hardly 
anything, and the rainfall is slight. Potatoes and vegetables of very bad quality are 
the only food that can be extracted from the earth. In some favoured spots a little 
rice, but of poor description, can be grown. Another cause of the emigration is dis- 
affbrestation. Wood is very scarce and consequently very dear. Vegetation being 
almost entirely plucked up, the formation of a new layer of humus is absolutely 
impossible. The population of these regions \b therefore compelled to seek subsistence 
in other countries. The writer is of opinion that as soon as China sets herself in 
earnest to construct a network of railways and to carry out other great works, the 
stream of emigration, which is causing so much anxiety in many parts of the world, 
mil be stopped, as the people will find in the interior of their own country the work 
and means of livelihood which they now seek for elsewhere.— Proceeding* qf the 
Moyol OeographiccU Society, September, 1891. 

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230 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 



By Mr. D. A. O'GORMAN. 
[Addreaaed to the Society in the Memorial Hall, Wednesday, Nov. 4, 1891, 7-30 p.m.J 

BY favour of your Society, the opportunity has been afforded 
me of meeting you here to-night for the realisation, as our 
esteemed Chairman nas just suggested, of my endeavour to lay 
before you a lightly-drawn sketch of native progress, and the 
competition rising up against ourselves, in a country our trade 
with which has hitherto been looked upon as the backbone of 
the Cotton Industry in Lancashire. 

The market of which I have to speak to-night is already 
largely opened to us, and its dealers Know and understand us 
as well as, and perhaps better than, we understand them. There 
are others, again, which are yet in the chrysalis stage of exist- 
ence in so far as concerns their personal contact with the 
manufacturing centres of the West. Their peoples in many 
cases are ready and fit for much that we manufacture, and are 
only awaiting the advent of the commercial pioneers of Europe 
to fly into the arms of such of them as earliest and best study 
their requirements. The countries themselves, however, are 
closed against us to such an extent by lack of transport facilities, 
by land and water on the one hand, and, on the other hand, 
firom the effects of ignorance, more or less pronounced on both 
sides, that much remains to be done before we can materially 
reach the great consuming populations of the interior, it 
should, therefore, be our duty to constantly watch for and 
quickly seize upon, when offered, the opportunities cropping up 
nrom time to time for the further introduction into such countries 
of that commercial influence which has contributed so materially 
in its fundamental strength to the maintenance of our political 
power amongst the nations of the world. By very force of our 
efforts to bring such countries as internal Siam, Burmah, the 
whole of the Shan States, and Western China more closely into 
touch with the manufacturing centres of the West, we should at 
once gain the goodwill of their peoples, and lay a solid base of 
operations for ourselves upon the commercial battlefields of the 

In an article which appeared in one of the London dailies a 
little while ago, it was suggested that all the signs of the times 
pointed to our approachmg entrance upon a cycle of general 

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1 *- 

i 1— 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress cmd Competition in India. 281 

bad trade. Most Manchester people, I believe, will aeree with 
me when I say that, whatever the future may contain for ns, we 
have laboured for a considerable period — as far as concerns the 
Manchester cotton trade — in the throes of a commercial depres- 
sion not unparalleled, but sufficiently accentuated to inspire all 
and sxmdry with the devout hope that the article referred to 
may have contained nothing more substantial than the pessi- 
mistic imaginings of a falsely-inspired prophet. Some, however, 
of the prevailing conditions which claim our immediate atten- 
tion are the native and foreign advances now being made against 
us in markets in which, until recently, we had been, to all 
intents and purposes, invincible ; ana existing circumstances 
undoubtedly call for some consideration of the contributory 
causes of such rival progress, as well as for the discovery of the 
best means for the reassertion of a supremacy that in many 
departments now appears to be seriously threatened. 

Now, without further preamble, I shall proceed to the neces- 
sarily somewhat limited review of the country and those of its 
conditions to which this paper is particularly dedicated, merely 
mentioning in advance that the existing state of industrial and 
commercial progress in India is the one which has specially 
claimed my attention. I would further remark, that in my 
quotations of figures concerning the value of trade done with 
and by our great dependency, I shall, in order to secure a 
readier comprehension of the extent of the sums involved, 
depart from the accepted method of setting down such particu- 
lars, and give them to you in millions, thousands, and hundreds 
of rupees, in place of the usual tens, lakhs, and crores, which, 
in their qualiQring capacities, are calculated to make important 
amounts appear small by comparison with their true values. 

The country with which I have to deal is India, and as 
railways have ever been the primest of factors in the spread of 
Western civilisation in lands beyond the seas, a brief risfwm,4 of 
some of the benefits they have so far conferred upon our Indian 
Empire would not only be in place here but would also afford 
an excellent idea of the measure in which the country has been 
opened to ourselves and natives alike, and the opportunities 
such opening has offered for the development and expansion of 
resources previously "cribbed, cabined, and confined," but 
which have been delivered at last from their enforced seclusion 
by the practicable outlets since furnished by British pluck and 
science, and private and governmental capital and enterprise. 

The total length of railways in India worked by the Govern- 
ment and various companies m 1879-80 was 8,492 miles, and in 
the following ten years this length had been almost doubled, 
the figures for 1889-90 being 16,095 miles. During the twelve 
months immediately following upon the Indian financial year 
of 1889-90 a further 1,061 miles were added (including 23 in 

Digitized by 


232 The Jiywrwd of the Mcmchester Oeographical Society. 

Burmah and 169 in the Native States), making in all a total 
length open to traffic on 31st March last of 17,1^6 miles, or an 
increase of something over 100 per cent in the past twelve years. 

The element of satisfaction this progress anords to ourselves 
is contained in the fstct that nearly the whole of the new lines 
constructed and thrown open to traffic within the last two years 
(on the Bengal-Naffpur, Delhi-Umballa-Kalka, Indian Midland, 
and South Indian) have had for their primary obect the develop- 
ment of trade — ^import and export — m the districts they have 
pierced. That this oDJect has met with a fair measure of success in 
the latter department is further testified, for example, by official 
returns from the Central Provinces concerning recent extensions 
of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. It is shown that the line has 
benefitted very strikingly by the expansion, consequent upon 
these extensions, of the export trade of the Central Provinces, 
the movement of wheat having risen from 26| lakhs of maunds 
in the quarter ending June 30, 1890, to 57^ lakhs of maimds in 
the corresponding quarter of this year ; and the increase of raw 
cotton, linseed, gram, and pulse had been at the same remark- 
able rate. 

In what measure the new lines have assisted in the demand 
for, and distribution of, native and our own cotton manufactures 
does not appear, and some particulars in this respect would have 
been extremely interesting. The reasonable presumption in 
which we are naturally prone to indulge is, that where develop- 
ment such as that described is actively in process, the increased 
local prosperity consequent thereupon would demonstrate itself, 
more or less, by the distribution ot some of its gains in the pur- 
chase of staple grey goods from up-countiy dealers, and its 
reflective eflect would naturally fall upon the bazaars and 
importers in Karachi, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. 

Still, it must not be forgotten that the more recently con- 
structed lines are as yet too young to show other than the initial 
signs of that solid traffic for the full development of which the 
additional facilities they furnish will eventually be responsible, 
and later on we shall doubtless find ourselves well provided 
with the information so far lacking. An idea of the present 
magnitude of the railway system of India may be gained by 

{^lancing at the amount of capital so far expended upon the 
ines already opened, and this is set down as 2,136,700,000 
rupees, or, nominally, £213,670,000 sterling. It is, of course, 
very small as compared with the value of our English system — 
in tB,ct, little more than the combined capital of our two greatest 
companies ; but a consideration of the conditions obtaining in 
England, as compared with those which formerly operated and 
still exist in many parts of India, at once helps us to a truer 
appreciation of the work so far completed in our great depen- 
dency. A great deal yet remains to be done for the further 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progreaa cmd Competition in India. 283 

deyelopment and defence of the country, as well as for its better 
protection aeainst fEuxiines; and whilst progress at one time 
was, and to the minds of many still is, terribly slow as compared 
with that effected in other coimtries, substantial crumbs ofcom- 
fort £Edl to us of the knowledge that railway construction in India 
is now being pushed on by tne Gbvemment with greater vigour 
than by any which it has ever before been characterised. More 
real pro^ss has been made in the past decade than in the whole 
of the thirty years between 1850 and 1880. During the past five 

Jears the work of construction has gone on at the rate of 600 to 
00 miles per annum, and at the present time new roads Sre 
being laid down by the State and various companies to the 
extent of 1,500 miles.* 

It is to be regretted that, in view of the valuable facilities it 
affords, the State should have been deprived, in its highly 
coQunendable endeavours, of the assistance of much of 
that private capital and enterprise which in some of ita 
employments — ^notably in South American departments— haa 
found such calamitous issue. How investors can have ignored 
so completely, in favour of South- Western bubbles, the solid 
inducements held out by our great Eastern dependency is some- 
what incomprehensible, for the net revenue from Indian railways, 
in an unsatisfetctory year (1890) was sufficient .to afford an 
average return of nearly 4f per cent per annum.f In a few 
particular mstances from 7 to 8 per cent was earned, and not 
until Indian railways — by some sort of public " stumping " in 
their favour — are more generally studied, and their intrinsic 
values more widely appreciated than is the case to-day, may we 
look for steady investment in such securities by those whose 
capital has hitherto gone out into other quarters and, unfor^ 
tunately, " fallen among thieves." 

The New East Coast Railway, now in course of construction, 
and which will eventually connect Calcutta with Madras, Hyder- 
abad, and Bombay (from the Eastern Bengal system, via Bezvada, 
on the Kistna), will complete to all intents and purposes the 
circuit of India, leaving tne Government at liberty to devote a 
large portion of its further attention in this department to what 
is technically termed "linking," i.e., the construction of those 

• On the 14th December, 1801, the Calcutta oorreepondent of the Tima telegraphed that the 
rinandal and PubUc Works Department were then engaged in considering ^e estimates for 
nllwav working in the coming year, And, although the calculations were still subject to alter- 
ation, it was likely that about 43,000,000 rupees would be devoted to this purpose. Of this sum 
the bat Coast Railway would absorb about 10,000,000 rupees, and the open and military lines 
sboat 7,000,000, the remainder beincr appropriated by various smaller undertakings. Most recent 
returns of railway working show that tue Improvement which has set in since the Budget waa 
ivoed is even greater than was supposed, and that the revenue from this source is lUcely to 
exceed the estimates bv about 7,000,000 rupees. 

t The increase in the gross receipts of the Indian railways for the seven months of the current 
fiscal vear ending on October 24, compared with the corresponding period of the previous fiscal 
year, is upwards of ld;000,000 rupees on the State and guitranteed lines alone. Including th» 
nUways (a the Native States, the total inerease is 11,200,000 rupees. ~lfaiidbM<<r Ouanf tan, Nov 


Digitized by 


234 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

feeder lines which, in tapping outlying districts, contribute 
so substantially to the success of a great trunk road. 

So every mile added to the iron roads of India must be of 
the highest value to ourselves, bringing more closely and less 
expensively within reach, as it does, millions of our dependents 
with whom we were formerly only in the most difficult and dis- 
tant of contact, and amongst whom the consumption of Lanca- 
shire's manufitctures must increase by reason of local develop- 
ment, the prosperity usually following upon the breaking-up of 
new grouna, and the general reduction in the price of commo- 
dities for which such extensions are responsible. As an illus- 
tration of native gain on the one hand and our prejudice in one 
industrial department upon the other, arising Irom the spread 
of railways in India, I have only to instance coal ; and the exten- 
sion of these iron arteries (through provinces into which English 
coal is still imported, merely because the free entrance of the 
Bengal or other Indian article is temporarily prevented by the 
absence of transport facilities) will be responsible eventually for 
the complete extinction, which apparently cannot now be long 
•delayed, of our hitherto important export thither of the article 

In 1888 India possessed 117 collieries, 67 of which were in 
work, and the output in that year was about 1,300,000 tons. In 
1890 the Bengal Presidency alone produced between IJ and 
If million tons, and by the full development of the industry 
fihe could produce, without difficulty, from 15 to 20 million tons 
per annum. Last year the material brought to bank had 
increased to a general total of about 2^ million tons. The new 
trunk line across India, from Bombay to Calcutta by wav of the 
Central Provinces, has contributed in one of its parts (the com- 
pleted Bengal-Nagpur) to the discovery of a coalfield on the 
Eeb River, along the line at Sambalpur, computed to contain 
oight millions of tons of good workable coal ; and in various 
parts of India (the Nizam's territory. Central India, Punjab and 
Baluchistan), principally, however, from the Ranigunj fields of 
Bengal, the out-turn can be increased so rapidly that with the 
greater transport facilities to which I have already referred the 
-end of our export of " black diamonds " thither, I may say again, 
is within measurable distance. 

As a general example of the benefit of i*ailways to the 
-country I have only to state that in the 55 years between 1834-35 
and 1888-89 the sea-borne trade of India, m the growth of which 
railway development has played the most important of parts, 
increased thirteen-fold, or at an average rate of 21*3 per cent 
per annum during the whole of the last half century. 

Now, as Mr. Fumival has recently written for your Society a 
very elaborate and valuable paper upon the subject of Indian 
Railways, and their concomitant interests and influences, I do 

Digitized by 


Beceni Trade Progress cmd Competition vn India. 235 

not propose to take up more of your time by their further con- 
sideration. We cannot, however, entirely shelve the subject 
without pausing for a moment's reflection upon the obligation 
undertaken by the Government for the furtherance of an object 
which runs hand-in-hand with some of the protective lines. I 
point to the development of irrigation, having for its principal 
motive the safe-guarding of certain districts against famine, 
though perhaps the ultimate completion of the protective rail- 
ways to which I have just referrea must be, in the end, the 
really effectual agent for the salvation of certain districts from 
any recurrence of those terrible visitations by which they have 
been so deplorably afflicted in the past. 

The great famines of the century have occurred in 1838, 
1866, and in 1876-7-8 — ^the last, as you will perceive, some 13 
years ago. In July last, however, the Indian mails brought us 
the news of an abnormal heat, from the effects of which tramway 
horses were dropping and dying in the streets ; armies of locusts 
were marching destructively, in serried ranks, across Northern 
India ; plough cattle were dying of hunger and thirst in Rajpu- 
tana ; the green-crop fields were being turned into fields of straw 
throughout large areas in Southern India, and fresh sowings 
were impossible in the baked and cracking ground ; the nucleus 
of a pauper population was already formed and thronging the 
relief works of Madras; and all these were but the prelimmary 
symptoms of a delayed and deficient monsoon, the greater failure 
of wnich would have been accountable for horrors unutterable 
and entirely beyond the scope of our imagination. We were 
further told that " Meanwhile the British rulers of India stood 
waiting, but ready, for a possible declaration of war by the 
elements, a war which would cost millions of money and 
hundreds of thousands of lives, and was foredoomed from the 
outset to be more or less a defeat of the piteous efforts of man 
against the overwhelming forces of nature. 

In India, therefore, the omnipotent natural element for good 
or evil upon the food and other crops, and, correspondingly, 
upon the welfare or misery of the coimtry, is the periodical 
monsoon, the nature of which may here be explained, and it is 
to guard against the possibility of famine following upon its 
partial failure that the Government devotes a considerable share 
of its attention to the development of irrigation and the con- 
struction of protective railways. 

In India then, referring to the monsoon, the year is divided 
into three seasons : (1) The so-called " cold weather," beginning 
about the first days of November and extending into the following 
February; (2) the hot weather obtaining between the latter 
part of February and the beginning of June ; and (3) the *' rains " 
or the monsoon season, from early June to mid-September, 
between which and the advent of " winter " is experienced, as a 

Digitized by 


236 The Journal of the Mcmchester Oeographical Society. 

rule, a spell of very hot weather, with occasional late rains. 
This order applies particularly to Western India, and is subject 
to some slight variation in other parts. 

Now, I cannot do better than give you the imperfect outline, 
which I shall afterwards complete, of the nature of the S.W. 
monsoon and the causes which may contribute to its partial 
failure, such as was embodied in a brief despatch from the 
Calcutta correspondent of the Times in July last. He said: 
^ The season so far has been distinguished by the fedlure of those 
cyclonic or circular wind movements which usually form near 
the head of the Bay of Bengal and sweep across India to the 
Punjab, carrying vapour-bearing currents with them. This 
abnormal failure is attributed, scientifically, to the heavj winter 
snows in the re^ons of Western Thibet and in the highlands 
beyond Afghanistan, to which the influence of the severe 
European winter appears to have extended. Last winter was 
the severest ever known in Kabul, 40ft. of snow falling, which 
is equivalent to 48in. of rain (more than we get in twelve months). 
There must, therefore, have been heavy snow on the Pamir 
plateau, which is now (early July) exerting a pressure to prevent 
the usual attraction of the current from the B&y of Bengal." 

As a matter of fact, the S.W. monsoon first strikes India in 
the neighbourhood of Cape Comorin at about the beginning of 
June, progressing somewhat slowly under normal conditions 
from south to north, and spreading gradually over the Western 
and North-western Provinces. So the singularly heavy snowfall 
on the north-western ranges of the Himalayas and neighbouring 
mountains of Baluchistan, in conjunction with various abnormal 
differences of temperature in Burmah and Assam, as well as in 
North-Westem and Southern India, accoimted in all probability 
for the delay in the spread of the monsoon, and the latter was 
responsible lor the grave fears entertained in July (but which 
have since been very materially dispersed) of the ^nine then 
seriously threatening Rajputana, Guzerat, the Southern Punjab, 
and, in particular, various districts in the Madras Presidency. 

In the event, therefore, of the diversion of these vapour- 
bearing winds from their usual track by abnormal conditions 
existing in other regions, districts such as those named are 
peculiarly liable to suffer, and it is to their better protection 
against the distress caused hj a deficient rainfall tnat State 
efforts in the matter of irrigation are mainly directed. 

The financial magnitude of the work is sufficiently described 
when I mention that the capital involved in 1888-9 was over 
319,000,000 rupees, which sum, according to one authority, 
afforded a return to the Government, apart from the general 
protection for which it provided against famine and the widely- 
spread benefits of its expenditure to the ryots, of 3-8 per cent, 
tne area imder irrigation being set down as 12,098,000 acres. 

Digitized by 


Becent Trade Progress and Competition in India. 237 

This result, however, is not supported by the figures of the 
estimate for 1891-2, which leave a total charge upon revenue 
from the capital involved of over seven miflion rupees. Of 
course it would be an additional source of satisfaction if, over 
and beyond their attainment of the main object, these irrigation 
works could be made to jdeld some slight pecuniary interest 
upon the enormous outlay they have entailed. For various 
reasons, however, such a return is not to be counted upon, and 
in its absence the Government is, perforce, obliged to remain 
content with the moral satisfaction the work afl^rds, and the 
knowledge that the expenditure of millions entailed by famine 
is, to a specified extent, provided against. 

As 1 have said, irrigation is, perhaps, of secondary impor- 
tance as compared with railway extensions, and the latter must 
eventually be the supreme factors in absolute famine prevention, 
by the facilities they afford for the carriage of food-stuffs to dis- 
tressed districts, and the establishment of greater stamina and 
resistive powers in the masses by their full development of the 
country's resources. In the past, irrigation occupied the atten- 
tion of the Government to the very considerable exclusion of the 
claims of railways to be constructed particularly for the relief 
and prevention of famine. With their past experience it is un- 
likely that the error will be repeated, and the time may not be 
far distant when the seclusion by which districts previously 
afflicted were closely hemmed in will be entirely, as it is now 
very materially, broken through. Then the cry of " famine " in 
the land will merely serve as a local " bogie-man " with which 
to ouiet unruly olive branches. 

if ow, it may occur to many of you that certain of my obser- 
vations have been somewhat beyond the immediate purpose of 
this paper, i.e., the review of trade progress and competition in 
India. It is impossible, however, to ignore, in connection with 
this subject, the infinite importance to manufacturing England 
of the expansion of railway construction and irrigation in that 
country, and a due appreciation of the possibihties thereby 
afforded to the natives, and the influences at work for the 
benefit or otherwise of Lancashire manufacturers and merchants, 
would be impossible in the absence of some general reflection 
upon the points to which I have so far drawn attention. 

As Lancashire's vitality is mainly dependent upon the 
success of her cotton manufactures abroad, it would be profitable 
to consider for a moment the influence of the Indian industry 
in this line with reference to the extent to which it caters for 
home consumption and the steady progress of its manufactures 
in foreign markets. The figures I may mention in connection 
therewith are quoted for the purpose of marking the more 
appreciably the measure in which our county may be said to 
have been supplanted, in certain departments, by India's supply 

Digitized by 


238 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

of a demand for the full response to which our own manufac- 
turers and merchants alone were formerly responsible. 

In 1888-9 the cotton mills at work in India numbered 108 ; 
they contained 2,669,922 spindles and 22,156 looms, and the 
total capital invested in the industry was set down roughly at 
one hundred million rupees. During the year ending 30th 
June, 1890, there was an mcrease for all India of thirteen mills, 
with 611,678 spindles and 1,851 looms; and the latest returns 
for this rapidly-growing industry show that during the twelve 
months immediately preceding the 30th June last a further 
thirteen mills had been erected in the country, thus bringing 
up the grand total for all India to 134 mills (there were 137, but 
two were burned down and failure marked the attempt to 
reconstruct a third). These 134 mills contained 3,351,694 
spindles and 24,531 looms ; they employed a daily average of 
over 111,000 hands ;' in the twelve months they consumed about 
462 million weight* of the raw material ; produced manufactured 
cottons to the value of 98,950,000 rupeesr ; exported to external 
markets about 169 J million weight of yam ana 68 million yards 
of cloth (valued at 68,100,000 rupees), exclusive of the trade 
coastwise and by rail to Indian ports and internal marts ; and 
to-day eleven millions sterling is not, perhaps, an exaggerated 
estimate of the total capital involved in the manufacture of 
cotton in India. 

The large share possessed by the Bombay Presidency in this 
industry is now represented by a total of 91 mills (67 in the 
Island Itself and 24 elsewhere throughout the Presidency), with 
2,360,170 spindles, 18,487 looms, 78,121 operatives, and a con- 
sumption of about 346 million weight of cotton. The shipments 
of Bombay mill produce only to foreign markets, coastwise to 
her own ports and by rail to her internal marts, amounted for 
the year ending 30th June last to over 188 million weight of 
yam and 185 million yards of cloth. 

Calcutta, with nine mills, consumes about 41 million weight 
of the raw material, leaving about 75 million weight for use in 
all the other mills in India, eleven of which are in the neigh- 
bourhood of Madras, while the remaining twenty-three are dis- 
tributed amongst the Central and North- West Provinces, Mysore, 
Hyderabad, and Berar. 

Now, when we remember that twenty years ago the number 
of cotton mills established in all India was about twenty, and the 
spindles they contained fell short of half a million, our specula- 
tion becomes the more pronounced as to what may be the state 
of affairs twenty years hence, with her continued purchase of 
the most improved machinery, the greater skill of the labour 

* Cotton oonauxnption In natlTo mllli, twelre months endlnff Jono 90 : 1880, 888,906 teles : 
1800. 1.007,006 teles; 1801, 1,178,906 teles, each of 3921b. 

t Hm total production for the year ending June SO, 1884, was valued at 68,100,000 rupees. 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress and Competition in India. 23& 

employed, cheaper fuel, her further importation of Egyptian 
ana American cotton, and her consequent spinning and weaving 
of finer counts and qualities It seems only reasonable to 
suppose that every extra mill erected in the provinces will meet 
the more extensively local demand hitherto supplied from 
Bombay, and the curtailment of the latter's up-country trade 
will drive her of necessity into the closer cultivation of external 
markets. The home consumption of her manufactures, par- 
ticularly in cloths, has already attained important dimensions ; 
and with regard to her export trade, the remarkable strides 
made abroad are indicated oy the fact that her shipments of 
cotton twist, yam, and piece goods — principally the two former — 
have advanced in value from about three-quarters of a million 
sterling in 1876 to about seven millions sterling in 1890-91, an 
increase, roughly, of 900 per cent in fourteen years. 

With regard to India's cotton manufactures generally, com- 
posed so far of the coarser sorts, they found their way originally 
to China and Japan. Having, in the special classes to which 1 
have referred, particularly in yams, beaten us out of those 
markets, the attention of Bombay shippers was next turned to 
Ceylon, the Straits, the East Coast of Africa, and the Arabian 
coast, &c. In all of these markets, with the exception of Japan, 
the demand for Indian cotton manufactures is steadily pro- 

With particular reference to yams, we did a larger trade 
with China and Japan ten years ago than we have done since, 
viz., in 1880, 46J million weight ; and in 1890 only 38 million 
weight. (See footnote, pa^ge 241.) On the other hand, shipments 
of Indian spinnings to Chma increased from 6| million weight in 
1876-7 to over 160 million weight in 1890-91, the exports of the 
latter year being 37 million weight above the quantity forwarded 
in 1889-90. Notwithstanding the discouraging reports which 
have reached Bombay from China from week to week during^ 
the past few months, we find that shipments thither of cotton 
yam spun in Indian mills have steadily and substantially 
mcreased, as will be gathered from the following extracts from 
the most recent official returns available : — 


1889. 1800. 1891. Inorense. 

Montlw. Lbi. Lba. Lbs. Lbi. 

4 Aprill to July 81.:. 40,192,525 49,618,735 55,256,218 15,063,698 

5 April 1 to Aug. 81... 49,047,665 63,806,845 62,859,463 18,811,988 

6 April 1 to Sept 80... 56,526,495 72,990,143 80,884,463 28,857,968 

7 April 1 to Oct 81... 68,889,635 86,266,845 92,904,663 24,565,028 

There was a distinct falling off (the only one, be it said) of 
1,874,0571b. in Indian shipments to China during the month 
ending October 81 last, as compared with the same month of 

Digitized by 


240 The Journal of the Momcheater Oeographuxd Society. 

1890 ; but the total exports for the seven months ending October 
31 were, as is shown, most substantially in excess of those for 
the corresponding periods of the two preceding years. 

The Indian jam trade with Ja^an, however, has been for 
some time past m a moribimd condition, and shipments to that 
country — which increased from about 57,0001b. in 1877 to nearly 
23 million weight in 1889-90— fell away in 1890-91 to between 
11 and 12 million weight. When the accounts for the official 
year ending March 31, 1892, come to be finally adjusted, it is 
unlikely that more than half of the quantity last named will 
be found to have passed through her ports. This is presaged 
by figures published since the close of the year ending March 
31, and which are as follow : — 











4 April 1 to July 81.. 

. 6,977,960 




5 Aprill to Aug. 81.. 

. 8,134,560 




6 Aprill to Sept. 80.. 

. 10,608,560 




7 Aprill to Oct. 81.. 

. 14,028,860 




This decline in Japanese imports — a decline progressing 
rapidly towards a complete extinction which in no way benefits 
ourselves (see footnote, page 241) — is due to the competition of 
her own mills, of which, on the 30th June last, there were thirty 
completed and six in course of erection, containing together 
377,970 spindles. The cotton consumed monthly in these mills 
had increased from 1,152,2501b. in July, 1888, to 6,156,0001b. in 
June last ; and the monthly production of yarn had risen from 
a little over a million pounds per month in 1888 to 5J million 
in June of this year. The classes produced are particularly 
suited to the requirements of those for whom India previously 
catered, and prices of the local articles are very much more in 
favour of Japanese buyers than are those required for Indian 
spinnings. In yarns of the kinds to which I have referred 
Japan appears to be not only rapidly approaching self-contain- 
ment, but is also entering into competition with Bombay for a 
share of the largely-increasing trade of China, the growing 
demand of which country has been recently overtaken by Indian 

E reduction. With the forthcoming abolition of the export dutv 
itherto interfering materially with the realisation of Japan s 
competitive eflForts, everything points to a success commensurate 
with her powers of supply. Cotton spinning by power in China 
is still so entirely in its infancy as to call for no special remark 
beyond the suggestion that India must be prepared for the 
rapid development of opposing forces once the "Middle King- 
dom " becomes less antagonistic to the " innovations of Western 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress omd Competition in India. 241 

Oar non-participation in the growing demand of China is 
largely due, no doubt, to the vagaries of silver, and in the depart- 
ment under review Lancashire's prospects are flushed with a 
liue anything but couleur de rose* for, despite rapidly-declining 
shipments to Japan, the material increase in India's total 
exports of cotton yarns to all markets is most distinctly marked. 
During the twelve months ended March 31st last they had 
increased by 19J per cent over those of the previous year, and 
in the past decade by 450 per cent. 


























Her exports of cotton yam to " all markets " (the figures con- 
cerning which include a rapidly-developing trade with " other 
countries," the most important among them being the Straits 
Settlements, Aden, Arabia, Persia, and Turkey in Asia) since 
the close of the official years ended 31st March, have been as 
follow: — 

Months Lbs. 

4 April 1 to July 31... 48,910,054 
6 April 1 to Aug. 81... 68.083,131 

6 April 1 to Sept. 30... 69,610,094 

7 April 1 to Oct 31... 88,189,641 

Turning from twists and yarns to the exports of piece goods 
from Bombay to China and Japan (plain cottons), after supply- 
ing home requirements, a very few figures will suffice to place 
us an courant with the fortunes of the trade from its inception, 
and, commencing first with that done to China, we see that in 
1881 she took 168,139 yards; in 1882, about 2J million 
<2,188,770); in 1888, about 15f million (15,751,688); and, in 
1890, only 3,660,574 yards. To Japan the shipments in 1881 

* Our own expori» of twUt per twelvemonth to Eastern markets of recent years 
have been as follow in pounds weight : — 


1388. 1889. 1890. 1891. 1891—1888. 

Lba. LU. Lbs. Lbs. Lbi. 
odia — Bombay, Madras, 

Galcutta, and Karachi. 48,700,000 45,300,000 39,600,000 45,100,000 3,600,000 

Hongkong and Shanghai. 17,400,000 8,900,000 14,600,000 12,800,000 4.600,000 

Japan 27,200,000 26,000,000 22,300,000 14,400,000 12,800,000 

Manila 1,700,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 900,000 800,000 


lUngooon 3,900,000 6,100,000 4,800,000 6,200,000 2,300,000 

BaUvia 800,000 600,000 800,000 2,000,000 1,200,000 

Ceylon — No change. 


Oross decrease 21,800,000 

Gross inoreaae 3,500,000 

Net shrinkage 18,800,000 

Digitized by 


242 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

were 5,250 yards, rising in 1882 to 565,953 yards ; falling away 
in 1888 to 140,321 yards, and declining still further in 1890 to 
23,800 yards. So in her exports of native-made piece goods to 
China and Japan, Bombay was not completely happy in 1889-90. 
An improvement followed, however, and for the year ending 
March 31st, 1891, the shipments of Indian piece goods to all 
markets had increased by 13^ per cent over those of the pre- 
vious year. Notwithstanding, therefore, the temporary depres- 
sion described, our dependency has been able to again reach her 
best records by the very material assistance she has received 
from the rapidly-growing demand for her makes in those other 
external markets to which I have already had occasion to refer. 

The increase in India's exports of cotton piece goods during 
the past ten years has been 126 per cent, or more than 12| per 
cent annually, the quantity sent out of the country being about 
30 million yards in 1881-82, and nearly 68 million yards in the 
last fiscal year. 

It is instructive to notice, after marking Indian progress in 
the cotton industry, that of recent years her im]X)rts of twist 
and yams from ourselves have not been distinguished by any 
advance. (See footnote, page 241.) A stationary position, in 
fact, has barely been maintained, despite the considerable 
growth of population during that period. Her imports of 
cotton piece goods show up in a light still less promising to 
ourselves. Between the fiscal years (ending March 31) of 
1886-7 and 1890-91, India's imports of grey, bleached, 
coloured, printed, and dyed cotton piece goods had decreased 
by 141,395,000 yards. Later statistics show the following 
decreases during certain periods of this year, as stated below, 
compared with her imports during the corresponding periods of 

Decrease 1891>90. 
Montha. Yarda. 

4 April 1 to July 81 85,813,809 

6 Aprill to Augutt 81 136,802,766 

6 April 1 to September 30 137,048,388 

7 April 1 to October 31 166,546,475 

It may be generally interesting to show how the above periods 
of this year compare with similar periods of 1889, and the depart- 
ments in which the falling-off has been most marked. These 
results may be secured by the introduction of the following 
tables : — 



1889. 1890. 1891. 

Months. Yards. Tarda. Yards. 

4 April 1 to July 31 689,878,573 654,244.904 568,431,095 

5 April 1 to August 31 ... 856,700,278 859,585,779 722,788,014 

6 April 1 to September 30 1,011.519.639 1,026,856,732 889,808,344 

7 April 1 to October 81 ... 1,178,913,478 1,210,784,162 1,054,188»687 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress and Competition in India. 243 

Decrease during the four, five, six, and seven months of the 
official year of 1891-2, as compared with the corresponding 
periods of 1889 : — 

Grey. Bleached. Coloured. Total. 

Months. Tarda. Yards. Tarda. Tarda. 

4 Aprillto July 31... 72,664,867 6,117,398 48,270,213 120,942,478 

5 AprilltoAug. 31... 80,892,490 1,171.086 61,868,739 133,917,264 

6 Aprillto Sept. 80... 76,218,580 * 62,906,467 128,126,037 

7 April 1 to Oct 31 ... 72,990,608 t 64,626,441 127,624,919 

The decrease in India's imports of cotton piece goods for the^ 
above periods of 1891, as compared with those of the corre- 
sponding periods of 1890, are much greater than the differences 
in similar periods of 1891-1889 (as may be seen by a foregoing 
table). Shipments hence in 1890, from a variety of causes, 
were extraordinarily heavy, and have been largely responsible 
for the stagnation which has since ensued. 

The very material shrinkages in India's imports, as shown 
by these tables, cannot be attributed to anj restricted consump- 
tion by the masses, for they are more flourishing and are buying 
more than ever before. In the past decade tne population of 
India has increased hy lOf per cent. That every unit added 
to the population requires his or her modicum of clothing is 
attestea in a measure by the fact that the trade of the country 
has g^own in the same period by 42 per cent, an expansion four 
times greater than that of the population. Upon the latter the 
value of the trade of the last fiscal year falls at the rate of nearly 
seven rupees per head. This sum represents an intrinsic advance 
of 1} rupee upon the incidence per head of ten years ago. To 
account for tne decrease in our cotton piece goods trade with 
India we are provided with numerous reasons, such as the rise 
and fall in the gold value of silver and concurrent fluctuations 
in Eastern exchanges, the heavy contracts entered into last year, 
the steady decline in the values of piece goods by which the 
present year has been marked, the serious losses on the part of 
native importers, subsequent fiEtilures amongst them and the 
consequent distrust and restriction of credit, and the higher 
prices of foodstuffs following upon a crop failure — more or less 
accentuated — in districts affected by a deficient monsoon. 

Beyond these, however, are two causes which appear to be 
as largely responsible as any others for the existing state* 
of affairs, viz., the mushroom-like growth of native miUs and 
the falling-off in India's re-exports. With regard to the former, 
it is beyond question that India's imports of such classes of cloth 
as are woven in her own mills have declined enormously, as a 
consequence of which Lancashire's trade has been materially 

* Increase for dx months ending SOth September, 1891, of 6,418,742 yards, though short by 
8,807,685 yards of the qtiantlty shipped in the corresponding period of 1890. 

t Increase over 1889 of 7,800,158 yards, though 18,013,189 yards short of the quantity imported 
In the seyen months ended October 81. 1890. 

Digitized by 


*244 The Jatimal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

limited to finer qualities (in which there is no present Indian 
competition) and reduced to considerably smaller proportions. 
Thanks to the development of the cotton industry in JBombay 
and elsewhere in India, the time appears to be within measu- 
rable distance when our exports of coarse and medium cottons, 
which have hitherto formed the bulk of our trade with that 
•country, will have entirely disappeared, and Lancashire will then 
be confined to the manufacture of such classes as may still 
remain beyond the sphere of native production. It is, of course, 
not suggested that native mill competition has replaced Lanca- 
shire manufactures to the full extent of the shrinkages shown. 
A certain proportion of the falling off in India's imports of 
cotton piece goods must imdoubteoly be attributed to the last 
cause I have named. The very material decrease in this de- 
partment is due in the most important of measures to our 
establishment of more direct means of communication between 
our own ports and those of the Persian Gulf, the East Coast of 
Africa, and other Asiatic countries lying east of Suez and west 
of Bombay. The changes thus effected have resulted in the 
diversion from our dependency of much of the re-export trade 
with which she previously counted, and the figures concerning 
the same, particularly with relation to cotton piece goods, were 
such available, would reduce to less significant proportions the 
falling off to which I have drawn your attention.* 

Before departing finally from fiombay I should like to refer 
for a moment to the trade done thence to the East Coast of 

* I Ain now (January, 1892) enabled to add a few paiticalani ooncerning the 
-decline in our Eastern trade. In a table of export) recently published are to be found 
the following differenoea in our shipmenta to Eastern markets : — 



1888 2,844,600,000 

1891 2,486,800,000 

Decrease 357,800,000 

188& 189L Decreue. 

BomUy, Calcutta, Madras, and Karachi 1,987,500,000 1,761,100,000 236,400,000 

Hongkong and Shanghai 565,300,000 522,900,000 42,400,000 

Singapore 150,600,000 119,700,000 80,800,000 

Manila 64,400,000 83,500,000 80,900,000 

Japan 76,900,000 59,600,000 17,800,000 

Total yards 857,800,000 

In crm e. 

•Ceylon 18,900.000 17,400,000 3,500,000 

Kangoon 40,400,000 57,400,000 17,000,000 

BataYia 103,800,000 150,300,000 47,000,000 

Total yards 67,600,00:) 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress cmd Competition in India. 245 

Africa, not only as affectiDg native manufactures, but also as 
influencing a large portion of the productions of our own mills, 
the ultimate destination of which is the East Coast, but which 
are first sent to Bombay and shipped therefrom to Zanzibar, or 
in some cases are stopped for transhipment at Aden. The bulk 
of this trade has hitherto fallen into the hands of Bombay 
native merchants and their compatriot representatives on the 
African coast. This is not as it should be, and is only an 
earnest of the important part they must eventually assume in 
the commerce of newly -awakening Eastern nations, if we be 
content in the future to watch their advance with the same 
supineness as that by which we have (until quite recently) been 
affected during the past twenty years. 

That the African trade in Indian piece goods is advancing 
rapidly, is evidenced by the feet that, whilst shipments to the 
East Coast only amounted in 1889-90 to about 21J million 
yards, they had increased for the year ending 31st March, 1891, 
to 25 J millions (nearly 20 per cent). It will be readily admitted 
that this expansion is not merely ephemeral, when I state that, 
while for the three months ending June 80, 1889, not more than 
4| million yards were shipped from Bombay to the East Coast 
via Zanzibar, and 6J millions for the corresponding period of 
1890, those for the same three months of this year reached a 
total of nearly 12f millions (12,636,351), or as much in three 
months of the current fiscal year as was shipped in six months 
of the year ending March 31, 1891. During the whole of the 

Gross decrease 1891-88 to Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Hong- 
kong, Shanghai, Singapore Manila, and Japan 867,800,000 

Gross increase to Ceylon, Rangoon, and Batavia 67,500,000 

Net shrinkage 290,800,000 

To Ceylon the increase is mostly in plain cottons ; to Rangoon the increase is in 
the proportions of three-fifths of plain cottons and two-fiftha of coloured ; to Batavia 
the increase is in the proportions of one-fourth of plain rottons and three-fourths of 
coloured. On the 8th inst. (January, 1892), Messrs. W. H. Nott & Co., of Liverpool, 
wrote to the Manchester Owirdian as follows : "At no time since 1862 has there been 
such a marked falling off in our exports as during the past year. The total decrease 
to all parts of the Esst a no less than— in plain cottons, 214,889,238 yards ; in dyed 
and coloured, 28,040,078 yards ; total, 237,929,816 yards ; and in twist, 8,581,700 lb. 
weight The only increase, we may say, is to Java, and the large shipments of 
printed cottons to these ports make the net total shipments of prints to all the East 
an increase of 4,810,388 yards. As this shrinkage represents a money value of quite 
22 millions sterling, it is a very serious question for the Manchester district" 
Messrs. Nott & Co. appear to have overlooked the expansion which had occurred-^ 
as shown in the above table— in our trade with Ceylon and Rangoon. In further 
proof of this, particularly as regards Burmah, I may state that according to official 
returns the imports of cotton piece goods into the country last named during the 
seven months ended October 8lBt last were of the value of 10,928,310 rupees, as com- 
pared with 9,513,490 rupees and 8,254,950 rupees for the corresponding periods of 
1890 and 1889 respectively. ^ ^^ 

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•246 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

year last named 18,121,000 yards of Indian piece goods went 
from Bombay to Zanzibar and Mozambique, and 11^ million 
yards of Manchester piece goods w&rvt along with them from the 
•same piyrt. 

Now, why a great portion of Lancashire's productions for 
the East Coast of Africa should be sent roundabout, vid Bombay, 
and through the hands of its native merchants, instead of going 
direct from our manufacturers and merchants, to their corre- 
spondents or their own branches in Zanzibar and elsewhere on 
the East Coast, is a question which is freely asked without any 
apparent attempt being made to prove that the latter course 
would be better for ourselves and consumers alike. The present 
volume of this coast trade and the dimensions to whica it is 
likely to grow in the future are important enough to deserve 
•of merchants some serious consideration of the means best 
•calculated to secure a more intimate local share therein. The 
recent imposition of a 5 per cent duty upon all goods imported 
into German East Africa must undoubtedly exercise a preju- 
dicial influence upon both Bombay and Lancashire interests in 
the flourishing trade hitherto done with the South-East Coast 
from the grand distributing centre, or, as the Americans would 
■SAy, the "dumping" ground of Zanzibar, the nowly-arranffed 
British share in the control of which must be highly gratifymg 
to Manchester. 

As regards the territory of the British East Africa Companv 
to the north, it enjoys, so far, few of the facilities with "vmich 
the German East Africa Company counts in the south. The 
latter country is served from several ports ; the interior is well 
watered and easily accessible ; and it boasts, sni generis, a fairly 
advanced state of civilisation. The northern countrv, per 
contra, possesses only one entrance upon which we may depend 
for communication with the lakes, and that is the temporarily 
rising port of Mombas. I say " temporarily rising port," oecause 
upon the steadily increasing flow inwards of merchandise and 
•outwards of produce depends its further and established pros- 

This much-to-be-desired state, however, is not yet nearly 
assured, for the character of the country behind Mombas, both 
from the difficulties presented by its physical conformation 
and the turbulence of its population, is opposed to the facile 
passage of merchandise eitner to or from the lakea The con- 
struction of trade routes has been, and doubtless is, largely in 
contemplation, but for all practical commercial purposes the 
country still remains unopened, and oflFers obstacles of magni- 
tude to our free communication with the important distributing 
centres of the more densely-populated interior. 

Since writing the foregoing a serious disaster has befallen 
'German arms to the south, and we ourselves have been threat- 

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Becerd Trade Progreas and Competition in India. 247 

ened with the collapse of the British East Africa Company, 
owing to its confessed inability to conquer, in the absence of 
State aid, the difficulties to which I have just drawn your 

Harking back to India, the cotton industry in Bengal only 
lightly claims our attention in the improbability that it will 
ever assume highly-important proportions — first, because of the 
ever-powerful position of its Western neighbour, and secondly, 
because as Bombay is the seat of the Indian cotton trade, m 
like manner Bengal monopolises the manufacture of jute ; and 
to the latter cotton must, for various reasons, always be sub- 
servient in the north-east. We must remember, however, that 
any cotton mills which may be erected hereafter in the 
neighbourhood of Calcutta will boast very considerable advan- 
tages over those first established. These occur particularly in 
the sense that though mills set up some twenty years ago cost, 
building and plant inclusive, at the rate of 42-45 rupees per 
spindle, very superior concerns can now be launched upon their 
career for about half the money. This is a fact which, in con- 
junction with the improved and less expensive transport faciUties 
afforded by recent railway extensions between Calcutta and 
some of the cotton districts, should encourage a reasonable 
extension of the industry in the future, if mill management can 
be placed generally upon a more satisfactory footing than that 
upon which it has hitherto rested. The system, in some parts 
now abolished or in course of amendment, which promoted 
over-production for certain purposes of unenviable notoriety, was 
responsible more than any other factor for the paralysing 
vicissitudes through which the industry was long forced to 

In the few remarks to which I purpose limiting myself upon 
the subject of jute and its manufacture, I may say, primanly, 
that from the natural resources of her provinces, Bengal secured 
to Calcutta, as the seat of its manufacture, advantages which no 
other country could afford. The capital invested so far in her 
cotton industry amounts to something less than 1,000,000 ster- 
ling, whilst the sum subscribed for the manufacture of her staple 
product, including that sunk in the various pressing compames, 
cannot fall far short of 5,000,000 sterling, and the hands directly 
employed in the spinning and weaving and pressing departments 
almost equal in number those engaged in the whole of the cotton 
mills of India. 

Less than twenty years ago the total quantity of jute grown 
was about 2,700,000 bales, from an area of very much less than 
1 million acres (925,899). Last year the crop used (Aug. 1, 
1890, to July 31, 1891) amounted to 4,650,000 bales, from an 
area of 1^ to If million acres, 1^ million bales being con- 
sumed by Bengal mills, and 3,400,000 bales were exported, 

Digitized by 


248 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

against shipments of If million little more thiui ten years ago^ 
(1879-80), and considerably less than 2i millions (2,645,109) four 
years ago, (1887-8). To put it to you more simply, less than 
a million cwts. were exported thirty years ago, and last season 
12 million cwts. were sent out of the country. 

Turning to manufactures of the article, twenty years a^o 
there were not 1,500 power looms for the weaving of iute in 
Bengal, and the total exports of bags made by hand and power 
did not exceed 6^ millions. Now there are 37 short of 8,000 
looms, and nearly 160,000 spindles at work in 24 mills, and the 
total exports of gunnies last year (Jan.-Dec, 1890) to all internal 
and external markets were 170,800,000. In the decade the 
exports of manufactured jute to markets beyond India haye 
increased by 126 per cent, i.e., from a value of about 11 million 
rupees in 1881-82 to nearly 25 million rupees in 1890-91, and 
in the same years the shipment of gunnies and gunnie cloth 
has increased respectively from about 42 mUlion bags and less 
than 1 million yards to 98| million bags and nearly 30 million 

The total number of bags exported to places in India outside 
the Bengal Presidency has increased just as rapidly (from 
36,200,822 in 1889-90 to 53,370,394 in 1890-91), and the further 
success of this department at home depends largely upon railway 
extensions and the consequent agricultural development of the 
country, from which latter must spring an increased demand 
for gunnies. As regards external markets, Bengal has long 
since struck a vital blow at Dundee's trade in California, 
Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Egypt, and various parts 
of South America, principally the western coast ports. In the 
future, Burmah, the Shan States, Siam, and Chma, must also 
contribute very appreciably to the further building up of her 
native strength and the ever-increasing prejudice of Dundee. 
In gimny cloth most of* the foreign markets had until of late 
years drawn their supplies from the United Kingdom. So 
rapidly, however, has the Bengal industry advanced, that, at the 
present time, Calcutta, materially assisted by her geographical 
position, practicallj enjoys a monopoly, in so far as concerns the 
supply of coarse jute cloths to the chief markets of the world 
In met, into such a moribund condition has the manufacture of 
coarse bagging fallen in the United Kingdom that none is now 
made for export, and the major portion of our own requirements 
in such low qualities is actually supplied from Bengal. 

It is, therefore, well for Bengal that she possesses this 
branch, amongst a very few others — such as her ex}X)rts of raw 
jute, indigo, opium, hides, tea, and shellac — upon which she may 
rest with a certain amount of security ; for the rapidly-rising 
importance of Bombay and Karachi, resulting, Tby railway 
extensions, from their greater proximity to large agricultural 

Digitized by 



Recent Trade Progress and Competition in Irhdia. 249 

areas, from their comparative immunity from the paralysing 

E3rt charges and river difficulties, &c., to which shipments vui 
alcutta are subject, and again, from the advantages they derive 
from their closer contact with Europe, has had of late years 
a very prejudicial effect upon the general trade of India's 
metropK)lis.* Her star appears to be setting in certain quarters 
as rapidly as those of Bombay, Elaracni, Chittagong, and 
Rangoon are rising. Of recent years the increase in imports 
and exports of merchandise only t*hrough these latter ports has 
been as remarkable in its regular upward movement as has 
been the steady decline of Calcutta in several departments 
which contributed most substantially to the aforetime com- 
mercial supremacy of the " City of Palaces." 

In the five years since 1886 the increase to which I have 
referred has been in the case of Bombay, 134 per cent; 
Karachi, t*7-26 ; Rangoon, t56-2 ; and Chittagong, t36-67. 
In the case of Calcutta it has been only 6*9 per cent, attribu- 
table rather to her increased exports of raw and manufactured 
jute than to any expansion of her imports from Europe. 

The crushing charges, in the shape of towage, pilotage, and 
railway rates, to which imports ana exports vid Calcutta were 
subject a year or two ago, directly assisted in the opening of 
Chittagong, by reason of its comparative cheapness, as a port 
for the export of jute. The diversion thus effected contributed 
later on to the steady growth of a general trade, which, in mer- 
chandise alone, inwards and outwards, increased from 8^ million 
rupees in 1885-86 to over 15 million rupees in 1889-90, and the 
bulk of this trade formerly found its way through Calcutta. 
The competition of the Burmese ports for the rice trade, hitherto 
done through Calcutta, grows strong^er year by year. Yet in 
1885 tenders were invited for a preliminary loan of 7h million 
rupees for the purpose of wet-dock construction at Kiaderpore, 
the completion of which could not possibly cost less than. 
3J million sterling; and this proposal, which appeared more 
than likely to involve imports and exports in still heavier 
charges, was made in the lace of a trade fast drifting from the 
alreiidy most expensive port in India to find at last its natural 
entrauce and exit through Bombay, Karachi, Chittagong, and 
the Burmese ports. 

* In reports to hand from the Central Proyincee ooncemlnff the influence of railway ezten* 
■too* un t-ade developmeut in thoee districts, ic is noted that tha movement of wheat from 
CbhittUagiirh trebled, Mud of the total amount 98 per cent was oonshnied to Bombay. The 
•ptuing of thri/Utfh communication wit^ Calcutta from the ChhattisKsrh country is partlculju'ly 
rvsMrUxbl- for the MtriHing fiict hat it had practically no effect in changing the direction of the 
tnfie, althoujrh the g eater part of this trace is nearer CnlcutU than Bombay. Of 1,114|^45 
BAuiids exported fn»m Chbattisgarh, only 27,438 maunds were connigned to CalcuttM. The 
hMeed, like the whottt, was almOst all taken by Bombay, the movement from Chhattlsgarh 
Wwaiiig cent per cent 

t The diiipniportion existing between the Talues of the trade of Karachi, Rangoon, and 
ChittiMrnng and uyat of Bombay and Calcutta should be taken into account when nuttng these 


Digitized by 


250 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

Having so far considered, amongst other matters, the work 
of our most doughty opponent, we may now turn to a very brief 
sketch of the progress of her satellities within her own domains. 
The trading rivalry of one of these (to which I shall shortly 
have occasion to refer more particularly) affects us generally in 
a very much more insidious Tashion than does the mere spread 
of its manufactures. In the first place it is interesting to notice 
that while the increase of India's trade — imports and exports of 
merchandise — with the United Kingdom has been merely 
nominal during the past decade, that with many other countries 
with which she has commercial relations has very materially, in 
some cases enormously, expanded. For instance, Japan by 
812-64 per cent; Germanj, 627*52; Belgium, 185*33; Egypt, 
162-62 ; East Coast of Africa, 74*94; United Stated of America, 
74*1 ; Australia, 43*39 ; and with the United Kingdom, 15*45.* 
In the last five years there has been a considerable diversion 
to Continental countries of trade hitherto done from India to 
the United Kingdom. The increase in our own direction has 
been only about 4^ per cent during that period, whilst Indian 
trade with other European countries has grown by about 26 per 
cent, for which Germany and Belgium have been mainly 

India's exports to the United Kingdom for the year ending 
31st March, 1891, fell short of the previous year's total by 16 J 
per cent. As the exports of India to all countries declined last 
year by only 3J per cent, it follows, even assuming the whole of 
the decline to have occurred with ourselves, that at least 13^ 
per cent of the trade coming to us in 1889-90 found its way 
into other channels in 1890-91. 

For present purposes, however, it will suffice to note the very 
striking advances made in Indian trade by Germany, Belgium, 
Austria, and the United States of America. Taking Germany 
first, we find that her exports to India, which five years ago 
amounted to less than If million rupees (1,603,000), advanced 
with extraordinary rapidity until they reached, last year, a total 
very little short of 17 millions (J 6,916,490), or a tenfold increase 
in general trade within five years, last year's advance being at 
the rate of 200 per cent over the trade for the previous twelve 
months (principally in hardware, cutlery, matches, steel, woollen 
goods, sugar, and salt, the success of which latter is exercising 
a very prejudicial influence upon shipments thereof firom 

Germany's imports from India have increased in a similarly 
remarkable fashion, viz., from 7,713,100 rupees in 1886-7 to 
43,874,482 rupees in 1890-91. This shows an advance of nearly 
470 per cent m the five years, and 59 per dent in 1890-91 over 

* Tbme pmroentaffOT are those to which I make partieular reference in my remarks, "Uj 
only poxpoee," 4o., on pa^^ 25L 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress and Competition in India. 251 

1889-90 (principally cotton, rice, hides, jute, and seeds). The 
improved means of communication now established between 
Inoia and Germany — ^more direct than any previously existing^ 
are distinctly in mvour of a continued expansion of trade both 

India's trade with Belgium has advanced 44 per cent in fivo 
years, and her last year's imports were larger by nearly 12 per 
cent than those of the previous twelve months (the mcreaae 
being mainly in dyes, glassware, steel, &c.). 

Exports trom Austria to India increased in the twelve months 
ending March 31, 1891, by 18 per cent, mainly in apparel, cotton 
yarn, dyes, hardware, cutl^, woollens, and sugar. 

India's trade with the TJnited States of America, both im- 
port and export, has very steadily increased from year to year ; 
and with reference to exports of Transatlantic cotton piece goods 
to India, we see that from about half a million yards shipped in 
the four months, January 1 to April 80, 1889, they had jumped 
at a bound to over 2 million yards for the corresponding 
period in 1890, our own exports in the latter year being about 
8| per cent less than they were in 1889 (61 million yards) during 
similar periods. 

Qoing beyond our point for a moment, a still more remark- 
able fact is that though America sent to China in the four 
months, January to April, 1889, barely six million yards, her 
shipments for the similar period of 1890 totalled close upon 37^ 
millions, the increase in our own shipments during the same 
four months being the comparatively insignificant one of 18^ 
millions on a trade six times larger than that of America. My 
only purpose in the introduction of America's cotton goods trade 
with China, and various of the percentages* quoted in connection 
with India's expanding commerce with Continental countries, is 
that of marking the respect in which such progress should be 
held. We may hug ourselves contentedly when we remember 
the enormous disproportion existing between the magnitude of 
our own trade and that of Continental and Transatlantic rivals. 
At the same time we cannot ignore the fact that small begin- 
nings — ^like the cotton and jute industries in India and Japan, 
without going further for comparisons — are often responsible in 
the end lor widely-spreading and largely-controlling influences. 
Our experience, however, of the results achievable by the 
intelligent, active, and full employment of Lancashire's manu- 
facturmg and trading strength should be sufficient to free us 
from any fear of much of this foreign competition, though it 
would be the worst of generalship did we, with dogged conser- 
vatism and blind unbelief in the opposition, despise advances 
hitherto insignificant, but which are now assuming comparatively 
important proportions. 

* S«e peroantagas on pagv 250. 

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262 The Journal of the Mcmcheeter Geographical Society. 

A fortnight ago I had the honour to be included in the 
audience which assembled in the boardroom of the Manchester 
Chamber of Commerce for the purpose of hearing Mr. C. L. 
Tupper's address to the members oi your Society on " Recent 
Agricultural Progress in India." The discussion which ensued 
at the close of his paper included a question of sufficient origi- 
nality to merit a passing reference here. As no satisfactory 
reply thereto was tnen afforded, the present opportunity serves 
to bring the question before you once more, and permits me to 
offer a little information and venture a hypothesis which may, 
perhaps, help to dispel the doubt which then appeared to prevaiL 
The question was founded upon the difficulties by which we 
were beset during the period of intemecme struggle in America 
and the consequent cotton famine in Lancashire, and was as 
follows : '* Why did not India in the present day largely increase 
her acreage under cotton, in order that free supplies might be 
available for Lancashire in the event of American ports being 
closed against her at any iuture time by conditions such as 
those which obtained in 1861-3 ? " Now, on the face of it. such 
a suggestion savours somewhat largely of an interest entirely 
beyond any fundamental consideration for the immediate or 
eventual benefit of the cultivator. India, evidently, is expected 
to increase her acreage and produce each year a supply of raw 
material substantially in excess of current requirements, and to 
rid herself of which annual surplus she would experience insu- 
perable difficulty, solely in order that on the highly-improbable 
chance of America's ports being blockaded against us at any 
time in the indefinite future, we might have ready at hand a 
supply upon which we could freely draw in our extremity. 

The fact is that the advancing consumption of Indian cotton 
by native mills, in conjunction with increased exports of the 
raw material for manufacture in Asiatic markets and — most 
important of all — on the continent of Europe, is tending to 
the rapid diminution of its shipment to England. The Conti- 
nental markets are of much higher value to India than is Lan- 
cashire, because, in the first place, Bombay and other mills have 
supplanted ourselves in the supply of that demand for coarse 

J^arns and cloths for which we previously catered. Our demand 
or the raw material has thus been turned upon the longer 
staples of America and the Brazils to the growing exclusion of 
the Indian article. Much of our machinery is now adapted for 
the treatment of long staple only, whilst the former is in constant 
request in Continental mills for the manufacture of the coarse 
cotton clothing generally worn by peasantry and workpeople in 
Italy, France, Belgium, Germany, and Austria, but which is 
entirely unsuited to our own hnme trade. 

In the official year of 1887-8 we took some 2,140,000cwts. 
of the various classes of Indian cotton, but in the past fiscal year 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress cmd Competition in India. 253 

our imports little more than exceeded l,500,000cwts, a quan- 
tity representing, firstly, a shrinkage of nearly 30 per cent, 
and, secondly, only 12 per cent, or less than an eighth part, of 
India's total export& In the meantime the exports to Italy, 
Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, and Spain had all materially 
increased, the continent of Europe receiving in the twelve 
months ending March 31, 1891, no less than 4, 144,000c wts, 
representing 82 per cent of India's total exports, the remaining 
6 per cent of which went to China, Japan, and the Straits.* 

So with reference to the question proposed to Mr. Tupper, 
it is clear that if any strong inducement be held out to India to 
increase in the future her aerobe under cotton for export pur- 
poses, it must proceed from Continental markets if the full 
supply of their requirements should suffer a check by reason, 
amongst others, of the greater consumption of the raw material 
in native mills, or its better appreciation and enhanced values- 
due to an eventual reduction in America's cotton acreage— 
amongst Lancashire and other consumers. 

In connection with this subject of cotton cultivation, an 
opinion — born of the question to which I have just referred — 
was adventured that, for the sake of the Lancashire custom to 
which such efforts might give birth, India should endeavour to 
produce a raw material afin in quality to " Sea Island " in cer- 
tain districts on her seaboard, which, from the atmospheric and 
other favourable conditions by which they are governed, would 
appear to offer distinct possibilities for the successful cultivation 
of a longer staple and finer quality. This, however, is a sugges- 
tion in which, 1 am very much afraid, few Lancashire manufac- 
turers could be induced to join. India has already furnished 
us with adequate examples of her capabilities, both in an 
ordinary way, with her own spinnings, and also in a somewhat 
startling fashion when equipped with sinews of war such as 
American and Egyptian cottons provide; and the results achieved 
are highly portentous of what she may do if ever she produce a 
raw material of a quality sufficiently good to render her 
independent of the imported article. 

The production of such cotton would be in the first place for 
the satisfaction of her own requirements, and afterwards for the 
needs of outsiders. In the existing state of affairs the opinion 
gains ground with those who have thought upon the subject, 
that if India take seriously to the manufacture of medium and 
finer clasf^es — and there is no incontrovertible reason why she 
should not do so — her importation of Egyptian cotton, so far 
insignificant, is likely to grow enormously. 

JBy specimens sent home to us of cloths woven from 40's 
twist and 60 s Eg3rptian weft, India has already afforded proof 

• * Exports of oottOD from Bombay to Great Britain— January 1 to December 81 : 1889, 898,000 ; 
1690, 844,000 ; 1891, 108,000 bales of S921b. 

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254 The Journal of the Mamchester Geographical Society. 

positive of what her mills are capable of turning out in the finer 
qualities. With the increased importation of Egyptian and 
American cotton which must naturally follow upon such results, 
her attention may be directed to the possibilities afiorded by such 
districts as those to which I have referred. Her imports from 
abroad will afterwards continue only until such times as her 
soil shall have produced sufficient material for the adequate 
supply of her own mills. 

This end attained, the prejudice to ourselves will be two- 
fold — i.e., in both yarns and cloths — for the increase in our 
exports of classes in which there is no present Indian compe- 
tition (and which qualities are shipped in comparatively smaU 
(]uantities) has not been sufficient to compensate for the decline 
in our exports of sorts turned out by Indian mills. Existing 
circumstances appear to favour the impression that by the con- 
tinued development of the native industry and the important 
results towards which ambitious energy and enterprise are carry- 
ing it, we shall, with India's further draughts of tne raw material 
from Egvpt and America, and her eventual cultivation of similar 
staples, be forced to face, in our better trade, conditions akin to 
those with which we are confronted by her current competition. 

With regard to this rivalry, the disadvantages with which 
Indian millowners have to contend are few, the most important 
being (1) the importation of costly machinery ; (2) an exceed- 
ingly heavy fuel account ; and (3) the inferior skill of her oper- 
atives. The second and third of these will be largely removed 
in the course of time, the former completely, as explained in a 
previous portion of this paper, and the latter very materially by 
the improvement which occurs in successive generations under 
capable direction. 

On the other hand, the advantages with which Indian mill- 
owners count are fourfold (1) the raw material at their own 
doors, (2) their factory laws, (8) cheap labour, and (4) their 
geographical position, inasmuch as concerns trade with those 
external marKets previously mentioned, and for the favour of 
which they are now successfully bidding. These are opposing 
forces of the most undeniable kind, against the general effects 
of which, in certain departments, it is unlikely that we shall 
prevail. It behoves us, therefore, to seek compensation by 
lacilitating to the fullest possible extent the breaking up of 
new ground and the opening of markets for our productions in 
Burmah, the Shan States, Siam, Western China, and Africa. 

In speaking a little while ago of the German advance upon 
India, I said I should have occasion to refer to a rivalry which 
affects us generally in a very much more insidious fashion than 
the mere spread of her manufactures. 

The monopoly of the import and export trade of India, 
enjoyed until recent years by British traders, has been perma- 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress cmd Competition in India. 255 

nently wrecked by minor forces, the persevering onslaughts of 
which — ^from the perfection of their organisation — have finally 
prevailed against a position hitherto fondly imagined by our* 
selves to be proof against the most obstinate siege. 

Built upon such bed-rock foundations as our possession of 
the country, priority in the control of her trade, and our national 
power as manufacturers, our commercial position in India should 
never have been shakea If we, as traders, had marched with 
the times it should have been stronger to-day than ever before,, 
and absolutely insensible to shoc^ of no importance indivi- 
dually, but the multiplication of which has finally opened the 
widest of breaches in our outer defences. Througn tnese gaps 
nvals pour with the avowed object of dispersing still more 
seriously British trade influences in our great dependency, and 
now we are face to face with conditions of greater import to our 
future as mercha/nts than any by which we were ever previously 

It is.widely recognised by travellers in the East that German 
competition in its trading branches — a competition incomparably 
keener than that of its manufactures — ^is rampant from the 
Persian Gulf to the north of Nippon, and, in India, is working 
us an amount of prejudice from the enduring effects of which 
none but our strongest efforts and a radical change of methods, 
can serve to protect us. 

During the last thirty years local conditions, both commer- 
cial and social, have been altered so extensively in India that 
an "old-time" merchant would hardly know his way about 
were he suddenly returned to the scenes of his youth. 

Whilst Young Germany studied the possibilities offered by 
India for commercial victories, the attention of Young England 
was engaged in the side issues, so to speak, of his own social 
improvement. This important question continued to absorb 
him very extensively — so much so, in' fact, as to blind him until 
recently to the sapping of British commercial strength by 
advanced methods, with his own adoption of which there was 
nothing to interfere had his eyes been directed more closely to 
the protection of trade interests, and less intently bent upon the 
mere cultivation of a more enjoyable life in India. 

Affairs have thus progressed, until at last a thorn has been 

Slanted in the sides of British merchants which must burrow 
eeper, and eventually pierce vitally, unless strong measures he 
seriously considered and unhesitatingly employed to arrest its 
inward course. A monopoly of Indian trade is, of course, a 
thing of the past. The means, however, which have contributed 
so materially to the establishment of existing German influence 
(as well as to the rapidly-rising native power) in the commerce 
of India are not reserved. Their adoption is open to the world. 
If} therefore, we cannot profit by the lesson their lead has 

Digitized by 


256 The Journal oftlve Manchester Geographical Society. 

afforded, in combination with such improvements thereupon as 
may occur to us, to strengthen a somewhat weak-kneed position, 
it only remains for us to bow with the necessary humility, and 
<;onfess that at last we have met our commercial superiors. 

The Germans, along with others of their Continental neigh- 
bours, enjoy opportunities in their education for foreign service 
which are so far denied to ourselves. When a schoolboy in 
•Germany signifies his intention of embarking eventually upon a 
commercial career abroad, his early assimilation with the natives 
upon his arrival in the country of his choice is pre-assured by 
special courses of study which bring him nearly in touch with 
tnem before he leaves the Fatherland. 

These special studies comprise, amongst other subjects, the 
history of tne country to which he goes, and the character of 
its people, its productions and industries, imports, exports, and 

Upon his subsequent transplantation from the Fatherland to 
what he no longer looks upon as a " foreign country/' he finds 
himself immediately en rapport with the natives, and a few 
short months of practice complete the assimilation for which he 
has been theoretically prepared at home. 

The local advantages with which such a knowledge endows 
its possessor are suflBciently obvious to dispense with any exten- 
sive comment of mine. Opposed, however, to this superior 
class of competition there are hundreds of Englishmen abroad, 
particularly m the East, who form no preliminary acquaintance 
with languages, countries, or peoples before their expatriation, 
and, beyond the detail of the circumscribed commercial and 
social spheres in which they have revolved, are scarcely more 
practically or extensively informed when they return. 

In the majority of cases they never lay themselves out for 
the acquirement of that knowledge of native languages and 
customs in the rudiments of which their rivals are weU versed 
before they reach the country, and the completion of which, by 
local experience, quickly enables them to dispense with inter- 
preters whose assistance is oftentimes, and for various reasons, 
of a distinctly qualified character. 

One other great advantage of the German system is that it 
largely prevents those abominable exhibitions of orutal contempt 
and intolerance which only too frequently distinguish our own 
intercourse with natives whose education becomes more advanced 
day by day, and who are generally the intellectual superiors of 
those by whom they are so grossly abused. 

Young England too often ^oes to the East imbued with the 
traditional idea that the " native " was beneficently provided for 
the sole purpose of affording an adequate foil to our own general 
and immeasurable superiority. 

Unfortunately, a practical acquaintance with the many 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress and Competition in India. 257 

admirable qualities of our swarthy dependents does not alwajs 
assist in tne dispersion of this original prejudice, and to its 
ever-ready display, both gratuitously and upon the slightest 
provocation, must be attributed the major portion of the general 
aversion in which we are held by thousands of Hindoos in the 
present day. From a multiplicity of examples which have come 
within the range of my personal observation, I will merely 
instance two as typical of the majority. 

1. I happened on one occasion to be in the offices of a lead- 
ing English firm in the capital of a presidency which, for obvious 
reasons, shall be nameless. Time, 4-30 p.m. Enter to the 
stockkeeper (an Englishman) a native dealer clothed in half- 
a-crown's worth of Manchester cotton, and a diamond ring for 
which a couple of hundred pounds might have been vainly 
offered. The dealer is a valuable connection of the firm, his 
bank account nearly approaches six figures, and he has just 
bought fifty bales of shirtings. He presents his purchase-note 
for the stockkeeper s countersign, in order that his coolies may 
take delivery of the goods — of which he is in pressing need — 
from the native ** go-down " assistants or warehousemen, under 
the supervision of tne stockkeeper. The latter, who is engaged 
to partner Mrs. Lightfoot at five sharp in a handicap set at the 
Gymkhana, tears the purchase-note from the dealer's hand, and, 
flinging it into his face, consigns him pro tern, to a region com- 
pared with which India must be a chilly country, and bids him 
return on the morrow ! 

2. A year or two ago a Brahmin, of University education 
and highly esteemed in commercial circles in Calcutta, came 
over to this city in the interests of a firm in which he controlled 
with recogmsed ability a leading department. An Englishman 
of some years* Indian experience, who had known the native 
referred to in Calcutta, happened to be sojourning in Manchester 
during the same period. Discussing one day the coincident 
presence of his Indian acquaintance in this city, he expressed 
nis contempt for the courtesy accorded to the " nigger " by his 
correspondents here, and said that at home (i,e., in Calcutta) he 
would be oidered and kicked about the office by the junior 
English assistant with as little consideration as that usually 
displayed for a pariah. 

rfow, I happen to know perfectly well that such would not 
have been the case ; but the incident lends, as Gilbert says, 
verisimilitude to the bald fact I have previously stated. We 
are ever ready to criticise existing caste prejudices amongst the 
various sects of India, but we are blind at the same time to the 
control exercised over ourselves by similar influences and the 
evils for which they are responsible. Not the least of these evils 
is the injury done to a merchant's business by the rancour of his 
servants, of which, generally, he is very incompletely informed. 

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258 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographical Society, 

The results would not be so deplorable could they be confined 
strictly to the detriment of individual culprits. This, unfortu- 
nately, is not to be expected, and the slighted and insulted 
natives ban our race. 

With regard to English commercial travellers in the East, 
they enjoy advantages lor observation which are not entirely at 
the command of resident English assistants. Their sojourns in 
the principal commercial cities of India are not sufficiently 
extended to permit of their energies being diverted from the 
main issue by social claims, the influence of which in resident 
cases only too frequently becomes paramount. 

Their periodical absences serve to bring up the more strik- 
ingly before them upon their return the changes through which 
the country and its peoples have been passing in the interim, 
and my own observation teaches me that in a general sense they 
are more closely in touch with the masses than are the resident 
assistants of English firms in India. 

It was stated a short time since that, while German com- 
mercial travellers might be seen in everv bazaar in India 
transacting business with the small native shopkeeper, our own 
travellers journeyed through the land in lordly fashion, driving 
hard bargains with Rajah and Nawab, but never venturing to 
touch the important question of trade with the teeming millions 
of our great dependency. Speaking from a very extensive and 
intimate acquaintance with German and English commercial 
travellers, both inside and outside of Eastern bazaars, I am com- 
pelled to differ completely from the statement quoted. It might 
be said with as near an approach to hard fact that John Smith 
and Co.'s travellers were driving hard bargains with Prince 
Henry of Battenberg and the Duke of Cambridge, whilst their 
Teutonic rivals were sweating away amongst the small shop- 
keepers of a fourth-rate thoroughfare in Manchester. 

It is true that the number of our commercial travellers in 
India is, comparativelv, limited. Against a single English bag- 
man to be met with in the native quarters prior to the 
enforcement of the resolution of the Native Piece Goods Dealers' 
Association, in June, 1887, by the terms of which foreign 
merchants and their assistants were forbidden the bazaars (with 
a view to trade), under penalties, one could usually place 
two, and sometimes three, Germans. Whilst the resident 
German assistant was to be found amongst the natives daily, his 
English rival rarely visited the malodorous bazaars, and left 
the outside care of customers to the native assistants of the 
firm. The Englishman clings in the majority of cases to the 
beaten track. The German commercial traveller, j)er covUra, 
goes fossicking about in what appear to us to be all sorts of 
out-of-the-way odd corners of the East. These, however, are 
just the very spots in which he is laying the foundations of 

Digitized by 


RecenX Trade Progress and Competition in India. 269 

a trade that, in the absence of our own reformation, shall 
rise Uf> against us in the future and " smite us mightily, hip 
and thigh." 

Insignificant orders of a troublesome kind, oftentimes curtly 
declined by an English " commercial," are conditionally accepted 
by the German, with the same grace and attention as that with 
wnich he receives his important commissions. For the sake of 
a profitable trade which rnay follow upon the satisfactory execu- 
tion of such lines, the German merchant or manufacturer is no 
less assiduous than his representative in the care bestowed upon 
them, and thus the prejudiae to ourselves grows apace. 

The way in which English merchants and manufacturers 
constantly thwart their best interests by a studied disregard of 
the well-considered suggestions of their representatives abroad 
is intensely discouraging to those who are forced to struggle 
against rival methods of a superior kind. Sufficient confidence 
is felt in certain men to send them out beyond the seas for the 
purpose of studying markets and furnishing information as to 
the means best calculated to secure a profitable trade. If, there- 
fore, consistency is of any value whatever in the successful con- 
duct of commercial affairs, the deeply-pondered recommendations 
of such men should meet with the consideration they properly 
deserve. It is against all common sense to suppose that special 
makes, designs, tickets, colours, packing, &c., would be proposed 
unless it had been found that a strict compliance with such 
suggestions was absolutely imperative for the satisfactory fulfil- 
ment of dealers' requirements and the insurance of a mutually 
agreeable and progressive trade in the future. 

It is useless to attempt to foist upon consumers, in opposition 
to their practical knowledge of what is best for themselves, our 
ideas of styles most suitable for their markets. Unfortunately, 
when a due appreciation of the futility of these antagonistic 
efforts eventually dawns upon those concerned, it is discovered 
that their dogged obstinacy has not only entailed a pitiable 
waste of their representatives' time, strength, and patience, and 
their own money, but has also involved uiem so deeply in the 
prejudices of dealers as to enable more progressive rivals to step 
m and establish positions which, by the opportune repudiation 
of methods no longer serviceable, might easily have been secured 
to themselves. 

To meet the competition of the times, and to fit the present 
and rising generations for the struggles before them, it has been 
found necessary to establish throughout the country institutions 
for the spread of a technical education amongst the masses. Bv 
fully availing itself of the facilities now provided for such 
improvement, England's future position in the van of man- 
facturing progress should be beyond question. 
' If, however, our position as traders, as merchants, be further 

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260 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

imDaired, the benefits arising from our greater industrial strength 
will be reaped by other hands than our own. 

The Lancashire merchant is not as necessary to the Lanca- 
shire manufacturer as is the latter to the former. Failing the 
medium of the Lancashire merchant, orders from abroad must 
reach our manufacturing centres through the hands of competi- 
tors. Without the Lancashire manufacturer the Lanca I lire mer- 
ohant would be in as poor a plight as a ship at sea without sails. 

It is clear, therefore, that although there must always be a 
•certain amount of stability about the position of our manufac- 
turers, due to a support drawn from various sources, that of the 
Lancashire tiuder depends entirely upon his own resistive power 
for its protection against attacks from without. 

How is this support, now perceptibly trembling, to be defi- 
nitely assured in the future ? By the early organisation of a 
system of commercial education which shall fit the youth of 
Manchester to take his place in the Eastern and other foreim 
markets on equal terms with the best of his competitors. The 
time must eventually arrive, and it cannot be very long delayed, 
when the maintenance of our position as traders will be impossible 
if our aspirants to commercial careers beyond the seas have not 
already laid at home substantial foundations for the rapid 
-acquirement abroad of such intimate knowledge of the countries 
and their languages and requirements as will enable them to 
stand on the spot and place merchants at home upon a footing 
at least equal, if not superior, to that upon which many of their 
rivals are already established. 

A little while ago the Bishop of Salford said that " the law 
of self-preservation is a law for nations as well as for individuals, 
And the present struggle for national existence depends upon 
the commercial and industrial status of a country and her hold 
upon the markets of the world. These are found to depend in a 
large measure upon the excellence and fitness of her system of 
popular education." 

We cannot hope to make a system of what I may call Eastern 
commercial education ** popular" in the sense in which the 
Bishop wrote. There is, however, absolutely no reason why 
certain subjects, such as those included in Continental systems 
of commercial education, should not constitute a part of the 
Manchester curricuLv/m, and occupy as prominent and well-sup- 
ported a position in certain of our schools as do the industrial 
subjects of spinning, weaving, bleaching, printing and dyeing, 
&c., in our Technical Institutions. 

The growing competition renders such a provision absolutely 
necessary, and the sooner it is made the sooner shall we be freed 
from the unceasing local growls against foreign advances in 
inarkets our position in which, as previously remarked, had 
hitherto been looked upon as impregnable. 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress and Competition in India. 261 

Before being appointed to the various provinces of India, 
candidates for the Civil Service of that country are obliged to^ 
pass satisfactorily examinations upon studies comparea with 
which a course such as that I have suggested is a mere baga- 
telle, both as regards the expense and the mental application 
and development it entails. 

The acquirement of the specified knowledge rigorously 
demanded by the rules of the Service oflfers no insuperable- 
difficulties to those whose course of training is intelhgently 
directed. The point, however, to which I desire to draw your 
particular attention is as follows: That candidates for omcial 
careers in India are not considered to be fit for the partial con- 
trol of the districts to which they may be directed unless 
moderately well acquainted before leaving England with the 
language of the people over whom they may be appointed to 
rule. If such a Knowledge be deeired absolutely essential for 
the satisfactory conduct of State Departments in India, it cannot 
be any the less vital to our success oa traders with the peoples 
of that country. The introduction, therefore, of Oriental pro- 
fessors to the youth of Manchester should be one of the primary 
concerns of tnose who have contributed so admirably by their 
initiation of improved educational methods towards the main- 
tenance of Lancashire's supremacy and continued prosperity in 
her manufacturing departments. 

In conclusion, if there is one branch of knowledge more than 
another in which our countrymen are singularly deficient, it is 
in the department of " Commercial Geography," and the con- 
stant eflforts of your Society for our improvement in this respect 
should command the closest attention and fullest acknowledg- 
ment of those in whose interest the good work is mainly carried 

Archibald Forbes, who has " put a girdle round about the 
earth" more than once — though it took him more than forty 
minutes in which to do it — has declared that a few years ago 
he saw an envelope addressed by the editor of one of London's 
leading illustrated papers to his special artist at the " Sydney 
Exhibition, New Zealavd" He further tells the story against 
himself that, for months after he had grown familiar with 
Australian geography by personal travel in that continent, 
every mail brought him shame and confusion because of super- 
scriptions borne by envelopes directed to himself which were 
copied from an address he had left behind him upon his depar- 
ture from England, and which ran " c/o The Argus Office, Mel- 
bourne, South Australia" 

When I returned from Manila, after my first visit to the 
Philippine Islands in 1884, I was asked by several otherwise 
wellmformed people ** How I had liked Spain ? " They seemed 
to have a vague idea that in some indefinite way the capital of 

Digitized by 


262 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 

Luzon was bound up with the land of Cervantes and Lope de 
Yega, but its exact geographical position was a league or two 
beyond them! 

A Manchester evening paper, which, in some of its leader- 
ettes, is nothing if not facetious, was responsible the other day 
for the statement, included in an editorial upon a recent address 
of the President of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, that 
" in the event of something odd happening in a remote South 
American republic, the position of such a republic upon the 
map of the world could probably not be correctly denned by 
one out of every ten ordinary commercial men.'' 

This is what our American cousins would describe as " a very 
large order;" but, seriously, the charge is a grave one. If, 
therefore, we would successfully repudiate this aspersion upon 
our intelligence and rout the disadvantages entailed by the 
ignorance of which " nine out of every ten ordinary commercial 
men" are accused, a great deal more attention must be paid 
than has hitherto been the case to the very important subject 
under discussion. If a man's geographical researches have been 
of such a superficial character as to preclude his facile indica- 
tion upon the map of the positions neld by the countries and 
their provinces with which, directly or indirectly, he has been 
trading, it seems only reasonable to suppose that his studies of 
the resources of such countries and the cnaracter and necessities 
of their peoples — all highly-important knowledge for commercial 
success — must have been of a very meagre description. 

How a man — I refer now particularly to ernptoyA — can con- 
tinue to be concerned in traae with countries beyond the seas 
without feeling himself to be at least theoretically m touch with 
the natives is a point somewhat difficult of comprehension. That 
he should, so far, have been content t# grope m the dark, and 
work with comparatively unknown quantities, has been largely 
due to the hitherto unsatisfactory system of general conunercial 
education in this country as compared with that of our Conti- 
nental competitors. 

The final dispersion by unimpeachable testimony of a hitherto 
fondly-nourished unbelief in rival progress in the four quarters 
of the globe has led to our present appreciation of the methods 
which have most materially contributed to such advances. The 
knowledge thus bought of hard experience has been responsible 
in an important measure for the admirably vigorous eflforts 
which have been put forth of late to bring within reach of 
budding British traders and manufacturers educational advan- 
tages equal to those with which their Continental competitors 
have long since counted. 

These initial endeavours are an earnest, now that the nation 
has been finally aroused to a just valuation of the vital interests 
involve4, of a serious and undivertible determination to leave 

Digitized by 


Recent Trade Progress and Competition in India. 263 

nothing unattempted in the special branches of education to 
which I have referred for the maintenance of that general com- 
mercial supremacy hitherto enjoyed by British merchants and 
manufacturers throughout the markets of the world. If, there- 
fore, coming generations fail to cope successfully with foreign 
rivalry in tne international race for trade laurels, their defeat 
cannot be rightly charged to the trainers who are now endea- 
vouring so earnestly to fit the youth of the country, both physi- 
cally and mentally, for coming struggles keener than any of 
which we have had previous knowledge and experience. 

Mr. J. Scott Keltie read a paper on "Recent Pro^j^reas of Geographioal 
Education in England " at the BritUh Aaaociation Meeting. Tae author referred to 
the various eCFurti made daring the past twenty-five years by the Royal Geographi<»l 
Society to improve the position of geography in education, and to raise the prevailing 
conoep^n of the subject He ttpoke in some detail of the results of toe efforts 
begun in 1884. He pointed out the improved position of the subject in elementary 
and normal schools ; he showed that even in middle class and our great public schools 
the subject is now treated with more respect than was formerly the case ; but the 
Society had especially to congratulate itself on the fact that it had succeeded in 
obtaining recognition of the subject in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 
The author also referred to the efforts of the Manchester and Scottish Oeographical 
Sodettes, and to the fact that the prevailing conception of the subject has been 
greatly elevated, and that in various ways geography was now recognised in this 
country as a valuable handmaid to science, history, politics, and commerce.— 
Proceedingt of the Royal Oeographical Society, October, 1891. 

The Hnelva InterBational Oongress of AmericaaiBts.— This congress 

will be held at Huelva, in the Convent of the R^bida, from 6th to 12th October, 1892. 
The last International Congress of Americanists, held at Paris, decided that the place of 
meeting for its next reesion should be selected by the Spanish Gbvemment. The Con- 
vent of Santa Maria de la R^bida (province of Huelva) has been chosen for this ninth 
session of the congress. The present congress has a double object — (1) To contribute 
to the progress of scientific studies relative to the two Americas, especially of the time 
anterior and immediately posterior to Christopher Columbus ; (2) To establish 
personal relations amoDg Americanists. The foUowiDg questions will be submitted 
for discuKsion. History and Geography : (1) On the name America. (2) Latest researches 
on the history and the voyages of Christopher Columbus. (8) Of the influence produced 
on the organisation of the Indian communities of North America by the arrival of 
Europeans, &c. ArchsBology : (1) To point out the analogies which exist between 
the pre-Columbian civilisations and the Asiatic (China, Japan, Malaysia, Chaldea^ and 
Assyria). (2) To make known the most recent discoveries which have been made 
of the mound-buildings of North America, and the conclusions which can be drawn 
from them concerning the civilisation of their constructors. (8) What are the 
ancient populations of the Isthmus of Panama which have left the collection of 
pottery which now may be seen at Yale College and in the Smithsonian Institution ? 
(4) What connections are there between the different kinds of potteiy of America f 
Anthropology and Ethnography : (1) Nomenclature of the nations and tribes of 
America before the conquest (2) New discoveries relative to Uie American 
qoatemary man, Ac. 

Digitized by 


264 The Journal of the Mcunchester Geographical Society. 


(By permiuion of the Editor of The Textile Jl£ereu$y.) 

BwwDMV 18 a ooantry which di£fen from many other civilised coantriee in that iti 
inhabitants carefully preserve many peculiaritiee of dren and manners. The ooantry 
people delight to wear their native costumes, instead of foolishly aping the fsshioni of 
the towna In the bathing places on the North Sea and the Baltic stylish Swedish 
ladies vie with one another in their original toilettes of native origin, which ars often 

Fio 2. 

graceful and always exceedingly picturesque. The children are often seen attired in 
the becoming costumes of Dalecarlia and Schooen, and even their dolls wesr the 
curious pointed caps and variegated aprons of the country women. Everywhere in 
the shops tif the larger towns of Sweden are exhibited embroideries and stuffi of very 
peculiar design, and strong but harmonious colouring. These are modem products 

Fio 8. 

Fio 4. 

made at home, which have been intelligently and successfully wrought out after good 
old modvN, imi m to suit the needs of to-d%y. Even now, ss in very early times ^^ 
of tbe«e products— not all— come from the South S vedi«h prnTinces of Skaoe or 
Sohonen, th« hu«ine«*s having now b«ien taken in hand by wide-awake 6rms in Stock- 
holm, Lund, and Qotheoburg. The most prominent of theiw firms are the companj 
of Hand-arbetets-vanner, in Stockholm, and Thora Kulle, in Lund. But goods of 

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Swedish Embroideries. 265 

oapital quality are offered also by the firms of Ellen Ahlberg, in Qoteborg, Borgs 
Soner, in Land, the Skola for Hemsldid, in GOteboi^, the Svensk Kunstloid* 
UtatandniDg, in Stockholm, and others. All these articles — pocket-handkerchiefs and 
tablecloths, curtains and furniture stuffs, carpets, aprons, collars, cuffs, purses, and 
covers for cushions — are made by hand without the aid of machines, and are produced 
not in factories but at home, either by means of the embroidery needle, a sort of 
scissors, or on a peculiar loom of primitive construction, with upright warp, like the 
loom for Smyrna tie-carpets. Particularly charming are the little bags for money or 
keys, made partly of leather and partly of wool, and worn at the belt by ladies and 
chHdren. They exhibit an interesting combination of plaiting and two kinds of 
embroidery. They strike not only by their general grace of form, but also by the 
exceedingly effective, lively, and yet harmonious colouring of their ornamental motiftf 

Fio 5. Fig. 6. 

which are mostly geometric, the sharp outlines being agreeably softened by details 
which are either sewn on or embroidered. Figures 1 and 2 represent purses, and Fig. 
3 a bag for keys. Of the articles produced on looms, the most important are the 
parti-coloured woollen stuffs, patterned with designs exhibiting generally horizontal 
stripes, and worked up into curtains, tablecloths, covers for furniture, and cushions. 
They almost uniformly show strict forms, mostly geometrical, sometimes vegetable 
motift, or very naive representations of animals or human beings, but always in such 
full harmonious tones that the impression is exceedingly agreeable. Fig. 4 represents 
part of a screen for a wall, embroidered after the Qobelins-stitch manner, by Ellen 
Ahlberg, of Goteborg ; Fig. 5 a curtain fabric by the same ; and Fig. 6 a curtain. We 
are indebted for these nol^s to an article by Qeurge Botticher, in the Lreipzic Afonat- 

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266 The Journal of the Manchester Oeographical Society. 


JULY 1st to SEPTEMBER 30th, 1891. 

The 169 bh Meeting of the Society, held in the garden of Mr. Joel Wafnwright, 
Finchwood, Competall, on Saturday, July llih, 1891, at 6-30 p.m., Mr. R O'OonroB 
in the chair. 

Mr. Wainwriqht received the members at the Marple Station, and conducted 
them to a flower show in the schoolroom, where the groups of wild flowers collected 
by the children were very pleasing ; then through Miss Hudson's gardens at Brabbins 
• Hall ; through the park and Compstall village ; by the reservoirs, where wild ducks 
were noticed ; through Mr. Woodman's grounds and Eamcrof t Woods, where the vast 
profusion of elder bloom on the trees, the deep gorges made by water action, and on 
the higher ground the fine sweep of mountain valleys, shut in by Wemeth Low, were 
very much admired. The party were then conducted to Finchwood, where Mr. 
Wainwright and his sister extended their very gracious hospitality. 

Mr. R. Wadi proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. and Miss Wainwright for their 
hospitality, to Mr. Wainwright for his kindness in leading the party and obtaining 
permission to go through so many private grounds, and to those who had given that 
permission. The motion was seconded and supported by Mr. C. H. Stott, Mr. W. 
Aldred, Mr. Robert Smith, Mr. W. Johnson, Ifr. J. Hudson, and Mr. W. T. Evans, 
and waa carried with acclamation. Mr. Wainwbioht responded, and the visit 
terminated by return to Marple Station. 

The 170th Meeting of the Society, held in the Pavilion, Eastham Ferry Hotel, on 
Wednesday, July 15th, 1891, at 1-30 p.m., His Worship the Mayor of Roobdalb 
(Councillor W. T. Heap) in the chair. 

The members journeyed to Liverpool, by the Midland Railway, at 9-80 a^m., and 
found the ferry boat at 11. Arriving at Eastham, the Ship Canal works were visited, 
and, by the kindness of Mr. Manisty, the steamer Fanny was placed at the service of 
the members. A short excursion on the canal was made, and a viait paid, by per* 
mission, to Mr. S. K Piatt's beautiful yacht, Norsencan. After this inspection, lunch 
was had at the Ferry Hotel Some of the members emained at Eastham, taking a 
land journey along the canal to see the broken embankment, but the bulk of the 
party returned to Liverpool by the boat at two o'clock^ and proceeded to the Museum of 
Japanese Art of Mr. Consul Bowes. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bowes received the members with gp eat kindness, and several boon 
were spent in the museum under the guidance of Mr. Bowes. 

The members were also received by Dr. J. Murray Moore, who exhibited to them 
)ii8 very extraordinary co|lectioi^ of New 2Seal%nd curiosities <md photographs* A few of 

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Proceedings. 267 

the members had the opportunity of yisiting the'map printing works of Meanra. Qeo^ge 
Philip and Son, in Hope Street, under the guidance of Mr. J. F. Williams, and were 
Tory much pleased to see the processes of map production. 

The Chairman (Rev. S. A. Steinthal), the Major of Rochdale, Mr. Councillor Sherratt, 
Mr. Nesbitt, and others expressed their thanks to all those who had enabled about 
100 of the members to enjoy a very remarkable day. Thanks were ordered to be sent 
to Mr. Leader Williams, Mr. Manisty, Mr. Thompson. Mr. Consul Bowes, Dr. J. M. 
Moore, and Messrs. G. Philip and Son, for their kindness during the day. 

The 17lBt Meeting of the Society, held in the Mayor's Parlour, Town Hall, on 
Tuesday, July 2l8t, 1891, at 3 p.m., the Rey. S. A. Steinthal in the chair, in the 
unayoidable absence of bis worship the Mayor of Mancheater. 

Mr. Dnris Dotls and two Gazaland Indunas, Huluhulu and Umtiti, addressed 
the members on the Mission to the Queen from Gungunhana, the chief of Gazaland 
and Mr. Doyle spoke of the geography and resources of the country. 

Mr. DoTLE said : Mr. Chairman, I feel proud of meeting the distinguished 
citizens of a town like Manchester, and to say a few words to them about the country 
from which the euToys have come. When the citizens of a large manufacturing and 
industrial centre like this meet to honour them as they have done, it shows that they 
too are interested in the expansion of the British Empire. The success of our 
oobnies would mean the success of commerce in Eoglaod. It was anticipated that 
within a few years a large population would have occupied the northern portion of 
Gasaland, which was teeming with mineral wealth, and that from the occupation of 
that country would spring a large amount of commerce, larger than yet had been the 
esse with other portions of South Africa. Given a gold industry it did not take long 
fw a large population to accumulate, as was experienced in Johannesberg and the 
Australian cities ; and we hall the evidence of experts that no country had been 
discovered which had the mineral wealth of Gazaland, Mashonaland and Matabeleland. 
With the gold industry there is no doubt about the future of the British South 
Africa Company. Agriculturally the country was more fertile than any other in 
South Africa, and eminently fitted for the occupation of Europeans. As large as 
France and (Germany put together, well wooded, with beautiful fertile valleys 
extending in all directions with numerous streams runniog through them, it was 
difficult to imagine a country more suited to carry a large population. With the 
miner must necessarily come the farmer and the storekeeper. I will now describe 
the southern portion of Matabeleland, the first portion of the country entered 
by the British South Africa Company's forces. I claim for that company 
the greatest success in treks that has ever been accomplished in South 
Africa. A country supposed to be teeming with a hostile native population has been 
soooeasfully occupied without a blow being struck or a shot fired in anger. This of 
itsslf speaks volumes for the future prospects of the company. As I was observing, 
the southerly portion of Matabeleland is one in which are situated the 
rich gold fields of Tati ; to the ease of Tati is a tract of country, 100 miles wide, 
known to contain numerous and rich gold reefs, and the assays from these reefs 
have yielded satisfactory results. Hitherto it has been supposed that that portion was 
too unhealthy for occupation by Europeans, but I know that during the summer 
ol last year a number of Europeans occupied that country, and their report is thf t it 
is as healthy as any portion of Matabeleland, and it is probable that this country 
within the next few years will see a large mining population. Leaving this portion 
sod tniTelling further east, we enter into the rich valleys and fertile bottoms 

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268 The Journal of the Mcmchester Qeographiccd Society. 

of the Monetsi, the Lundi, the Tokwe, and the Bube, a country yery fertfle, 
and calculated to grow many tropical products, including sugar, coffee, tea, 
and rice. This lower portion of the country has, of course, a reputation of being 
onhealthy, but if inhabitable by whites it cannot fail to attract the attention of the 
agricultural farmer, from its immense natural advantages and the fertility of its soil 
Crossing the Lundi we suddenly commence to rise on to the high plateau of 
Mashonaland, and when the top is reached, after a gradual ascent of 2,000 feet, we 
emerge from the bush country and find ourselvee with a great open expanse 
of country before us, undulating with patches of woods and bush here and there, the 
hills of Mount Wedza on the east and the hills of Matabeleland on the west. To 
describe this portion of the country as very beautiful is hardly to say enough for it. 
Splendid pasturage for cattle, sheep and horses, and fertile valleys with running streams 
every few miles. From here to Fort Salisbury the country changes but little, and, to use 
the words of a Dutch farmer, it would be difficult to find a place unsuited 
for building or farmers' sites. At Salisbury, which is the present capital of Hashona- 
land, we find a number of people settled. To the west and to the south we have the rich 
gold fields of Hartley Hill and Lo Mogundis. These gold fields were originally 
discovered by Carl Mauch, and subsequently by Thomas Baines, who endeavoured 
unsuccessfully to get a company to develop them. To the north of Salisbury 
we have again rich gold fields, known as the Mazoe gold fields. To the west 
of them again we have the Kaiser Wilhelm gold fields, and it is known that there 
are many other places carrying payable gold which have not yet been prospected. 
Leaving Mashonaland proper and proceeding eastward after passing Umtasa's 
kraal, we arrive at what is now known as the Umtali Valley, and find the country rich 
in minerals, and fertile beyond description, as the immense crops of cereals, potatoes, 
pumpkins, and native corn grown by the natives show, while honey is obtainable in 
large quantities, and it is here that many of the pioneers who first entered Mashonaland 
decided to remain. Beautiful and rich as Mashonaland is, it is exceeded in 
beauty and richnefs by Manica. The northern portion of Gazaland, of which this 
forms a part, is for 200 miles a country which should attract to it within the next few 
years a very large European population, as I know no country in South Africa so well 
fitted and so well adapted, and one that will return such good results as this portion of 
the country. Of course, before the agriculturist and farmer can be successful he mutt 
have a market. The market we anticipate will result from the amount of gold discovered, 
and there is no limit to the number of people who will fiock into the country when it 
is known that satisfactory results have been obtained from the crushings. Much 
delay has occurred on account of the want of machinery for crushing the gold. Like 
all new countries in Africa, the roads during the wet season have been impaasable. 
There have been difficulties with the Portuguese which now are settled, and the 
British South Africa Company have undertaken, or wiU, it is hoped, undertake the 
building of a tramway from Beira to Manica. This being accomplished the difficulties 
which have hitherto prevented the development of the country will be done away with, 
and a road opened by which heavy machinery will have easy access to the mines. 
The success of a new undertaking like this cannot be without some interest to the 
people of England, and especially to the people of a great manufacturing centre like 
this, because that success will mean increased commerce to England ; will 
mean that there will be a field opened to which the surplus population of the 
country can emigrate ; and there they will build up ties, build homes, and keep up 
connections with their English friends, and England, it is hoped, will maintain the 
position in commerce in South Africa to which she is entitled ; and it is to be hoped 
within a very few years that the federation of all States in South Africa under the 

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Imperial flag will be an accomplished fact. We have heard much, and much 
has been said, about the unhealthiness of the climate. Well, I think the 
beet reply that I can make to that is to give you the returns of the deaths 
since the occupation of the country by the Chartered Company's forces. The 
total deaths out of nearly a thousand men are fifteen recorded up to last 
month. In a new country one is subject to great hardships and much more roughing 
it than one is expected to undergo in more settled and older civilised communities, 
shortness of many of the necessities of life to which one is accustomed, all tend to 
make the lot of the early pioneer a hard one, and with the result that one not 
physically strong, or whose constitution has been injured earlier, cannot successfully 
combat the hardships he has to undergo ; but I venture to say from my experience of 
Matabeleland during last year that it will be found that the high plateau of 
Mashonaland and Manicaland, and the northern portions of Gazaland, will be as healthy 
for Europeans as any other portion of South Africa. The best time to enter the 
country would be between April and November. During these months the heat is 
less than at other portions of the year, and it is as well that people should gradually 
use themselves to the great change between the climate of a country like this 
and that of Mashonaland. In conclusion, I hope that the few words I have been able 
to say will show to the people of this country the vast value of the latest acquisition 
to the British sphere of influence, and I trust that influence will be used not only 
for our own good, but for the good of the enormous head of population that has by 
circumstances been placed under our control 

The addresses were illustrated by a large map of the country, and were very 

Questions were asked and replied to by Mr. Doyle, and the thanks of the meeting 
were presented to Mr. Dotlk and the Indunas for their addresses, on the motion of 
the Rev. L. C. Casabtklli, seconded by Mr. Jobl Wainwbioht, and supported by the 
Chevalier Fbobhuch. 

During the day the chiefs were afforded the opportunity of seeing the Manchester 
Royal Exchange, the mills at Tatton Street of Messrs. R. Haworth and Co., the 
warehouses of Messrs. Watts and Co. and Messrs. Fallows and Eeymer, and other 
places, and they frequently expressed their delight at what they saw. 

The 172nd Meeting of the Society, held at Northwich, Monday, July 27th, 1891 
Mr. Councillor Smat.t.maw in the chair. 

The members were received by Mr. T. C. Ward at Northwich, who conducted 
them over the subsided area, near Northwich, to a variety of houses cracked and broken 
by the sinking of the earth, and to the Baron's Quay Rock Salt Mine, 110 yards deep, 
with about 500 yards of working. The members went down the mine, and were veiy 
much interested to see the 800 miners at work. They were then shown the process 
of salt making both from rock salt and brine. 

Lunch was provided by Mrs. Piatt, and the members went on board the Volunteer, 
placed at their disposal by the River Weaver Trustees, through the kindness of Mr 
T. B. Hughes. 

Mr. J. A. Saner, engineer of the Weaver Navigation, accompanied the party. 
The first point to call at was the Anderton lift The principle and method of working 
were explained by Mr. Saner, and a practical exhibition was given by a boat being 
UftedTfrom the Weaver to the canal above. 

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270 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

The steamer then proceeded to Weston Point, where the new locks into the Htn- 
Chester Ship Oanal, the sluice gates, and the emhankment across the Weaver were 

The beauty of the well-wooded banks of the Weaver, ** The Cheshire Rhine," and 
the considerable traffic on the river were a cause of astonishment to the majority of 
the members. Tea was provided on board by Mrs. Platt^ and the members had a 
most interesting and enjoyable day. 

Notice was taken of the death of the Honourable Algernon Egerton ; the vote of 
condolence sent by the council was heartily concurred in, and the reply of Mn. 
Egerton was read. The Secretary referred to the Qeological Congress in Washington 
and the Geographical Congress in Berne. 

Very hearty votes of thanks were passed to Mr. T. B. Hughes, Mr. T. Ward, ICr. 
T. C. Ward, and Mr. J. A. Saner. Mr. Saitbb and Mr. T. C Wabd responded. 

The 173rd Meeting of the Society, held at Llangollen, Monday, August 10th, 
1891. Mr. RiOHABO Davies in the chair. 

The members were led by Mr. Davies to Plas Newydd ; by the canal to the 
Horseshoe Falls, the Church of Llantys, by the residences of Mr. Beyer and Sir 
Theodore Martin, to the Yall^ Crucis Abbey. A most interesting and agreeable day 
was spent in a charming country. 

Mr. CHORim)N moved, and Ifr. Snaddon seconded, a very heariiy vote of tiianks 
to Mr. Davies for his interesting and instructive description of the district and its 
topography and history, which was carried unanimously. 

The 174th Meeting of the Society, held in Rouen, August 24th, 1891. 

A party of members were led by Mr. H. Cruse through Normandy to Paris. A 
veiy enjoyable journey was the result, and the thanks of the members were heartily 
given to Mr. Cruse for his able leadership of the party. 

The 175th Meeting of the Society, held at Berne, August 10th to 24th, 1891. 

The Chairman (Rev. S. A. Steinthal), the Secretary, Mr. Darbishire, M. Oauthiot, 
Professor J. du Fief, and other members, took part in the International Congress of 
Geography, and some of them remained to see the festivities of the city in oelebxation 
of its seventh centenary. The Congress was interesting, and tiie celebration 
exceedingly picturesque and beautiful 

The following reports were subsequently read to the members, and are inwrted 
here to complete the account of the Berne Congress : — 


[Report of Chairman of the CoundL] 

Most people know the quaint old dty of Berne, its aroaded streets, its ianttitie 
fountains, its curious old clock tower, its bear-pit, its picturesque sitaatkm on the 
peninsula jutting into the River Aar, and its sublime view on to the snowy range ol 
the Bernese Alps ; but few Swiss tourists spend enough time within it* walls to 

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Proceedings. 271 

become fMniliar with its muaeums, rich especially in prehistoric specimens of the stone 
sge, and of lake-dwelliug builders, or with the rich intellectual life which characterises 
its present citizens. Tour delegates to the International G^eographical Congress, held 
there last August, had consequently a rather unusual pleasure in spending several 
days in the city, and as the celebration of the seventh century of the city's foundation 
took place immediately after the congress was over, the stay I was enabled to make 
made me familiar both with the present conditions and past history of this most 
interesting town. I wish I could reproduce with anything like worthy picturesque- 
nees the events of the week from the 9th to the 17th of August Many things took 
place which would have surprised Englishmen visiting the Continent for the first 
time, and accustomed to the more formal stateliness of the conduct of similar 
gatherings on our own shores. Indeed the first meeting connected with the congress 
was in itself somewhat startling, and I fancy that some of those present from England 
must, as Canon Heywood says so many English travellers do, have left their Sunday 
habits in the left luggage office at Dover, as the meeting which they attended was 
held on Sunday evening in the garden of a well-known restaurant, the Casino, under 
the shadow of trees, on the edge of the precipice which overlooks the Aar, and gives a 
beautifol view of the winding stream rushing to the great bend it makes round the 
extreme point of the peninsula on which the town is built There we assembled 
Men and women of nearly all European countries — Italians and Russians, Qermans 
and Dutchmen, Portuguese and Spaniards, Belgians and Frenchmen, Englishmen and 
Americans — mingled in pleasant conversation, and seeming to enjoy their beer and 
tobftcco, while discussing the prospects of the coming week of geographical debate. 
We only had one speech, but that was well delivered and to the point Colonel 
MuUer, the Mayor of Beme^ welcomed the members of the congress in a few well- 
choeen hearty words. He disclaimed the right to speak as a scientific man, and 
gracefollj referred to the approaching celebration of the seven hundredth anniversary 
of the city's foundation, stating that the Duke of Ziihringen, who founded the 
town in 1191, was a geographer after a kind, who at a time when men pursued the 
bear in the woods which covered the spot where the city now stands, with the quick 
eye of a true explorer, chose the place where a city called to'great destinies could fitly 
be placed. It was very pleasant to meet so many friends interested in geographical 
stodiaey and I was personally much gratified to see that everyone who was really 
activelj engaged in geographical work, whether he came from Spain or Russia, or any 
intermediate country, was quite familiar, either by previous meeting or by correspon- 
dence, with the secretary of the Manchester Geographical Society, who was often 
called upon to act as a master of the ceremonies, and to introduce distinguished repre- 
eentatiTes of foreign societies to one another. 

The formal proceedings of the congress were begun on Monday, the 10th August 
m the Museum Buildings, under the presidency of Dr. Gtobat, of Berne, who im- 
mediately called on M. Numa Droz, the Foreign Minister of the Swiss Republic, to 
give the address of welcome, which he did with a graceful eloquence, which char- 
acterised all his utterances during the congress, and which made one of the 
oompliments paid to him by a representative of the Royal Qeographical Society of 
London very appropriate when he said that, like his great Roman namesake, he 
teemed to have been inspired by some unseen ESgeria^ Our more practical work then 
began, first with a somewhat sad incident, as Dr. Gobat asked us to join in a resolution 
q€ sympathy with the friends of Paul Crampel and with the representatives of French 
geogn^hy in the loss our science had sustained by his untimely death. In a few 
gracefol words, M. Dupuy, the representative of the French Ministry of Public 
loatmcticm, responded, and we proceeded to elect presidents for the various sittings 

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272 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

of the congress — selected so as to secure that every nation represented should at some 
time or other see one of its countryman in the chair. A jury was also appointed to 
select prize winners in the Qeographical Exhibition, of which I shall have to say some- 
thing later on. 

You will not expect me to give you a summary of all the papers read during the 
congress, nor would you thank me if I did, as I can hardly think of anything more 
tedious than such a summary would be, especially as, according to my own opinion, 
very many of the papers ought not to have been read at such a gathering as an 
international congresss. They were simply papers which would have been suitable 
for one of our library meetings, but altogether unfitted for a great gathering at which 
the leading men of our branch of science had assembled from all parts of Europe, and 
also from various American and Australian states. I trust that if, as is likely, the 
next congress is held in London, a committee will carefully examine the papers 
offered to the congress, and only permit such as are of really universal interest to be 
read. I hardly think it worth the while of an international congress to discuss the 
origin of the Caribbean tribes, or once again to refute the pretended claim of Captain 
William Qlazier to have discovered the true source of the river Mississippi, or to 
determine which hill in a rather insignificant Russian range is to be considered the 
highest. I might mention others, but these will suffice to show the character of 
papers which it seems to me it is hardly needful to convoke men from all parte of the 
world to hear and to discuss. Of greater value no doubt were papers such as that 
BO carefully prepared by Dr. Robert Cust on the missionary work of Europe and the 
United States in Africa, of which I need say nothing, as it has been laid before a 
meeting of this society, which I was unfortunately not able to attend, and no doubt 
carefully discussed. Even more important and more specially valuable was Dr. 
Albert Penck's (Vienna) contribution, in which he urged the preparation of a map of 
the earth on the scale of one to a million. He pointed out that the age of great dis- 
coveries was past ; we could not add another continent. Bub what we have to do is 
to fill up the grand outlines sketched by explorers. We have now the materials at 
our disposal for the creation of a large map of the world on a uniform scale, giving a 
faithful representation of the earth in all its relations, and reproducing the sum of 
our geographical knowledge. Many states have already produced special maps of 
their countries on the scale of a millionth. What is needed is the joint action of 
these and other states in producing the complete map. Professor Penck did not 
deny the difficulties which exist to hinder the proposal. The congress has no 
financial resources for so great a task, but several private firms had produced maps 
on thib scale. It was pleasant in this connection to hear the map of East Central 
Africa of Mr. Ravenstein, which he had issued with the aid of the Royal 
Geographical Society, spoken of with special praise. A sub-committee was appointed 
to consider this proposal and to report to a latar session of the congress. It may be 
as well to conclude my account of Dr. Penck's paper by giving the final result of the 
congress's deliberations upon itw It was agreed that the congress should take the 
initiative in preparing a large map of the world on the scale proposed, and that the 
sections of the map should, whenever possible, be defined by meridians and paraUele. 
For this purpose it appointed a committee representing various nationalities, who 
were to try and induce the various states to help in the realisation of the plan. The 
committee is also to induce publishing societies and firms to prepare sheets of the 
proposed map. The sale of these sheets should be arranged so as to be most easy for 
the public. For England General Walker, General Wilson, Mr. Ravenstein, and Mr. 
Scott Eeltie were appointed. Should the plan be carried out it will indeed be an 
interesting map. It would cover a globe similar to the one which was exhibited a 

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Proceedings. 273 

few yean ago iq Parif , and being on tlie lame Male would, of ooune^ give a traer 
picture of the globe than we have as yet ever seen. There will, however, be great 
difficulty in lecuring the aooomplishment of the plan. Our Government, which 
■eems unable to eatiafy the country with a map of Great Britain and Ireland, can 
hardly be expected to fall in with this wider achemei Such a map, further, would 
neceeearily demand that it should be executed on the veiy best plan, which would 
involve great expense, so that it could not be produced cheaply or expect a wide 
circulation. Whether sufficient public spirit will be shown to provide the needful 
funds seems a doubtful point We have further to arrange as a preliminazy that all 
countries should agree on a prime meridian, and further, the difficulty would arise as 
to the orthography to be adopted in writing the names of places. The question of a 
prime meridian was diacussed at the congress, and that with some warmth. Not- 
withstanding the decision of the conferences at Rome and Waj^ngton, some wished 
to see another meridian adopted than that of Greenwich, one passing through the 
Canary Islands and another through Berne being proposed, while Mr. Bouthillier de 
Beaumont made the altogether novel suggestion that we should adopt a meridian 
which should pass through the Behring*s Strait, which would have the peculiar 
advantage of passing through no one's land, and would very closely divide sea and 
land in equal quantities for each hemisphere, and be a really mediatorial meridian. 
I am glad to say, however, that conmion sense prevailed, and that nothing was done 
by the congress to upset the agreement at present come to by most nations to accept 
Greenwich as the prime meridian. Indeed a resolution was finally adopted urging the 
Swiss Government to associate itself with the Italian, which had already taken the 
initiative in securiog decisive action on the part of all nations to regulate this question, 
which for telegraphic and railway purposes is most important. Whether anything 
will be done I confess I am very doubtful, as there are international jealousies which 
militate against any ready acceptance of an agreement, notwithstanding its very 
obvious utility. The subject of orthography was also discussed. The difficulty of the 
transliteration of foreign— especially of Eastern — names was dwelt upon, scientific 
men differing from each other as to the correct way of reproducing the foreign sounds 
in our western writing. It was finally recommended, though as it seemed to me 
without any real understanding of the question involved, that, in all countries using 
Latin letters, tkey should be adopted for maps and geographical writings. 
For the nations which have not this system, the system proposed by the Geographical 
Society of Paris should be adopted. When this resolution was proposed and carried, 
I asked several gentlemen, some of whom had taken part in the discussion, to 
explain to me the system of the Paris G^graphical Society. I found them just as 
ignorant about it as I am myself, and cannot therefore say definitely to what we are 
committed by the vote. But this is of less importance, as a mere vote of the Berne 
Oongress will, I expect, not carry much weight with anyone who knows how the votes 
were taken. In the various sections discussions arose on different subjects, and those 
present drafted and carried after debate what they deemed right. All these resolu- 
tions were sent up to the general committee, and by it placed in the president's 
handsL At the last session of the congress he, with remarkable speed, read over the 
resolutions, some of which were rather complicated in their construction, and before 
adoption by any practical man would have required careful consideration ; but no 
time was given for consideration, and if no one protested^and no one did — the presi- 
dent declared the resolution carried, although it was neither moved nor seconded, 
nor any vote taken upon it. So rapidly was this process pursued that one resolution, 
which referred to the prime meridian, and which would have upset all that has been 
done with regard to Greenwich, was adopted, and would have appeared in the list of 

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274 The Jouimal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

congress resolutions had not Professor Penck, after the whole string had been gone 
through, risen and moved that this one should not be published. To us English folk 
the whole procedure was quite a surprise, and all agreed that when we welcome the 
congress in England we will use the opportunity to show our friends how bustness 
really ought to be done. 

We had a very valuable morning, devoted to the consideration of the state of 
geographical teaching in Germany, America, England, Belgium, France, and Switzer- 
land. M. Faure, of Geneva, introduced the subject in a very long paper, beginning 
with the days of Rousseau and Pestalozzi, and tracing the great advances that have been 
made in metl^oda of teaching, concluding his address by moving a resolution, subse- 
quently approved by the congress, in favour of the establishment of special chairs for 
the teaching of geography at all universitieB. We were favoured by addresses from 
Professor Palacky, of ^^rague, who recommended the further establishment of special 
seminaries for the study of geography in connection with the universities ; from M. 
Dupuy, who described the methods adopted in France for the elementary schools up 
to the university, with that clearness and precision which makes French scientific 
papers bo delightful. It was pleasant also to hear Mr. Scott Keltie show how, since the 
report of the Royal Geographical Society had been published, advances had been made 
in the systematic study of our science in our own country. I fear I should weary you 
were I to try and tell of many of the papers which were read by the explorers who 
attended the congress. I was most struck by the very rich and condensed account which 
Count Pfeil gave us of the Bismarck Archipelago ; by the description of the hardships 
through which Prince Henry of Orleans had passed while visiting Thibet in 1889-90 
with Colonel Bonvalot ; and by the account of Count Szecheny's explorations in the 
same country, which was given by Professor de L<5czy, of Buda-Pesth. The subject 
of emigration and the aid which can be given to emigrants was introduced in a most 
interesting paper of General Annenkoff, the celebrated Russian engineer, while the 
protection which Government should afford to emigrants was brought forward by 
Prince Cassano. There can be no doubt that many leave their homes in Europe in 
perfect ignorance as to their fitness to earn their living in the new countries to which 
they go, and that our geographical societies ought to be prepared to assist^ with their 
stores of knowledge, all who wish to procure information. Unfortunately we know 
in England that warnings are too often given in vain, and the tempting descriptions 
of the agents are listened to instead of the impartial counsel of the Guvemment and 
of societies like our own. I have far from exhausted the subjects brought under the 
notice of the congress, but, unfortunately, what with sectiocs and sub-sections, and 
with gent- rid meetings, it was impossible to hear everything that was read or to report 
upon everything that took place, and I find I have hardly any time to describe even 
most generally the valuable exhibition which the friends at Berne had provided to 
illustrate the history of geographical studies and its present position. Germany, 
France, Belgium, Italy, Finland, Sweden, and Switzerland were most amply repre- 
sented by maps, books, and apparatus sent by the Governments and leading publishers. 
English work was not exhibited, no notice having been taken by our authorities or by 
our map makers or educational publishers of the invitation of the oongreas. 
All that I could see of England was a disreputable collection of unbound 
numbers of the Royal Geographical Society's Proceedings, and a volume illus- 
trating early explorations of Swiss mountains. I believe Mr. Sowerbutts 
has very full notes of the exhibits, and am sure that he can give us some evening 
a very interesting detailed criticism of the exhibition. I must content myself 
with saying that the Swiss department was to me of the highest interest. It 
was not only instructive as to Swiss geographical studies, but it waa of wetj 

Digitized by 


Proceedings. 275 

general value to lee the development of cartographical methods shown by the 
very perfect collection of maps of Switzerland and parts of Switzerland, beginning 
with a reproduction of the "Tabula Peutingeriana," dating from 193 to 211, and 
containing everything that could be collected up to the grand map of General 
Dufour, completed in 1868. The steady progress shown, the variety of methods 
adopted, the quaint simplicity and humour which characterised some of them, the 
gradually-growing beauty and accuracy of the later maps, made the 440 numbers 
which formed this collection a most valuable and instructive exhibition. Not the 
least important part of the exhibition consisted of the various relief maps of different 
parts of Switzerland, reproduciog every detail of the country represented in the most 
graphic manner. It was not easy to tear oneself away from the examination of these 
beautiful reproductions of natural scenery, recalling, as many of them did, very 
pleasant hours of bygone travel and enjoyment. You must, however, not think that 
your representatives spent all their time in the various sections of the Congress, or in 
the halls of the Exhibition. I ought to say in passing that the Exhibition occupied 
the new Federal Palace, granted to the congress by the Federal Guvemment, while 
some of the meeting^ of sub-sections were held in the old Federal Palace, granted by 
the same authority. This is something like the English Government offering the 
Hi 'Uses of Parliament for the use of the next International Geographical Congress, an 
offer the likelihood of which being made you will, of course, see. The spirit which 
on the first Sunday evening brought us together in the Casino Gardens had secured 
for the members of the Congress the use of the theatre on the Schanzli, where a comic 
operetta was performed for their benefit on the Monday evening, everyone being 
admitted free on presentation of his membership card. 

During the intervals special poems, welcoming the congress to Berne, were 
recited in German and in French, showing how thoughtfully oar hosts had done 
all that lay in their power to give their guests pleasure. A still greater pleasure 
was provided for us on Tuesday afternoon, when a special train took us to Thun, 
where two steamers were placed at our disposal for a sail round the lake. Unfortu- 
nately the sunshine, which had made the morning perfect^ did not last till afternoon, 
so that the distant views, which make the lake of Thun so much more than lovely, were 
hidden, but the nearer views were perfect, and their picturesque beauty made the 
excunion one of great interest. A little speech-making in one of the public gardens 
on our return brightened our proceedings, as it enabled the citizens of Thun to 
welcome their guests, and gave the latter an opportunity^ of acknowledging the 
hospitality they had received. I need hardly add that the entire proceedings closed 
with a public dinner, presided over by Dr. Gobat, when the friendships formed during 
the preceding days were pleasantly continued. It was a true reproduction on a small 
scale of the separation of the nations, as before parting we all seemed wishful to show 
what varied languages could be spoken. Speeches were made in French, German, 
Italian, Spanish, and English ; and a quick ear could catch conversations carried on in 
Russian and Magyar. But amid this medley of tongues there was the most cordial unity 
of friendly feeling, and an evident shrinking from the inevitable parting which was to 
oome. We talked of the past, and spoke hopef uUy of future pleasant gatherings, when 
we should once again meet to discuss our common object of study. The English 
delegates present were not officially authorised to invite the congress to hold its next 
meeting in London, but the Fellows of the Royal Geographical Society present in 
Berne spoke as if they were sure that the official invitation would be sent after the 
first meeting of the Council had been held, and under those circumstances I ventured 
in your name to say that if any of the members should come as far north as Man- 
ehester, we would show them that Manchester, though it had no snowy mountains 

Digitized by 


276 The Jowmal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

and wild glacien to duplay, had hearts ai warm and homes as hospitable to give 
strangers a welcome as any that oould be found even in the generous city to whidi, 
with such sincere regret, we were now obliged to bid farewell 

The report of the delegates to the Yorkshire Meohanios' Institute Union, at 
Pudsey, Tuesday, June 16th, 1891. 

At this meeting the Marquis of Ripon, the president of the Unioni took the 

The reports of the Council were taken in the afternoon, and the question of 
Technical Instruction occupied the attention of the delegateSb In the eTening 
a meeting was held, and an excursion in wagons, with a visit to Mr. Priestly's 
house and Boundhay Park, took up the day. 

Besides the keen discussion on Technical Education, the Ck>unty Grants, Eveniog 
Continuation Schools and Craft Teaching, which was of a most profitable and 
interesting nature, there was not this year anything of especial interest from a 
geographical point of view. 

An arrangement for the Union to take the examination for the Society for 
Secondary Schools on the subject of India was proposed, and has been subsequent^ 
accepted. If the same arrangement can be made for Lancashire and Cheshire, it 
will simplify the working of this Society in the matter of prizes for geographical 
teaching. The arrangement that Yorkshire would be the subject for the prises for 
primary schools in the year 189S was well received by the delegates. 

Lak6 Clhftlft, Mount E^ilima-Djaro. — Mr. Keith AnFtruther, who has been 
for some months a resident at Taveta, in a letter addressed to us from that place, 
informs us that he has made it a special object to explore this deeply-seated crater 
lake, disbelieving the universal belief of the natives regarding its inaccessibility. In 
December last he made his first attempt. He says that the lake is dose to the western 
side of the stream called the Lumi on our maps, the correct native name of whiuh 'u 
BIfuro, or, in the Masai language, Naromosha. The plains to the east and west of the 
stream gradually slope down to the neighbourhood of the crater, so much so that on 
the eastern side there is a steep ascent from the plain to the rim of the funnel, while 
on the western side the «levation of the rim is only a little above the plain. At the 
south-western end the crater rises to a peak 200 or 800 feet high ; and at the north- 
western a dry watertjourse with wooded banks descends to the crater ; it was this 
latter point that he chose for his descent to the lake on the 19th December. His 
aneroid gave for the level of the water an altitude 195 feet lower than his camp near 
the crater rim, or 477 feet above Taveta. A few months afterwards he managed to 
convey a portion of the sections of a pontoon down the dedivity, and, lashing them 
together, circumnavigated the lake several times, finding the circumference to be at 
least six'miles. On the first of his trips, in April last, he conveyed Mrs. French- 
Sheldon on her tour of circumnavigation of the lake. In summing up the peculiarities 
of the lake, Mr. Anstruther says the temperature of the surface-water is only 1 J* lower 
than the atmosphere, and that there is no sandy beach, the rocks on the slope being 
of volcanic formation, without incrustation of any kind, and that the water-marks 
show that there have been considerable alterations of level. As there are no gorges 
on the rides of the funnel, the sudden gusts of wind that pass over the surface were 
very puzzling to account for ; a commotion of water which suddenly appears " from 
the centre of the lake and as suddenly disappears," and strange currenU drawing the 
raft towards the centre, were also very cwona,— Proceedings Royal Oeographical 
Society, October, 1891. 

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T H E 

'"■''''' JOURNAL 


Manchester Geographical 


1891. ff[^^M OCTOBER 

Nos.To-12. ^B^^ DECEMBER. 



A Peep at the Land of the Rising Sun. By Mr. Wilfred M. Steinthal 277 

Ascent of Mount Tule. By Mr. J. P. Thomson, F.R.S.G.S., &;c., of Brisbane ... 294 

The Qeography of the Zimbabwe Ruins in Mashonaland. By Mr. J. Theodore 
Beiit,F.B.aS 295 

The Source of the Mississippi River. By Mr. J. V. Brower. With Map... 301 

Antarctic Exploration. By Mr. E. Delmar Morgan, F.RG-S. 311 

The Field of Geography. By Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.8.. F.S.S., President 
of the Section. With Sketch Map 313 

New Map for Teaching Local Geography ^6 

The Teaching' of Commercial Geography. By Mr. Gwyn Morris. •. ' 328 

Instructions for Correct Pronunciation of Foreign Geographical Names. By 

Mr. Konrad GanzenmiUler, Ph.1) 332 

Br. Nansen and the North Pole. With lUu^tratwns 339 

The Basin of the Beni. By Chevalier Guillaume, Consul-General of Peru 342 

Oonrespondence— • 

TJ14 '* Ortttjofjraphy of Qtographical Names" 343 

Correct Pronunciation of Foreign Geographical Names 346 

The Manchester Museum 347 

List of Journals, Maps, Atlases, &c., added to the Library 349 

List of Members 404 

Prooeedings of the Society 411 

Geographical Notes— 

The Teachers' Training School 300 

Terrible Svffiringa of Explorers 310 

Antarctic Jijrploration : The Proposed Expedition 326 

Sow Africans are to be Taught 331 

Cotton Cultivation in Central Asia 33g 

Ctffee Growing at Lake Nyassa 348 

Potitieal Getjgraphy 403 


Issued November^ 1892,] [all rights bksbrmd* 

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His Rotal Highn^rs the DUKE OF YORK, K.O. 




Thb Right Hon. the EA.RL OF DERBY, K.G. 

The Right Hon. Loud EGERTON OF TATTON. 

The Right Rkv. the Lord BISHOP OF MANCHESTER. 

The Right Rev. the Lord BISHOP OF SALFORD. 

The Honoubable Lord FREDERIC S. 

His Worship the MAYOR OF 

His Worship the MAYOR OF. 

His Worship the MAYOR OF 

The Right Hon. Sir JAMES FER- 

GUSSON, Bart., CLE.. HP. 
The Right Hon. A. J. BALFOUR, M.P. 
Sir W. H. HOULDSWORTH, Bart. M.P. 


Sir H. tt HOWORTH, M.P., K.C.LK. 

Sib J. C. LEE, Kt., J.P. 

Mr. B. ARMITAGE, J.P., Chomlea. 

Mr. JACOJB bright, M.P. 

Professor W. BOYD DAWKINS, M.A, 

F R S 


Mb. H. J. ROBY, M.A.. M.P. 
Councillor HENRY SAMSON, JJP. 
Mr. C. E. SCHWANN, M.P. 
Rkv. S. a. STEINTHAL, P.RG.S., 
Chairman of the Council. 


Mr. Alderman a MAKINSON, J.P. Mr. J. JARDINE, J.P. 



ULel T. R. WILKINSON, Manchester and Salford Bank, Mosley Street, ^^oe-Oonsul for the 

Ottoman Empire. 


Honorary Secretary. 

Mr. F. ZIMMERN, Hardman Street 



Rev. L. C. CASARTELLI, M.A., PaD., 

. St. Beoe*s. 
Professor T. H. CORE, M.A., Owens 


Miss DAY, Girls* High School. ' 

<:Jhevaubr ROBERT FROEHLICH, Vice- \ 

Consul for Italy. 

Mr. job IRLAM. i 

Mr. J. E. KING, MA. 


Chairman of thb Council. 
Mr. J. H. NODAL. 

FOR Paraguay. 

Consul for France. 
Mr. MARK STIRRUP, F.G.S., Hon. Sio. 

Manchester Geological* Socun 

Honorary Auditors. 

ELI SOWERBUTTS, F.R.G.S., 44, Brown Street, Manchester. 

*»* The writers of papers are alone responsible for the opinions expressed by 

Books, Maps, &c., for Notice or Review, may be sent to the 
Secretary, 44, Brown Street, Manchester. 

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[Addreaeed to the Members, »t the Chamber of Commerce, Wednesday, December 

16th, 1891.] 

WHEN I undertook to give a paper before this society I told 
your able secretary that I could not give a scientific paper 
on Japan, and he encouraged me by telling me that what you 
wanted was merely an account of some impressions made upon 
me by a new country and its life — a life altogether under a new 
aspect for me. I thought that sounded feasible, and consented 
to address you. In the short time I was in Japan — about six 
weeks altogether — I saw a great many new and interesting 
things that gave me great pleasure, and left behind many 
pictures to be called up for my own edification in future years ; 
Dut, owing to circumstances over which I had no control, I was 
unable to take more than quite a superficial view of the country 
and its people. 

Before — long before — I reached the promised land of Japan 
I heard many stories of that country — how the inhabitants 
thereof were so polite, how much they laughed, and how little 
they laughed at, so that I was prepared on landing at Nagasaki 
to be greeted with a roar of laughter. At last, after many wearjr 
delays^ we actually reached the long- wished for haven. Nagasao 
b a beautiful place, with a splendid land-locked harbour. The 
town spreads itself out all round the bay, and the trees grow 
rijght down to the water's edge. The day was lovely, and the 
picture was perfect. All of us on board were anxious to get on 
shore and see if the people of this beautiful land were equal to 
what we had heard. So a very short time elapsed before we 
loaded the little launch that was to take us off and made for 
the shore. 
Vol. VII.— Nos. 10-12— Oct. to Dec, 1891. 

Digitized by 


278 The Jou/mal of the Momchester Oeographical Society. 

As soon as we came within reasonable distance a swarm of 
ricksha coolies began bowing to us and pointing to their rick- 
shas, and as soon as we landed we were pounced upon and put 
into rickshas whether we wanted it or not. After many bumps, 
shakes, and escapes, we found ourselves clear of the crowd, with 
time to look about us. For a moment or two I felt disappointed. 
No one seemed particularly amused at anything. Our coolies 
looked dirty and unshaven, and very like what you would expect 
loafers round the docks to look like. This feeling soon wore 
off, however, in the excitement of looking at the strange cos- 
timies around. One's first impression was that the number of 
armless men in Japan was very large ; but it soon became clear 
that this was only a mistake due to the fact that the men drew 
their arms out of their loose sleeves into their blouses, called 
Elimonos, when they were not using them. 

You have all, no doubt, seen a Japanese doll, and know 
how quaint it looka But there, running along the road, 
was one of these self-same dolls in a most Japanese attitude. I 
give up all hope of trying to describe the sight. I must leave 
It to your imagination, only telling you to get a Japanese doll 
and make it waddle properly, hold its arms straight out, and let 
it be always just on the point of falling; but remember that, if 
it does fall, it will not burst out laughmg as the Japanese baby 
itself would, and so remind you of Gilbert's lines — 

Life's a joke that's just bctgun, 
Everything is a source of fan. 

One does not know what is the funniest thing about these 
babies — their dress, their attitudes, faces, or heads. I ought to 
say one word about their heads. The Japanese mothers shave 
their children's heads in various ways, no two alike. When ^ou 
think of the number of hairs on a child's head, you can imagine 
that by careful consideration the Japanese mother has great 
scope for various combinations of shaving different hairs away. 
One mother will shave the head leaving a patch in the middle, 
another leaving a patch of hair at each side of the head, and so 
on ad infinitum. 

The great objection to Japanese babies parti v comes from 
this habit of shaving the head, for it is a very prevalent — I might 
almost say constant — source of eczema. Another objection is 
clearly expressed by calling to mind another quotation from 
Gilbert's mikado, where he makes one of his characters saj, 
" The Japanese don't use pocket-handkerchiefs ; " and again, in 
that charming book, '' A Social Departure," where the authoress 
suggests a mission being started for the express purpose of 
remedying this defect amongst Japanese children. 

One marked peculiarity about the Japanese hair I should 
mention, namely, that in no case can I remember seeing any 

Digitized by 


A Peep at the Land of the Rising Sun. 279 

other colour than black. Nor is it common to see anything but 
the most scraggy kind of moustache or beard upon a man's 

But I must return to Nagasaki, I am afraid, only to wander 
off again about the Japanese, for I found them so much more 
intensely interesting than the scenery, although that was beauti- 
ful enough. We went from the quay along the streets to a 
temple. Now, a Japanese temple is not always the most inter- 
esting thing in the world, but you have to see it or you have 
not seen Japan. You go out for a stroll from your hotel or tea- 
house, and the first thing you are sent to see is a temple. Your 
guide insists upon it ; the hotel proprietor feels hurt if you don't ; 
and all the other visitors at the hotel feel they have been 
defrauded if you are not caught in the same way they have 
been. They are all alike. About half a mile away from 
the shrine itself you come across the typical wooden archways 
that seem to mean nothing in particular, but which, after a short 
acquaintance with Japan, oecome fraught with as much meaning 
as it is possible to pack (under pressure of several atmospheres) 
into them. You pass on from tnese fateful arches to the foot of 
a long staircase. These staircases are straight ahead ; they invite 
you to walk up, if you hesitate, they demand the sacrifice ; if 
you hesitate still longer, your guide begins to look sad, and, in 
fear of hurting his feelings, you dash at the awful ascent. But 
the staircase is wroth, it rises up in its wroth, and instead of 
having a comfortable, easj climb, you have a precipice to scale. 
However, you do scale it in the end, and expect to be rewarded 
with many magnificent carvings, but instead you have a sort 
of outhouse to look at. It is a Shinto temple, and, of course, 
it contains no placid Buddha to look down upon you. You 
wake up, after clearing your eyes and getting your breath, 
to the fact that this outhouse ^has a great Ibeam hanging loose 
above the door, one end sticking out, the other disappearing 
within. You, perhaps, are seized with curiosity to know what 
the rope hanging at the end of this beam is for, and gently 
take hold of it, and upon your astonished ear falls an unearthly 
boom. You have rung up the gods, so you turn and iiy, nor 
rest until safe in your ricksha speeding away. Then you 
talk the matter over with your friends, and solemnly vow 
that never again will you enter a temple; but you wiD, at 
least until you realise that a little sadmess on your guide's 
face is much more easily borne than aching limbs ana great 
physical discomfort from hot weather. But this is, again, by 
the way. I climbed the stairs at Nagasaki like a man — we 
all did — and thought it very interesting. We were young and 
foolish then. 

If any of you purpose going to Japan, be advised by me 
climb the Nagasaki temple ; go to the temples again at Tokio 

Digitized by 


280 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society. 

and at Nikko, but harden your hearts against all othera No ; 
one other I must except, that is, at Lake Biwa, where the lovely 
view well repays you for your exertion. 

Nagasaki is one of the treaty ports of Japan, of which there 
are several others — Kob^ and Yokohama being two — ^and just 
about these ports you are free to come and go without pass- 
ports. But of these more anon. 

We wandered about the town and enjoyed the novel sights 
till it was time to return on board for the passage to Kob^. 
This passage is one of the most lovely than can be seen. You 
^o through the famous inland sea, so-called from its lying shut 
in on the one side by the main island, and on the other by 
numerous small islands. Often as you sail along you can see 
no possible passage till a sudden turn brings another apparently 
land-locked reach in sight. The scenery is beautiful, and in 
many places curious looking, as if the mountains were made of 

We passed on to Kob^ in one day and landed again, this 
time in rainy weather. Nothing daunted, however, we went 
off to a waterfall, at the best point of view of which we found a 
tea-house. This is a perfectly Japanese characteristic. They 
really appreciate good scenerv and beautiful things, as witness 
the artistic curios we see in England, and they all of them make 
a point of going to see these beautiful spots and pic-nicing at a 
tea-house to look at them. Speaking of scenery reminds me of 
a very marked feature of a Japanese landscape that cannot help 
striking one — that is, that nearly every hill has on it one tree 
either by itself or else standing out well from the others. 

At Kobfe we went to the Hiogo race meeting. One boy 
who was riding was dressed rather in the style of a Bed Indian 
chief. He was tied on to his horse, which was held at the 
starting-post, and when the flag dropped he began to flog his 
horse round the course (which was about two furlongs in length), 
and by that means ^ot ahead. At various comers of the course 
the friends of this jockey rushed out and frightened the horse 
on, and if another horse looked like passing him, the jockey 
of the first horse hit it over the nose ana drove it back. 

After one or two races a man in gorgeous red costume 
came forward with two great pieces of wooa, which he banged 
together and then made a speech, which, being interpreted, 
meant that the rain was too bad to allow the races to go on, so 
that pass-out tickets would be oiven to those people wishing to 
come again the next day. So the crowd went, and we went also 
and spent the rest of the day shopping. We had been told 
many and many a time that we ought not to begin buying in 
Japan till we had learnt something about the curios, and many 
a time we had resolved not to buy anything till we had been in 
the country for about a month. In Kohh, uie second day of our 

Digitized by 


A Peep at the Lcmd of the Rising Sun* 281 

being in Japan, we tasted the sweets of shopping. We boueht 
rubbish — ^that stands to reason — but we were infected by that 
subtle disease which attacks all globe trotters on reaching Japan, 
I mean the curio fever. I had a slight, a very slight, attack of 
the same fever in Ceylon, but it was transient, and my tem- 
perature did not rise high. But an evil spirit prompted us to 
try a little, only just a little, shopping in Kob^, and, tnough we 
were not then and there seized with the fever, we contracted the 
germs of the disease, which lav dormant for a few days more 
until we reached Yokohama, when, the incubation period being 
over, the fever set in properly and never left us till we left the 
country. If you have not been in Japan you do not know what 
it is to shop. In Japan your whole existence turns upon that 
one thing. Tou get up early in the morning to be ahead of 
everyone else, and in the intervals between shopping you eat 
and sight-see, and compare notes as to bargains with other 

A Japanese shop is not a shop with front showing all 
the best thinga It is a rubbish heap with a presiding 
genius, often as not a boy, who on vour ai)proacli stan£ 
up, bends low before you, rubbing his knees with his hands, 
and sucking his breath in between his teeth. Tou bow in 
return and begin to handle his goods, while he sits down 
again in apparent unconcern. You pick up some trifle and 
say '' Ikura, ' which means how much. Bowing and sucking 
in his breath he states a price, which you scofiF at and ofiFer jour 
price. You do not want the thing at all, but the probabihty is 
you will buy it to start further purchases, for if he once gets a 

flimpse of your money and thinks you mean to use it, he will 
egin to produce things that are worth looking at. You gradu- 
ally get an idea that one thing he shows you is the one thing 
necessary to complete vour happiness in life. You did not know 
what an aching void there was m your existence till you saw that 
one thing, but you suddenly become conscious of the fact that 
life without that particular pipe or dagger or vase would simply 
not be worth living. Accordingly jrou look at the things again, 

f)icking up your treasure and throwing it down as hardly worth 
ooking at, bv^ you ask the price. He says $16. You m your 
own heart of hearts would be ready to give $20, but you don't 
say so. You sat that it is far too much — ^you will give him $3. 
He sighs, draws in his breath, and says it would ruin him to sell 
it at less than $14. Back and forward this goes on, you perhaps 
reaching the high figure of $6. There you stop and leave the 
article alone, as if you didn't want it at all ; but you stay in the 
shop looking at other things, and a strange thing happens — that 
knife is always coming into your hand again, whether you pick 
it up or whether it is put into your hand by some one else you 
don t know. At last you make up your mind to go and leave it 

Digitized by 


282 The Journal of the Mcmchester Geographical Society, 

for to-day, unless, oh, horror ! some one else might come in and 
secure it This gives you such a fright that you raise your offer 
recklessly about 25 sen., i.e., about 9^d., and turn and walk out 
of the shop. You walk away feeling very sad, and not sure that 
you had better not go and give one more offer, when some one 
touches your arm. it is the shopman, who has relented so £ar 
as to offer the article for very nearly your figure ; but now you 
know you are safe, so you stand firm, and in another minute the 
man heaves a deep si^h, draws in his breath, and says all right. 
Nearly wild with dehght at having secured it, your conscience 
suddenly stabs you. Are you defrauding the humble child of 
Japan ? Can you rob him of his hard-earned gains ? You 
reflect this way till the parcel is wrapped up and handed to you 
with the assurance that it is very cheap, very cheap indeed. 
Then that being over, and the money paid, your broken- 
hearted friend suddenly revives, and amidst many smiles tempts 
you to defraud him further. Evidently he likes it, and then, 
alas ! it becomes borne in upon you that perhaps you might have 
got the prize much cheaper, and vou grudge him those extra 25 
sen. he got from you in your fright. 

But, although I have now told you to what an extent the 
curio craze carries one away, I have not mentioned what these 
curios are. You must all have seen shops filled with beauti- 
ful Japanese curios in England. I have seen several, and 
been into several, and had a look at the things on view there. 
Now, when I tell you that on almost every occasion I have come 
away slightly disappointed at the style of things to be seen, you 
will begin to appreciate how beautiful the things are that one 
sees in Japan. The great thing that strikes one is the want of 
finish in tne goods shown here in comparison to the things seen 
there. A Japanese curio is nothing unless complete in every 
detail. Take, for instance, Satsuma ware. I have brought 
down with me one or two specimens that will show a little what 
I mean. (Satsuma specimens, several grades.) Satsuma ware 
is one of the most beautiful and artistic wares of Japan. The 
history of its production and its progress would occupy more 
time than I have at my disposal, even if I were capable of 
describing it. I may admire Satsuma from a distance ; I may 
even be able to point out marked differences between really 
good Satsuma and not good imitation Satsuma, but I could go 
no further. I may, however, venture to say this, that if you 
see on sale any piece of pottery labelled really good old Satsuma, 
you may be perfectly sure tnat it is not so. Really good old 
Satsuma is as rare as the Mulready envelope, or even rarer, and 
the pieces are nearly, if not quite, all known. There is a new 
Satsuma that is good and not as rare as the old, but be not 
deceived, I say, into believing that you see real old Satsuma 
save in well-known collections of Japanese pottery. But Satsuma 

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A Peep at the Lwnd of the Rising 8v/n. 283 

ware is not the only kind of curio you see in Japan, and if ever 
you go to that country you will find to your cost that there is 
lacquer work. You will have a Satsuma craze, a lacquer craze, 
a craze for Cloissonn^, for bronzes, for swords, spears, knives, 
netsuk&, ivor^ carvings of all kinds, and hosts of other things. 
I do not say in what order you will get these crazes, but get 
them you will. Lacquer work you need an education in to 
understand, so I am told. Unfortunately I only got a very 
slight smattering of that education, but I had a lacquer craze. 
To show a really fine piece to a new comer, or to send home one 
as a gift to one of the uncultivated natives of Europe or America 
is, as the Japanese proverb says, " like giving guineas to a cat." 

That proverb suggests my mentioning how few pet animals 
are seen in Japan. There are cats and dogs about, but ill-cared 
for, and not in any great numbers. The Japs now and then do 
eo in for pets. Lx 1873 they had a craze for keeping rabbits. 
Now there are no rabbits indigenous to Japan, nence, when 
imported for the satisfaction of the rabbit craze, they fetched 
incredible prices. As much as $1,000 was paid for a single 
specimen. Speculations in $400 or $500 raboits were of daily 
occurrence. In 1874 the Government put a tax on rabbits, and 
ruin fell upon the luckless rabbit fanciers ; and another craze 
started only to be dropped again in a short time, and another 
substituted. This cunous rage for one thing and then another 
is only another instance of the extraordinary flightiness of the 
Japanese mind, which has recently been so startlingly brought 
to mind by the articles on the recent earthquake in the Times. 

It is a generally accepted superstition in Japan that earth- 
quakes are due to a large subterranean fish which wriggles about 
whenever it wakes up. Whether this is true or not you can 
perhaps decide. The frequency of earthquakes in Japan has 
^iven scientific men in that coimtry much opportunity of study- 
ing them, and if anyone is interested in the subject they could 
not do better than read some of the works by investigators in 
that country. I might perhaps mention " The Transactions of 
the Seismoloffical Society of Japan," of which there are about 
fourteen or fifteen volumes, or "Earthquakes," by Professor 
Milne, m the International Scientific Series. 

Volcanoes are also, as a natural thing, ^uite common in 
Japan. One, namely, Fujiyama, is familiar m its appearance 
over the whole civilised world as the one conical snow-capped 
peak that appears on all the screens, fans, pictures, &c., tnat 
come from tne " Land of the Rising Sun." The mountain is con- 
sidered holy, and that every one who climbs to the summit adds 
a year to his life for each ascent is a well-known thing that needs 
no prool I shall never forget how grand it looked when 
coming through a fir copse over the crest of a hill, near a little 
village in the heart of the country, called Shimonosurwara, I 

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284 ' The Journal of the Mcmchester Oeographical Society. 

saw it standing towering over eyerytliing else — silent, cold, and 
immovable — ^lookin^ down upon the country for ndles around. 
No wonder that it is looked upon as sacred. 

This last earthquake, of which we have only just heard the 
full details, is the first really large and destructive one that has 
occurred since 1855, though there was a pretty sharp shock in 
1880. In 1855 Tokio was apparently the seat of most damage, 
and in looking up an account of that earthquake I was much 
struck to find now closely the events have been repeated in the 
last one. I found the same story of a number of shocks lasting 
for many days, people killed in thousands, fires breaking out in 
many places at once from the overturning of fire-boxes, &c. 
An interesting point about Japanese earthquakes is mentioned 
by Rein, and that is, that, in contra-distinction to what we are 
told of South America, there is no anxious presentiment of the 
coming danger. I passed through the district where this last 
earthquake occurred, and I suppose I was about a week or ten 
days moving from place to place therein. The towns that have 
been destroyed are some of them familiar to me. Most of them 
are, however, merely names. One of them, Osaka, is the nest 
manufacturing town of Japan. There stands the Mint and the 
Naval Arsenal. It is a garrison town also, so the destruction of 
life and property therein must have been very great. 

Osaka, on account of its numerous canals and bridges, has 
sometimes been called the Japanese Venice ; but I am afraid 
the comparison is not particularly happy. I have already 
mentioned Hiogo or Kob^, which lies aoout twenty miles off. 
The names of this town are confusing, but quite exnlicable 
when it is understood that the European part is called Kob^ 
and the native (]^uarter Hiogo. Kioto, I believe, also suffered 
to a less extent m this earthquake. Kioto, the old southern 
capital of Japan, lies a little to the south-west of Lake Biwa. 
It is one of the most picturesque towns to look at, especially 
from the upper end, wnere the hotel for foreigners is placed. 
I had the good fortune to be there at the time of the Cherry 
Blossom Festival, so had the advantage of seeing the town 
illuminated at night, though it had a corresponding disadvan- 
tage of being very noisjr, much singing and samisen playing 
being indulged in. Kioto is very regularly built, and in 
the arrangement of its streets resembles an American town. 
The names of the most important streets running east and 
west have reference to the order in which they succeed each 
other, reckoning from the north. They are (of course in 
Japanese) Ichi jd, Ni j6, San j6, that is, first, second, and third 
streets. These streets run down to a river, the Kamo-gawa ; 
and on San j6 crossing it, the famous bridge, the Sanjd-bashi, is 
to be found. It is a very broad, fine bridge, with bronze nobs at 
intervals on the railing, is 200ft. long, and was built 300 years 

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A Peep at the Land of the Rising Sun, 285 

ago by Hideyoshi. The Eamo-gawa itself, when I saw it, was 
not what would be called a large river ; in fact, I doubt if it 
could be called more than a brook, but in bad rainy weather it 
becomes a very fine rushing stream. This is often the case with 
the Japanese rivers, on account of their sharp descent and short 

At Kioto I went to the theatre, and was greatly amused. 
The theatre I went to had only actresses — women only being 
allowed on the stage. At another theatre, however, in the same 
town only men are allowed on the sta^e. The building itself 
was, of course, of wood. The stage occupied one end, with a long 
platform running down to the opposite end of the theatre close 
to the entrance, but there runnmg into a cellar. The actors 
came on, either along this platform or from the wings, as in a 
theatre at home, or as part of a set piece which came on on a 
movable circular part of^the stage, which at the same time took 
off the end part of the previous scene. The theatre was lit by 
oil lamps, although the fittings were there for electric lighting. 
The people do not sit on chairs or forms to watch the perform- 
ance. They squat in family groups about the floor, in little sort 
of boxes partitioned off from each other. Each man has his 
heigar or fire-box with him and his pipe, which is smoked inces- 
santly. The performers speak in a high falsetto voice. When 
a hurried exit is made^ irom the stage, wooden clappers are 
sounded with great effect. The music — if music it can be called 
— is weird, and to European ears distinctly inharmonious. The 
scenery is of a very elementary kind, and not of a sort to excite 
much admiration. After the play was over a grand baUet was 
produced. The stage was lit up with footlights standing a ^ood 
yard above the floor. These footlights were candles, and' all 
through the ballet a man was employed going round with 
snuffers to keep them in order. 

On another occasion 1 went in Kioto to see the wrestlers. 
These wrestlers are almost a class to themselves. They are large 
and fiftt, and spend their time at this favourite pastime. They 
do not try to throw one another over, but merely to push or 
throw each other outside a ring marked on the ground in the 
arena. The arena itself is raised a foot or two from the ground, 
and is covered by a canopy supported by four poles, one at each 
comer of the raised square. The wrestlers are called up two 
and two, one from each of two opposing parties, and the per- 
formance begins. The umpire, wno, by-the-bye, is the only 
man nowadays allowed to wear a sword in civil life, steps for- 
ward and announces the names of the competitors. These two, 
who are dressed as scantily as possible, busy themselves with 
wiping their hands and blowing water out of their mouths over 
themselves. They then stretch themselves, thump their knees, 
and come into the middle, attitudinise at one another, and then 

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286 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

bend down to begin. They remain bent down for some time 
looldng at one another, and then get up and walk away, to go 
through the same performance five or six times. Then they 
suddenly close with one another, and fight it out. If they are 
equally matched for a few minutes the umpire stops them, and 
announces that it is a draw; and if one is thrown out, he 
announces the name of the winner. This performance goes on 
for days together, but, as you can easily imagine, an hour and 
a half of it quite satisfied me. I also went to a dancing theatre, 
where nothing but a ballet was performed to an accompaniment 
of music and singing. The dancing was, of course. Oriental — 
that is to say, posturing — and in the gorgeous dresses that these 
geishas or dancing girls wore, it looked very well indeed. 

At this theatre we partook of tea, made at a most elaborate 
tea ceremony. These tea ceremonies deserve notice for one 
reason, if for none other, and that is, the influence they have 
had on the art of Japan. That may sound strange, but never- 
theless it is true. The ceremonies have been in existence 600 
or 700 years, and have passed through three stages, namely, a 
medico-religious, a luxurious, and, lastly, an sasthetic stage. 
They originated in tea-drinking pure and simple by certain 
Buddhist priests of the Zeu sect, wno found the mfiision useful 
in keeping them awake during their midnight devotiona How 
long Japanese tea-drinking remained in its first or religious 
stage is not clear, but we know that by the year 1330 the second 
or luxurious stage had already been reached. Chamberlain, in 
" Things Japanese," says : " The descriptions of the tea parties 
of those days remind one of the 'Arabian Nights.' The 
daimyos, who daily took part in them, reclined on couches 
spread with tiger skins and leopard skins ; the walls of the 
spacious apartments in which the guests assembled were hung 
not only with Buddhist pictures, but with damask and bro- 
cade, with gold and silver vessels, and swords in splendid 
sheaths. Precious perfumes were burnt, rare fishes and strange 
birds* were served up with sweetmeats and wine, and the 
point of the entertainment consisted in guessing where the 
material for each cup of tea had been produced, for as many 
brands as possible were brought in to serve as a puzzle. Every 
right guess procured for him who made it the gift of one of 
the treasures that were hung round the room. But he was 
not allowed to carry it away himself. The rules of the tea 
ceremonies, as then practised, ordained that all the things, rich 
and rare, that were exhibited must be given by their winners 
to the singing or dancing girls, troupes of whom were present 
to help the company in their carousal. Vast fortunes were 
dissipated in this manner. All through the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries the tea ceremonies continued to enjoy the 
imabated favour of the upper classes. The gift of some part of 

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A Peep at the Lcmd of the Rising Sun, 287 

a tea-service was the most valued mark of condescension which 
a superior could bestow." Now, when we hear all this, we need 
not DO surprised to find that many of the rarest curios are con- 
nected with tea-drinking, and that the development of ^rt was 
much helped on thereby. 

From Kioto I visited Lake Biwa, and saw the temple which 
is one of the seven sights of the lake, the old bridge over the 
Uji-gawa, and the celeorated pine of Karasaki, of which I show 
a native picture. Na^oya I also stayed at. This town was 
apparently one of the first to suffer in the last earthquake. It . 
is a town of 130,000 inhabitants. It is not attractive in looks, 
but is a large industrial centre, being one of the chief seats of 
several trades, namely, enamelling of copper and porcelain, and 
embroidery of cotton and silk goods. When I was there I heard 
that a cotton mill had just been started, and was apparently 
running with great success. This cotton mill has been seriously 
damaged by the earthquake, the chimney is broken off and 
much other damage done, and it is not expected to be in work- 
ing order again for three months. The owner had been trained 
at an Oldham mill. There is a lar^e castle situated in an open 
part of the town, the tower of which has two large silver-gilt 
dolphins ornamenting the top. These two dolphins are now 
enclosed in wire cages to prevent injury. They were sent to 
the Paris Exhibition, after having been got down from their 
lofty perches (by means of kites in the first instance). They 
were safely kept during the Exhibition, but on their way 
back they were lost at sea, in the Mediterranean I think. 
After a tmie they were fished up by divers, and arrived safely 
home again. It is a garrison town, and I had the pleasure of 
seeing some of the Jap soldiers at drill, and a very promising 
lot of soldiers they look, not particularly smart in their clothing, 
but of an even height and marching together with a good swing. 
They were not an imposing set of men, but they looked very 
capable of standing hard work. The uniforms look French 
in pattern, and their whole military organisation is French. It 
is amusing to see an ordinary private meet an officer. He can- 
not get over his natural politeness enough to prevent himself 
bowing whilst he salutes, so that the combination is a little 
ludicrous to European eyes. 

Nagoya (pronounced Ncungoya) formed our starting point for 
our trip through Japan, by tne Nagasendo route to Tokio. The 
Nagasendo is the great northern highway through the highlands 
of Japan, between Tokio and Kioto. In the olden days it was 
much frequented by the better classes travelling between those 
points, but nowadays the Tokatdo or southern road is preferred, 
as the journey can be done by railway. It might perhaps be 
interestmg to know how this ^oumey by the Nagasendo was 
to be done in the absence of railways One travels by means of 

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288 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 

rickshas, which are really large perambulators dragged by men 
instead of pushed. Our party, which consisted of four Euro- 
peans and a guide, were aU in rickshas, each drawn by two 
men, and three luggage rickshas also drawn by two men. We 
had to carry with us food and a certain amount of bedding, 
for we were to nut up at Japanese tea-houses, no hotels being 
on our route. Our men took us about twenty miles a day over 
roads that were sometimes good, oftener indifferent, and at 
times really bad. They were all good-tempered, amusing 
fellows, as polite as they were ugly, always ready to help one 
another over bad parts, always laughing and talking when one 
would imagine they needed all their spare breath for the work 
in hand. We used to travel for about an hour and a half at a 
time, and then stop at a wayside te^.-house for our coolies to rest 
and refresh themselvea When we came up to a tea-house all 
the servants used to come out bowing to the ground and wel- 
coming us to their house with a great deal of talking that we 
did not understand. If it was our halting-place for the night, 
as soon as we got out of our rickshas we took off our boots 
and were shown to our rooms. This taking-off of boots is a 
ceremony one undergoes every time one goes into a Japanese 
house, to save the mats from getting soiled. These mats 
are all the same size, 6ft. by 3ft., and about Sin. deep. They are 
of closely woven rushes, and make most pleasant floors to tread 
upon. Being all of one size, and as every house has its rooms 
floored with them, rooms are measured by the number of mats 
they contain — that is to say, one speaks of a five or seven mat 
room to give its size. On tne ground-floor, in the middle of the 
room, one of these mats is often cut through, to allow of a 
square being taken out and in, as a lid to a fireplace situated 
beneath the floor, in which live charcoal is placed. When in use 
a wooden framework that fits round the fireplace, and stands 
about 2ft. high, is often used, and a large quilt thrown over this 
allows many of the family to lie or squat down, well covered by 
the overlapping quilt without danger to the quilt itselt If this 
fireplace is not used, the firebox, a sort of bronze flower-pot half 
filled with sand or some other material with a layer of redhot 
charcoal, is brought in. The houses are so drau^nty that I do 
not think there is much danger of carbon monoxide poisoning. 
The rooms are not lofty, and are cut off from one anotner at wul 
by '' fusuma" partitions. These fusuma are frames or shutters 
of the size of the mats, covered on both sides with stout wall 
paper, and running between grooved beams. The space of from 
2ft. to 4ft broad, between the upper crossbeam and the ceiling, 
is either closed and painted or decorated in some way, or is 
fitted with fine and artistic wood carvings. The rooms are well- 
lighted by means of the movable shdji, which are shutters of a 
kmd of trellis-work covered with transparent paper. The 

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A Peep at the Land of the Rising Svm. 289 

verandah is usually open, but can be closed in wet weather or 
at night by ordinary wooden shutters that run in grooves on the 
ledge of the platform, and are fastened by bolting the last one 
from within. These shutters are called " amado/' or rain doors. 
The best rooms are always found at the back, where the verandah 
leads on to the little garden, if the house is fortunate enough to 
possess one. [It should be borne in mind that I am speaking 
of tea-houses.] Towards the street is generally the living room 
of the house and the kitchen, which, having no chimney, is 
generally full of smoke from the charcoal fires. There is gene- 
rally one fixed wall in the best room at all events, and this ionxiA 
a sort of recess. The floor of this part is of polished wood, and 
is raised an inch or two above the rest of the room, and fre- 
quently has placed upon it two vases with flowering branches 
of some favourite plant (whilst I was in the country usually 
cherry blossom). The wall behind it is decorated by a Kake- 
mono which is suitable to the season of the year. The second 
half of the wall forms a bay, occupied by small cupboards with 
sliding doors, and black lacquered chests to receive the bedding 
which is only brought out at bedtime. It consists of futons 
or mattresses, tightly stuffed with cotton or silk wadding, of 
which there are several ; the kaimaki, or night dre§s, which is 
like a well-padded kimono; and the makura, or pillow. We 
used only the fiitons, carrying with us our own night clothes, 
pillows, and sheets. With these sleeping arrangements is 
brought in the '*' andon," a large standing paper lantern with a 
wick floating in oil. The second storey is always still lower than 
the first, and, as a rule, stands further back, so that the roof is 
low in front and rises higher in the middle. The staircase is 
usually like a ladder, of well-polished wood. The space between 
the papered ceiling and the roof is usually inhabited by rats, 
whicn often visit the rooms below, and run over you as you lie 
sleeping, or perhaps trying to sleep. Many, however, of the 
houses are only one-storied. Where one of these wooden 
houses immediately succeeds another, as in a street, it can 
easUy be understood how fast a fire will spread if only once 
started, and, as in the case of the earthquake the other day, how 
easily such a fire can be started by the fire-boxes and lamps. 
In the streets of a town or village can always be seen a long 
perpendicular ladder set up, near which hangs a bell. This is 
the fire-alarm and look-out. Here and there, too, near houses 
are kept buckets of water ready in case of fire. The firemen are 
a very old institution in the country, and are said to be very 
well organised. 

The country we passed through was at times very fine — 
splendid roaring torrents rushing along in narrow valleys between 
mr-clad peaks. The agricultural districts were all very similat 
to one another : small fields beautifully cultivated, with little 

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290 The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 

mud-walls one or two feet high between them. There is nothing 
large about them, but they are wonderfully neat The walls 1 
just mentioned are as carefially smoothed and as mathematically 
accurate in their lines as it is possible for a Jap to make them, 
and that is saying a great deal. Rice is the principal product, 
so far as I could judge, and naturally so, for it fo